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Political tolerance of the Russian youth (the article is based on materials of sociological research in the Kemerovo region)

Political tolerance of the Russian youth (the article is based on materials of sociological research in the Kemerovo region)
Сергей Чирун, доцент, кандидат социологических наук, доцент

Кемеровский государственный университет, Россия

Участник конференции

УДК32.019.51:37

The author considers in the article problems of political tolerance of the Russian youth: inclusion in the new, rapidly changing socio-political realities. The author believes that the most important component of the problems are the innovative technologies of communicative interaction youth community, as a component of political socialization and youth policy.

Keywords: Political tolerance, youth, political socialization, youth policy.

 

The issue of tolerance has a long and diverse history. In recent years the category of tolerance has undergone significant semantic changes. If this concept is meant Forbearance, tolerance, now he is offered a broader interpretation, and the practice of tolerance does not mean tolerance of injustice. Tolerance does not imply the rejection of their beliefs or criticism and discussions. The ability to live without disturbing others, to comply with the duties and civil rights, without violating the freedoms and rights of others, to tolerate the differences in people's life – this is the essence of this concept [1. P.15.].

Professor O. V. Omelichkin under political tolerance understands the special quality of relations between the differing political status of citizens and groups based on their involvement in solution of social tasks [2. P.120].

Development of democratic foundations in Europe led to the consolidation of the concept of tolerance in the middle of the 20th century and to further institutionalize it. As a result, in Western countries, an opportunity has arisen for an egalitarian interaction of political forces within a single political system.

Form the opposite of tolerance is intolerance. S. D. Bakunin explains why the intolerance developed simultaneously with the emergence of the concept of tolerance, defining the preconditions for its existence. So, the concept of "injustice" can be considered as one of the characteristics of intolerance as intolerance to another, caused by the rejection and lack of understanding [3]. Tolerance, in its moral sense, means building relationships with all political parties in dialogical form fundamentally. It requires respecting other people's positions and ideals, while maintaining fidelity to our values and views. The tensions and political conflicts are quite possible, but they do not supersede the rights of everyone to their own opinion and to defend it in any public discussions.

Today tolerance does not have a universally accepted interpretation, and it can be different. Thus, some authors argue that "tolerance is a dangerous phenomenon for morality, because under the tolerance conceal contempt for the opinions of others, the rejection of moral constraints and taboos" [4. P.661-662]. However, the absolute tolerance is poorly aligned with the phenomenon of political tolerance. For example, according to S. M. Eliseev, if to apply a method of C. Schmitt, when considering political tolerance, the object of tolerance is "the enemy". Here there is a logical paradox, it turns out that tolerance of political enemies, denying politics as a space of interactions [5. P . 46].

M. Walzer noted in tolerance a lot of contradictions. He cited the lack of universal principles of tolerance [6]. J. Rawls believed that tolerance is not derived from the practical needs or interests of the state, and the only basis for denying the equal liberties can be considered to be preventing an even greater injustice, an even greater loss of freedom [7. P.192-193].

The most difficult question of the theory of tolerance remains the problem of what to "intolerant", i.e. groups and people violate the norm of tolerance. According to J. Rawls, limitation of opportunities "intolerant" groups is permissible only when there are real security threats. In all other cases, these groups have a right to exist. And receiving benefits from a tolerance, they eventually can become loyal to it [7].

O. Heffe in civil tolerance sees the condition of pluralistic democracy. He identifies three levels of competence tolerant: «legalistic about it, which consists in the ability and willingness to comply with applicable laws; deliberative, consisting in the ability of people to distance themselves from his beliefs; of the imperative, expressed in the willingness to abandon those beliefs under the influence of persuasive arguments» [8. P. 142].

You must also specify the forms of tolerance. There are two variants of selection of these forms. The first approach belongs to J. Gray: «Neutral form, based on the passive-interference in the internal Affairs of other political parties. Solidary form involves the cooperation and interaction between the participants. Parity form is based on the equality of the parties. Dependent form, manifested in political inequality and condescension to the objects of political power, occupying less powerful positions» [9. P. 59].

The second classification gives M. Walzer, he notes the species is tolerant of relationships and attitudes, identifing in this case: tolerance as detached-humble attitude to the differences in the name of preserving peace; relaxed passivity and indifference to differences; moral cost tism and principled recognition that «others» have rights; openness to others, curiosity and desire to learn; enthusiastic approval differences as expressions of hugeness and diversity of the world and accept the freedom of choice [6].

The possession of tolerance can help the young person to avoid conflict and to act on the basis of solidarity and cooperation efforts.

