facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki
Global international scientific
analytical project
GISAP
GISAP logotip

HEAVY METALS PHYTOEXTRACTION FROM TECHNOGENEOUS POLLUTED SOIL

Автор Доклада: 
Yakovyshyna T.
Награда: 
HEAVY METALS PHYTOEXTRACTION FROM TECHNOGENEOUS POLLUTED SOIL

UDC 631.95

HEAVY METALS PHYTOEXTRACTION FROM TECHNOGENEOUS POLLUTED SOIL

Yakovyshyna Tatyana, Ph. D., Ass. Prof.
State Higher Education Establishment
“Pridneprovs’ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture”


In the article the consideration is given to the method of the heavy metals phytoextraction from technogeneous polluted soil. Effective composition of hyperaccumulator (parsley) with phytoextractor effector (EDTA) and plants growth regulator “Kornevin” has been determined for middle level of the pollution.
Keywords: soil, heavy metals, phytoextraction, effectors, EDTA, parsley, hyperaccumulator.

The ecological monitoring in the Dnepropetrovsk region about 30 % of polluted with heavy metals, partially lost productivity soils were revealed. At present a number of steps on physical, chemical and biological soil detoxication is worked out due to which toxicity of these pollutants may be considerable decreased or eliminated. However, these generally accepted technologies of soils cleaning cause a number of problems, they demand considerable investments (introduction of sorbate ameliorators); appearance of unwanted side effects (forming of pH front with electrochemical remediation); danger of derivative environment pollution (rinsing of polluted soil layer may cause heavy metals getting into groundwater).
At present time the most ecologically safe and economically acceptable is phytoextraction – the technology of constant cultivating of plants capable of retrieving and concentrating in the overground biomass the considerable amount of heavy metals with their further processing by ashing gathered biomass and then plants’ ashes becomes the source of non-ferrous metals or if extraction from the ashes is more than their cost at the expense of composting [1].
Phytoextraction has the following peculiarities:
1) heavy metals content in the soil of the polluted area should be acceptable for plants, that is not to cause plants’ marked phytotoxic effects (decolouration, pigmentation and leaves darkening, stasis);
2) plants used for soil cleaning should have high growth speed and produce big overground biomass, have deeply spread root system, high resistibility to diseases and pests, be responsive to usual agrotechnology, not attractive to animals and people to avoid poisoning;
3) to increase the degree of heavy metals accumulation in the overground biomass of the plant effectors of phytoextraction should be applied (EDTA, DDDА, DTPA etc) which at the expense of formation solid water-solubale inside complex compounds and with metals will increase their mobility in soil and that is especially actual for such high buffer soils as black soils;
4) soil cleaning should be conducted till heavy metal’s content correspondence in the restored soil with the norms of maximum permissible concentration.
Such plants, hyperaccumulators, have been exposed by now. They are capable of storing up to 5 % of metal recalculating in dry substance in their overground biomass. The majority of wild hyperaccumulators belong to Cruciferae family, close relatives of cabbige and mustard. Good phytoextractors of heavy metals are dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris), lucerne, sunflower, sorghum, among cereals – barley and oats, among vegetables – parsley, dill, lettuce.
Under soil pollution above 3 MPC (middle level) and mobility 60-70 % of gross content is seems to be reasonable to grow hyperaccumulators in aggregate with phytoextraction effectors introduction and plants growth regulators for quick plants’ biomass increase and maximally possible ejection of toxicant. For checking this hypotheses as plant hyperaccumulator parsley was used, as phytoextraction effector EDTA was used, as plants growth regulator specimen “Kornevin” was used against technological load with cadmium in 3 MPC. Toxic effect of heavy metal on parsley was revealed, firstly, in cells membranes damage, enzymes activity changing, root growth inhibition, which favoured appearance of quite a number of secondary effects such as hormone imbalance, photosynthesis malfunctioning, transpiration, protein biosynthesis, mineral nutrition, photoassimilators moving and finally to slowdown of plants growth and development. Application of specimen “Kornevin” by itself and in aggregate with EDTA ensured considerable increase of dry biomass. Cadmium content in clean variant corresponded to MPC norms (0,3 mg/kg). Under pollution the cadmium content was noticed to increase by 8,5 – 120,0 times against MPC. Application of specimen “Kornevin” in aggregate with EDTA provided maximum ejection of this toxicant by as overground part and root system. Accumulation coefficient of the cadmium by parsley organs was counted as ratio of pollution content in the plant to its gross content in soil. It is considered that strong phytoextraction agent is a plant for which this coefficient is 2, in our case 4,03 – overground part and 2,21 – root system [2]. Though MPC norms have not been reached, as foreign experience shows (R.Galiulin, 2007) it is almost impossible to achieve for one time, effective composition of hyperaccumulator (parsley) with phytoextractor effector (EDTA) and plants growth regulator “Kornevin”.
Having summoned up above-stated, it should be noted that the proposed method of phytoextraction is a radical problem solving of heavy metals ejection from the technologically polluted soil.

References:
1. Ebbs S.D., Lasat M.M., Brady D.J. et al. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from a contaminated soil // J. Environ. Qual. – 1997. – V. 26. – № 5. – P. 1424-1430.
2. Пат. 60784 Україна, МПК С09 К17/00. Спосіб вилучення важких металів з техногенно забрудненого грунту / Яковишина Т.Ф., Шматков Г.Г., Столярова К.М., Вергун О.О.; заявник і патентоволодар Яковишина Т.Ф. - № u2010153156; заявл. 20.12.2010; опубл. 25.06.211, Бюл. № 12. 

5
Ваша оценка: Нет Средняя: 5 (2 голоса)
Партнеры
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.