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THE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE INTERPRETATION OF CATEGORIES "THE POTENTIAL OF ENTERPRISE" AND "THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF ENTERPRISE"

Автор Доклада: 
Verkhogliadova N.I., Makarova G. S.
Награда: 
THE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE INTERPRETATION OF CATEGORIES "THE POTENTIAL OF ENTERPRISE" AND "THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF ENTERPRISE"

УДК 658.5

THE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE INTERPRETATION OF CATEGORIES "THE POTENTIAL OF ENTERPRISE" AND "THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF ENTERPRISE"

 
Verkhogliadova N.I., doctor of economics, professor
Makarova G. S., postgraduate student
Prydniprovs'k State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture
 
In the article the basic theoretical approaches to the interpretation of categories “the potential of enterprise” and “the economic potential of enterprise” are investigated, also there are exposed their general and excellent lines, characteristic properties.
Keywords: the potential of enterprise, the economic potential of enterprise, the productive potential, resources, the general potential of enterprise.
 
In economic literature of the last years more than thirty determinations of the potential are counted. However until now there are problems in area of the officially confessed terminological concept of category "the potential", there are any valuable classification of the potential. For the economic analysis estimations and prognostications of size of the potential, "watershed" of his maintenance, must pass at the level of enterprise. It is necessary to distinguish the main structural elements of the potential or the economic (productive) potential which characterizes market possibilities of the enterprise, and all other categories are only factors by the terms of his effective use. Scientists Schluchkov V.V. Arzamcev A. D. Fadeeva E.P., Timofeev R.A., Avdeenko V.N., Kotlov V.A., Schamanska О.І. examines categories "the potential of enterprise" and "the economic potential of enterprise" as synonyms.
 
In the middle of the ХХ century the concept of the potential in scientific literature was used mainly for personification of economic power of country, and it was considered as the elements of public production of past and current period. With development of the economic science the concept of the potential broadened, appeared new category – "the economic potential".
Under economic potential it is necessary to understand the combined possibilities of the investigated system, which are realized only at presence of resources. For description some set of resources is needed, they must be attracted in the productive process, or pass the preparatory stage for the further use in the economic system. Thus, this term determines the attained level of development; capabilities and possibilities of the system, which are constrained first of all with the features of economic - social mutual relations between subjects, which participate in an economic process. The aim of these mutual relations consists in a search and forming of necessities for their maximal pleasure through the production of certain commodities and services with the condition of the optimal and rational use of present resources.
 
Analyzing the foregoing approaches to the interpretation of the concepts "the potential" and "the economic potential", it is possible to establish, that in wide sense of these categories can be equated with each other, both these categories incarnate possibilities of enterprise at the effective use of available resources. The resource approach exposes the essence of these concepts. The effective use of resources depending on strategic aims and management level assists the increase of size of the potential. The same idea can be met and in other scientific literature.
 
Timofeev R.A. marks in his scientific work, that researches of many authors showed for today, that it is expedient to examine the enterprise as an economic- productive system (taking into account the system and the resource approaches), thus at the estimation and management of the potential of enterprise it is expedient to use a term "the economic potential of enterprise". The economic potential of enterprise is the combined possibilities of subjects of micro- and macro-systems, they are aimed at forming of maximal satisfaction of basic requirements in commodities and services in the process of economic – social mutual relations with the environment concerning the optimal and rational use of the available resources. This determination underlines and reproduce resource possibilities of every subsystem of the enterprise, its ability to solve the complex of tasks, aimed at the production of high-quality goods, to the grant of services on the basis of harmonious and balanced development of all its elements in unstable and indefinite market environment and, thus getting up of material and cultural standard of living of society.
Most widespread concept of essence of the potential of enterprise as the aggregates of natural terms and resources, possibilities, supplies and values, which can be used for the achievement of the certain goals. In addition, sometimes the potential of enterprise is determined as possibilities of the economic system to produce products (that close to his determination as production capacity) or as possibilities of productive forces to provide a certain effect.
 