O.V. Omelichkin writes about the contradictions of tolerance and political practice: «the Principles of tolerance largely contradict prevailing in the Russian political practice. However it only provides political choice and the possibility of achieving public consent on the basis of tolerance and convergence of existing (including authoritarian) political positions» [2. P. 98].

Kravchenko S. A. specifies the factors of political tolerance in society. «On the one hand, there are economic, socio-political realities, which, depending on their nature, will certainly affect the degree of tolerance of society... On the other hand, there are «life worlds» real individuals and social groups are represented in the images of the collective representations, semantic systems, subjective values, knowledge, and tolerance determine the thinking and behavior of people» [10]. The knowledge of people argue and support a structured vision of the world, construct certain social relations with a certain degree of tolerance. Finally, another important factor, this is micro-social practices, including the mentality of people, features of national character, collective unconscious.

According to the survey conducted by the research laboratory of the faculty of political Sciences and sociology, KemSU, in 2015, under the guidance of S. N. Chiruna among the inhabitants of the Kemerovo region at the age of 14-30 years (sample of 1040 respondents) 41% consider that the interethnic relations in recent years have become more tense. Growth of tolerance notice less frequently – 17 %. «Civic» and «ethnic» identity has approximately the same number of adherents: once abroad, the citizens would call themselves 44 % of the questioned; representatives of their nationality – 45 %. The claim of the respondents experiencing hostility towards representatives of other nationalities, are that they do not want to reckon with the customs and norms of behavior.

But it is also important to indicate that the level of political tolerance develops and the attitude to public authorities. Thus, almost every fifth (18.2%) believes that the country is going to have a revolution — 9,5% sure that the Kuzbass people were tired of the corruption and power of oligarchs so that they are ready to take to the streets. Another 8.7% said that the Maidan will happen in Russia if the next election changes the power, or else it will not change its policy. At the same time, 45% of respondents believe that at the moment, the threat of overthrow of the government probably not — people are dissatisfied with the situation in the country, but it is too passive for any real action. Another 33% believe that the threat of revolution does not exist, according to them, the population fully supports the current government.

The need for the existence of the political opposition recognizes the majority of respondents – 56%. Only 12% of respondents, the political opposition in Russia should not be, and a third of respondents (32%) answering this question difficult.

Based on all received dates, young Kuzbass people were tolerant of the regional authorities, but with a certain amount of scepticism to how really justified and correct the actions of the government. It is very important in this aspect to assess from these figures, the tolerable level of political-making to people who differ from you in political views, choice of ideology.

In the process of economic development of the 2000s, Russian society has become more heterogeneous. In these circumstances, the question of the need of genuine multiparty system.

Despite a formal multiparty system, the Russian party is inherently different from the parties in the political sense, but their political struggle is fundamentally different from what is observed in Western States. The main difference is that the real struggle in the regions, in the first place, not between parties, but rather between regional pressure groups (business groups, clientele, clans). Political parties in Russia is not so much of people's Union for joint defence of common interests, but rather a mechanism of institutional control over political activity in the population.

The view that parties do not fulfill their designated according to the Constitution, functions, shared by the majority of the youth of Kuzbass. We asked respondents to share their views about what, in their opinion, political parties, and harm. To this question is difficult to answer 61% of respondents, while 23% believe that no benefit of political parties. In addition, the party was accused of inaction and ineffectiveness (11%), parasitism and waste (7%), indifference to people (6%), avarice (6%), falsity (3%), etc. Only 19% of respondents believe that competition, rivalry between political parties brings to the state more good, while 53% believe that more harm.

Answering the question whether to restrict entry of migrants in their country or the Republic, 58% agreed with this view, while 73% reported a very large number of migrants. Also 48% of the respondents noted that in their region there is no ethnic conflict, and 30% confirmed that these contradictions do exist, a further 16% of respondents believe that the prevention of ethnic conflict it is necessary to form the tolerant behavior of its citizens.

Fewer young people would like to have any relationship with the Chechens, poles, and Georgians. They note that I would not like to coexist with them in one house, build business relationships and put your family in. Most of the trust respondents give to such as ethnic Belarusians, Serbs, Germans, Kazakhs.

As a moral phenomenon of tolerance of young people is correctable. Not casually in Russia was developed the program «Education of the young generation in the spirit of tolerance». For Russian society is characterized by a moral itarism and idealization of the Russian lifestyle. From its norms and requirements depends on the nature and pace of democratic reforms and integration of social forces. Tolerance as an essential feature of a given culture plays a key role. However, there is also the problem of simulation: «Tolerance as a Russian state policy towards interethnic problems in recent years, not so much a system of effective measures or programmes in the field of mass communication, many popular Declaration» [11. P. 32-34].

