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SOCIAL CAPITAL FORMATION IN UKRAINE

Автор Доклада: 
Dyatlov V. V., Dragomirova Y. S.
Награда: 
SOCIAL CAPITAL FORMATION IN UKRAINE

УДК 330.14

SOCIAL CAPITAL FORMATION IN UKRAINE

Dyatlov V. V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor
Dragomirova Y. S.Doctor of Philosophy (Economics)
Donetsk state university of management, Donetsk (Ukraine)

The factors, conditions and levels of social capital in Ukraine are defined, the way of improvement of social capital formation mechanism at the state level is suggested.
Key words: social capital, formation, factors, conditions, mechanism

With the development ofmarket relations in Ukrainea role of social processes that promote socialization of the economy is enhancing. One of the components of social processes is the social capital. Its origin, as a category, lays in the works of leading sociologists such as P. Bourdieu, J. Coleman [1, 2].

According to littletime research a social capital is a phenomenon that as a characteristic of any society, the scientific economic thought even now have not clearly determined concept and mechanism of formation of social capital.

Analysis of research of modern scientists indicates the formation of certain ideas concerning the levels of social capital formation, which differ in quantity and the relevant aspects. From the scientific literature in two-, three-and four-level models of social capital, the last one is the most appropriate. According to the four-level model of social capital it takes place on nano-, micro-, meso- and macrolevels. Activating of integration processes suggests that the formation of social capital is at megalevel when national social capital is combined at the level of participating communities.

Research on social capital theory allows to define "social capital" as based on relationships in a society on horizontal (inter) and vertical (institutional) levels, based on the norms and trust, which complex leads to a set of networks (groups societies), including in cyberspace and professional, the use of which reduces transaction costs, which promotes social and economic development, increase economic competitiveness, effective functioning of other components of public capital.

Natural mechanism for the formation of social capital is effective in creating interpersonal (horizontal) connections, but has limited capacity in case of institutional (vertical). Generation and capitalization of certain elements of social capital are at appropriate levels: communication, social networks, which are based on norms, values and rules. Trust is such element that permeates every level of social capital. These elements and socio-demographic factors are the formation of social capital.

Socio-demographic indicators influence on the formation of social capital. Population reduce is a negative factor as for the numbers of social capital carriers, and in combination with insufficient natural growth does not support its formation. The most influential positive factor for today is fertility: during 2000-2008 it increased by 32,6% in Ukraine. Changing population structure affects the components of social capital and, therefore, its transformation takes place.

The first level at which social capital is formed, a family. The modern institution of a family suffers from changes even at the international level, as evidenced by the statistics of divorce (50% of marriages) and the distribution of such relationships as social marriage. Negative factor for the formation of social capital in Ukraine is an absence in household (in 2008 – among 62,2% of registered couples), but their share is increasing (in 1999 - 55,8%) [3]. Similar trends are in European and other countries: in 1980-2006, the number of marriages in the EU countries decreased to 23,9%, 67% of households are without children.

Socio-economic factors are characterized, first of all, by the level of income. At the household income and average wages, taking into account an annual inflation, devaluation of domestic currency has an affect. In the income structure of Ukraine's population during 2008 81% are taken by wages and social assistance payments. Wages only 50% cover the costs for goods and services.

Trends insocio-economic indicatorscause thelowlevelof trustingovernment, therefore the lackof positiveimpactof thesefactorson theformationof social capitalinUkraine.ПрослушатьEconomically developed countries establish a socio-demographic and socio-economic indicators. In the EUin recent years established figures show the EU Member States-15, unlike other groups EU: GDP per capita in 2007 was 34 thousand euros, there is a considerable contributions to social security (15.02% of GDP), health (9.24%) and education (5.62%) [4]. The population of the EU-15 increase (annual growth ~ 0.4%), as for the other socio-demographic trends there are similar to those observed in Ukraine, but the pace of negative changes are smaller.

Dynamics of social capital has a complex socio-economic character, determined by the development of human resources, national labor markets, processes of distribution and redistribution of labor. Integration processes facilitate the movement of social capital within the framework of integration associations. EU citizens are accounted for 30-40% of the population of foreigners. The processes of globalization that contribute to migration not only of physical capital but also the culture and world view, is a source of social capital in Ukraine. As noted by F. Fukuyama: "Despite the fact that globalization threatens the local culture and ancient traditions, it also leaves new ideas, habits and methods, beginning from accounting standards to the management methods" [5]. This fully characterized in Ukraine.