Thus practically all determinations lean against the resources of enterprise, from one side, and achievement with their help of the put aims, from other. In the process of study of the economic disciplines the enterprise is examined as an open economic system, so from the gnosiological point of view category "economic potential of enterprise" can be examined as an identical category "potential of enterprise".
Avdeenko V.N., Kotlov V.A. are determined the economic potential of enterprise, as an aggregate of the natural terms, possibilities and resources, which can be used for the achievement of the concrete aims in the process of co-operating with the external environment. Thus, coming from this interpretation the authors also examines categories "potential" and "economic potential" as synonyms.
 
Schamanska О.І. also establishes, that from the gnosiological point of view, category "economic potential of enterprise" can be examined as identical to the category "potential of enterprise". The most widespread interpretation of the essence of the potential of enterprise consists in the aggregate of natural terms and resources, possibilities, supplies and values, which can be used for the achievement of certain goals.
In addition, the potential of enterprise can be defined as possibilities of the economic system to produce products (that close to its interpretation, as production capacity) or as possibilities of productive forces to provide a certain effect. Research of the structure of the economic potential must be carried out on the basis of the system principle. The economic potential is a system, which consists of subsystems. The enterprise level of the economic potential embraces financial, labour, material, non-material, informative, technical and technological resources.
 
There are such spheres in the system of the economic potential, as: technical, economic and social-organizational. A technical sphere includes the aggregate of mechanisms and systems of processing, storage of raw material and materials, which is created with the aim of production of the certain goods and maintenance of unproductive necessities of society. These constituents form the material and the technical base of the economic potential. The economic sphere foresees an account and analysis of all component resources of the economic potential on all levels. The social-organizational sphere foresees application of different methods and technologies of organization and management all resources on all levels of the system of the economic potential.
 
Other group of scientists (Artemev B.V., Merzlikina G.S., Shachovska L.S., .Zablodovska I.V., Reshetnjak О.О.) considers category "the economic potential of enterprise" narrower, than "the potential of enterprise".
Artemev B.V. notices, that the analysis of the economic literature showed, that potential is the aggregate of the possibilities of the enterprise, which are determined on the basis of the available resources for the establishment, supporting its norms and development in the changeable external environmental conditions.
Confronting analyses it is possible to draw conclusion, that circle of the determinations of the economic potential of enterprise is very wide - from his extraordinarily narrow understanding, as annual production of products, to such general categories, as the socio-economic system. The economic potential is characterized by the certain set of resources, that must be attracted in a production, geared-up to the use in the economic system. That is possible to say, that the economic potential, as category, characterizes the attained level of development.
 
In the works, devoted to research of the theory of potentials, is applied the wide class of determinations of the potential, among them there are national-economy, economic, defensive, intellectual, naturally-resource, scientific and technical, skilled, productive, building, agricultural, infrastructural, informative, organizational, social development, potential of productive forces and productive relations. There is potential of superior and inferior order. The inferior order potentials are local potentials. Potential of the superior order consists of the potentials of the inferior order, there are economic, strategic potential, competitive potential, potential of survivability, antirecessionary potential and market potential. Thus classification of specific displays of the potential depends on as resources, which join in this category and character of the set aims.
The same idea is divided by next authors. Merzlikina G.S. and Shachovska L.S. suggest under the potential to count the generalized description of resources. Potential (economic, productive, labour) is the generalized, collapsible description of resources, tied to the place and time.
 
In their scientific work Zablodovska I.V., Reshetnjak О.О. give the next determination to the category "the potential". It is property of object (transmitter of the potential) to provide expected the subject of estimation positive (or negative) result in the existent system of external limitations, taking into account the evolvability.
In the scientific works devoted to the research of the potential, the wide spectrum of determinations was used, including: national economic, economic, intellectual, naturally-resource, scientific and technical, skilled, productive, infrastructural, informative, organizational potentials, potential of social development productive factors and productive relations. In these cases the potential was examined not as the category, but as national, regional or branch description.
 
The general potential of enterprise it is properties, which fold for the subject of the estimation (proprietor or external appraiser) desirable end-point, which represents the aim of creation of the enterprise. The general potential of integral object by internal estimation shows up for his proprietor or as economic potential of enterprise (provides an income from exploitation, external investments or sale), or as the productive (provides the certain type of products her assortment, quality, volume). It is necessary to consider the economic potential as the combined ability of the available economic resources, to provide the production with the maximally possible volume of factors conform to the necessities of society on this stage of development.
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