A very important role in the formation of tolerance of youth playing educational institution, whether school, University, etc. M. A. Solomchenko notes the significant role of education in shaping the strategies of tolerance: «...participating in the transmission of accumulated human knowledge, it can objectively contribute in the justification of the need and principal possibility of a rapprochement of the main world religions on the basis of finding a common, unifying began, their convergence and integration into a single civilization» [12].

But in this method, the tolerance has the specific problem that indicates a feature of the youth. Teacher on the subject always strives to give the student as much information as possible, the various thoughts and opinions, and by the student often lacks the desire to absorb and assimilate this material.

Also the formation of a tolerant consciousness of the youth is possible through the media, however, I. M. Dzyaloshinsky notes that «the media are not always able to absolutely influence the formation of tolerant thinking» [13]. Indeed, the objective of using mass media to counter extremism and xenophobia, you must resist the temptation to restrict freedom of expression and media freedom and to remember that aggressive promotion of tolerance and multiculturalism is unlikely to be effective [14. P. 149-150].

J. Ipsen writes: «Many young people can't understand how the problems discussed by politicians and electoral candidates, relate to their own lives and their social environment. The current young generation is a generation of volunteers: three quarters of young people before graduation was engaged in certain activity on a voluntary basis» [15. P. 16-23]. Indeed, volunteer work allows you to directly see the results of their work, encountering problems on the local level [16]. It is very important in modern society to analyse the level of preparedness of young people to understand and participate in the political and social process of their country.

There are a number of features of the youth as socially-demographic group. The first is the incompleteness of formation of the youth of subjectivity in political relations. The second peculiarity is characterized by limited social ties and mobility positions of young people in the social structure. And the third peculiarity is related to the specific consciousness of the youth (lability attitudes), transgressively (the ability of the mind to overcome the barriers) and extreme behavior [17. P. 422].

As a result of change of generations is not only a process of simple reproduction, the continuity of social, including socio-political relations, but also extended experience with innovative potential of young people and learning, updated the social experience to future generations.

The youth evaluates the policy to yourself as a consumer, even care about. The young population tends to get the kind of education that contributes, primarily, to the achievement of their success. Various political forces are trying to attract young people, and this is not a random event. The young population represents a broad social base. Almost every third inhabitant of our country belongs to this group of the population.

Professor A. A. Zelenin has noticed the important features of the young generation and to the future, which should be sent to the youth policy of Russia [18].

Today, different views on the degree of inclusion of youth in the political process. Some argue that young people have a negative attitude to authorities and believes that can't have a proper impact on the government, and therefore behaves passively towards politics and will not accept in it active participation. In particular, the youth seeks to realize himself through other structures.

On the other hand, much has been written about new and growing youth interest in politics. The behavior of the young population is greatly influenced socio-political situation in the country. This is evident, first, in the overall revitalization of political consciousness of youth, which gets the opportunity to realize their interests, in the discussion of acute social problems and in verifying proposed various political forces answers to questions. Secondly, the desire of young people to understand the real situation, which leads to the fact that the thinking of young people, focused on the private sphere of his life begins to intertwine with the political thinking, and this leads to the creation of new attitudes and values.

If depict the dynamics of youth interest in politics, it is the main bursts of activity can be seen in the most important moments of life in the country, region, city. The rest of the time this activity is characterized by stability. Important in the implementation of youth policy is the involvement of youth in the political process and expanding opportunities to realize themselves in the environment. Policy to bring in something new.

Political scientists have concluded that before to investigate the tolerance of youth, to identify its identification, i.e. who is his and who is a stranger [19. P. 84]. Across studies, most students about tolerance and intolerance have to say because they have not formed a fairly clear party preferences and self-identification. For example, students in the majority are apolitical, indifferent to the activity and ideology of political parties. The results of many conducted studies have confirmed that, on average, more than 50% of respondents are unable to relate themselves and their preferences on a scale supporter of or against a political party. This point is particularly important, as the basis of tolerant/intolerant behavior is not indifference or neutrality, and the interest of [20. P. 48-54].

The political consciousness of the young population is under the strong influence of various political forces. They are able to affect the political preferences of young people, and their level of tolerance of opponents. So, O. A. Bondarenko insists on the need to disclose «...the cultural, social, economic, political and religious sources of intolerance that underpins violence and alienation» [21. P. 78-85].