In terms of considering migration as a factor in the formation of social capital, it is necessary to take into account statistical monitoring mechanism of migrants, their earnings and transfers in Ukraine. It is advisable to develop a program of liberalization of legislation on cash transfers, increasing their volume. For the banking sector migration capital could be an additional incentive of development for its infrastructure and opening opportunities for expansion of services.

The so-called"social capitalmigration”takes placeeven throughthe Internet.ForUkrainianusers ofthe Internethas becomethe most importantvitalnecessity: 55% of respondentsfeeluncomfortableif theydo nothaveInternet accessduring the week.

Formation of social networks in Ukraine, as everywhere, is influenced by information technology. In political and social spheres new forms of communication create preconditions for the development of civil society institutions that provide social capital building. Obviously, the spread of Internet technology can effectively influence the formation of new organizations with pre-specified properties, increasing the social capital of society.

That is why, to create favorableconditions forthe formation ofsocial capital in Ukrainethe mechanisms of state influence are necessary, combiningallsources, factorsandlevelsofsocialcapitalthat would contribute toitscapitalization.

From ourpoint of view,measurestoimprove the mechanism offormationof socialcapitalatthe statelevel are:

to formulate anationalidea-purpose;

usinginstitutionalresources ofthe stateto create apositiveimage of thecountryby strengthening thecompetitivepositionin worldmarketsandparticipationinjointinternationalprojectsinvariousindustries andsectors;

to form a new ideology through realizing by social groups and classes of their social and economic interests, the recognition of more people the dependence of their social and economic conditions from the level of socio-economic development of society;

to promotethe accumulationof social capitalthrough thedistribution ofthe statebudget forscience, especiallyfundamental, trainingof qualifiedscientificpersonnel, professional development of teachersof high school, thataffectthe qualityandquantity ofskilledworkersinpriorityindustries;

to establish amechanismofsocialcapital formation by promotinginformalsocialandprofessionalassociationsand social professionalinformative networks;

using institutional practices and formation of an appropriate legal framework to stimulate reformatting of social structure by creating conditions for priority groups and classes that define the effective formation of social capital in society to transform the economy in the postindustrial, especially such as scientists, managers, experts and other groups of intellectuals and opportunities for qualitative change in the growth of professionalism and adaptation to the new postindustrial technology classes of workers and peasants;

to promote social capital at the level of economic entities by supporting "corporate culture" as one that takes into account economic feasibility, moral standards, ethical norms to enhance the effect of its appliance and savings to the dimensions that are optimal and not allow an entity to become a spokesman of monopoly economic interests;

to forma newmoraleconomic culturethroughexpansion of informalprofessionalassociations, improvingsocio-economic mechanisms ofreceiptand using of informationbycommercialentities ofsocialcapitalas a means ofsavingtransactional costs;

to promotenewfinancialrelationsbased onmoral(including religious) principlesonthe basis ofthe optimalcombinationof formal andinformalfinancial institutions,backed bythe onlymoralnorms;

using targetedsocialpoliciesto prevent theappropriationof socialcapitalsocietyby separatebusiness entities-socialclasses, groups, largeentities, etc.;

to establish amechanismofsocialcapitalthroughthe creationofregionalcentersofintellectualandsocialcapitalfor thecoordinationof publicandinformalassociations,developingmethodsof confidenceestimation ofsocial institutionsandgovernmentinstitutionsas the basis forthe development ofsocial capital.

 

Literature:

  1. Bourdieu Р. The fоrms оf capital / Р. Bourdieu ; [Edt. By J. G. Richardson] // Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education.·– N.Y. : Greenwood Рress, 1986. – Р. 241-258.
  2. ColemanJ. FoundationsofSocialTheory / J.Coleman. –Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1990. – 993 р.
  3. Статистична інформація. Держкомстат України 1998-2010рр. [Електронний ресурс]. -Режим доступу : http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua.
  4. Economic indicators : Total Economy Database [Електронний ресурс]. -Режим доступу : http://www.conference-board.org.; http://europa.eu.
  5. Фукуяма Ф. Социальный капитал. Культура имеет значение. Каким образом ценности способствуют общественному прогрессу / Ф. Фукуяма ;[под ред. Л. Харрисона, С. Хантингтона]. – М. : ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2002. – С. 129-149.
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