Determination of the percentage ratios in the Russian regions tolerant and intolerant youth of today need to effectively manage youth, and national policy [22. P. 67-75].

Our research among students of Kemerovo (2014 n – 730) show that 74% of respondents consider themselves to be tolerant, and believe the line of tolerance is a positive thing. The remaining 26% believe tolerance is a negative feature. This research also helped to identify what qualities does a tolerant person. In the end it happens that a tolerant person needs to take dissent (68%), to respect the opinions of others (70%) and understanding (43%). Also 100% of respondents agreed with the view that political tolerance is an important spiritual and moral principle of modern society.

Researchers have identified a tendency among modern Russian youth outwardly to conform to the standards to comply with the law, and internally – willingness to violate it. For example, if the close person has committed an administrative offense and he was detained by the inspector patrol-sentry duty, to help out in any way, i.e. showed tolerance to the violation of the law, and in fact – intolerance [23].

This is largely due to the fact that in modern Russian society lacks a clear ideology and strategy of the youth policy, and mass media shape the cult of violence and injustice that is a time bomb for young people.

So, political tolerance of youth is a mobile system of a conformist images and ideas of young people about politics and power. Political tolerance is the product of internalization of the youth of the world policy in the process of political socialization. The structure of political tolerance form a visual-cognitive images collected in a multi-level model of the structure coordinates of space and time, where the ontological field of political tolerance provides the symbolic representations of state and government; at a basic level models of clusters of the political system and ideas about the possibilities of interaction between them; the tool also contains views on the acceptable types of political participation.

Political science has mediated reality and political practice influence on political tolerance, forming axiological principles and meanings. It gives young people a systematic political knowledge, the elements of which are integrated into political tolerance. Political ideology, being an important link between theoretical and applied political knowledge, defines the meaning and the vector representations and images of political tolerance, determines the consistency and integrity of data views that only in a situation of ideological structuring are the Foundation of political participation.

Political tolerance communicative, it is the result of the interaction of young people with political reality. Political tolerance variable, it can be represented as a dynamic model representations and images, constructively responding to the young person the nature of the political reality.

Political tolerance polyfunctionally. Its epistemological content, is to reflection and reflection of political processes; ideological content is present in the systematization and structuring of political images and ideas, forming the basis for political behavior and attitudes. Political tolerance is the result of effective political socialization. Institutions of socialization (the state and social political actors) use the available political resources to construct the political tolerance of the younger generation.

The system of external and internal factors leads to the uniqueness of political tolerance. These factors can vary by many parameters: the scale of political tolerance; clarity of images that form the structure of political tolerance; the emotional aspects of political tolerance; the degree of tonality of political tolerance; contemporania predominant orientation of political tolerance; consistency of images of political tolerance; the degree of abstractness of political tolerance; the symbolism / significance of political tolerance; depth of reflection; the degree and nature of the reflection of political communications; the degree of stiffness / plasticity models of political tolerance; the degree of determinirovannogo the political world; the level of compliance / adequacy of tolerance to the political world; the representative system media political tolerance.

The formation of political tolerance is the result of targeted and delayed effects of institutions and instruments of political socialization. It is the institutional actors who have sufficient methodological, ideological and organizational resources for the creation of political tolerance that meets the ideological values of the political system.

The main actor, having all the necessary resources for modeling political tolerance is a state. Emotional-cognitive structure of political tolerance is in the process of training and education. Significant is the role of technology, forming the historic component. It is part of the ontological level, the core of political tolerance.

Such a model is able to capture the «intermediate» results of political socialization, to analyze and to describe the sum of technologies used to build political tolerance. Overall, the model of political tolerance is a theoretical framework for cross-temporal and cross-regional studies.

The specificity of political socialisation involves the reflection of the political sphere in the views of young people. Therefore, there remains a need to clarify the parameters of differentiation of political tolerance as an element of scientific knowledge broadcast political actor, and as a result of reflection of the political processes in the minds of youth.

Political tolerance as a part of the social tolerance, directs the benchmarks relevant to a Mature civic identity. And political identity appears as a derivative of the process of formation of images of the world policy design or of political peace and tolerance as the product is formed identity.

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Комментарии: 1

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Замечательная, содержательная и познавательная научная работа! Тема приемлемости и терпимости в нашем обществе всегда была и остаётся живой и актуальной. Надеюсь увидеть подобный научный труд в формате монографии!
Комментарии: 1

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Замечательная, содержательная и познавательная научная работа! Тема приемлемости и терпимости в нашем обществе всегда была и остаётся живой и актуальной. Надеюсь увидеть подобный научный труд в формате монографии!
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