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CLIENTELLA AND ITS ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTMODERN NETWORKS

CLIENTELLA AND ITS ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTMODERN NETWORKS
Сергей Чирун, доцент, кандидат социологических наук, доцент

Кемеровский государственный университет, Россия

Участник конференции


This article analyzes the informal institutions in the public administration. The author details the Institute clientele in terms of compliance with the imperatives of a postmodern society.

Keywords: government, governance, politics, public policy, postmodern, clientele, network.

 

In a global context processes of adoption of administrative decisions are directly connected with mechanisms of incorporation of social networks, various on the contents, in system of public administration which has a difficult organizational and communicative configuration.

In organizational aspect the system of public administration is connected with existence of two rather autonomous subsystems of the power (an imperious and political subsystem) in the functional plan and management (an administrative and managerial subsystem) in public administration which have two differentiating criteria: vertical (national, regional and local) and horizontal (industry specification of segments of administrative sector Imperious and political the subsystem promotes combination of the dominating values and is more whole than society and ruling regime with the solution of specific administrative objectives. Realization of these tasks provides integrity of the state and stability of a socio-political order.

The structure of an imperious and political subsystem of public administration is made by the institutes of political representation, political elite and the political management positioning the major priorities and the directions in development of the state. At the political level adoption of the state decisions depends on character of the mode of board and ways of the organization of the power.

The administrative and managerial subsystem of public administration provides preservation and development of structure of the public (municipal) administration and maintenance of contacts the iyerarkhiizirovannykh of the government (municipal) institutions with citizens as consumers the rendered state (municipal bodies) of services. Under these conditions the imperious and political and administrative and managerial subsystem of public administration has institutional segments which are directly connected with civil sector which complicates their interaction.

In an imperious and political subsystem influence of civil society is connected with abilities of the dominating social communities (which support or oppose the political management) to influence character of ruling regime and development of a political policy; the administrative and managerial subsystem assumes an inclusiveness of the differentiated groups and associations of citizens in development of various resources (the public benefits).

Functioning of system of public administration is provided with communicative communications which have certain specifics.

Their essence consists in formation of a network of the relations of personal dependence in which there is an exchange of the benefits in unequal conditions; as the key network individual actor the boss possessing the considerable volume of resources in which other actors – clients are interested acts.

The political clientelism became a backbone factor in implementation of the imperious and political mechanism in modern Russia [2]. The Patronclientelism relations, penetrating structures of public administration, form not - formal and shadow ways of regulation and distribution of resources [3].

This mechanism carries out the main role in reproduction of the Russian political and administrative elite both at the level of regions and municipalities, and at the level of the state in general as it promotes formation in system of public administration clientelism (national, regional local) and clientelization of segments and agents of public administration. Thus political clientela are understood as a  specific form of hierarchy of a social network within which positions of exclusive actors (cartridges) are within official power institutes, and their heads (leaders) monopolize access to political and administrative resources.

This mechanism carries out the main role in reproduction of the Russian political and administrative elite both at the level of regions and municipalities, and at the level of the state in general as it promotes formation in system of public administration clientet (national, regional local) and clientelization of segments and agents of public administration. Thus political clientela are understood as a specific form of hierarchy of a social network within which positions of exclusive actors (cartridges) are within official power institutes, and their heads (leaders) monopolize access to political and administrative resources.

Other actors (agents and contractors) of public administration who are compelled to enter with the exclusive actors taking imperious and administrative positions of various level an unequal exchange with the purpose to achieve influence on the decisions made by the power and the accounting of own interests in the formed political policy get positions of dependent actors (clients). Clientet network interaction of the various in the Russian policy perhaps within the stable models of a political clientela described by S. V. Biryukov [2].

Monocentric political clientela for functional model of the institutional organization of the power and management at the federal level which promotes folding of patrimonial lines of a political regime, characteristic for transit countries of postcommunist systems. Political scientists describe the typical patrimonial system reflecting the political regime which developed in Russia as system in which «the person heading the state estimates the state functions, opportunities and resources, proceeding from personal benefit, and also their use by relatives and close to friends» [6].

The model of a Monocentric political clientela assumes the exclusive volume of administrative resources that allows it to keep the dominating position within various networks of influence at the boss and to provide round itself consolidation of federal and regional elite, i.e. the monocentric political clientela doesn't submit to an order formal institutional imperiously, and is the functional mechanism of dominion to which the organizational system of public administration is subordinated. In the Russian regions there are both monotsentrichny, and polycentric models political clientet [4].

The polycentric model is characteristic for the Russian regions where there is a little equal on the political capital a boss-clientarnykh of the communities (founded on political and ideological, social and economic, the mestnicheskikh and to that the similar principles) which need the boss arbitrator. Integration of networks of regional kliyen-bodies into a federal monotsentrichny political clientela promotes preservation of informal political interactions and efficiency of settlement of the internal conflicts between various segments of public administration through system of informal agreements and network contracts [3].

Reproduction of a political clientela in system of public administration is connected with such latent mechanism of incorporation of social networks as recruiting of political elite on the basis of the closed network communities. It consists in representation of interests of various individual actors the premodernovykh of social networks (compatriot, ethnic, the mestnicheskikh, family etc.) in system of state bodies by finding of the administrative capital by them.

For example, the meganetwork getting into all segments of public administration is the network structure of security officers consisting of various compact network communities in a certain functional environment with interpersonal communications which are united by mental and genetic proximity and ability if necessary to restore and use "KGB" communications which don't work in the daily mode.

Social networks get absolutely other geometrical configuration: the horizontal network interactions based on trust can be transformed to a form cartridge-clientarnye where the trust is built on the basis of already hierarchical principles «authority submission» [5]. Thus ritual carries out some functions: a ban on fight between members of group; deduction of members of groups in the closed community; discharge of this community from other similar groups.

The situation in a cross-regional piece can be described as follows: the network bases of formation of the closed communities in regional political elite, but not the network principle of political recruiting change. It defines not only specifics of acceptance and implementation of political decisions on specific socially significant problems, but also character of the political management and the political mode in general.

The closed network communities incorporated in system of public administration, significantly transform the institutional environment by establishment of special informal rules of games which are defined by authorities for providing to clientarny social networks of access to distribution of resources and influence on the state decisions. Emergence of data the practician can be considered in the context of prevalence in a number of transit societies of processes «deforma-lization of rules» which are considered as transformation of institutes where formal rules are considerably replaced informal and are built in the informal network relations.

The movement to interactive modernization of system of public administration in the national states is connected with the administrative transformations based on the principles of the concept of the board / management (governance). It reflects in the state practice of a tendency of expansion of a circle of the subjects involved in process of development and realization of a state policy in various areas, weakening of traditional bureaucratic mechanisms, increase of efficiency of activity of the state by overcoming of its main defects.

Inclusion of governance in online space of the state policy found the reflection in the concept of electronic board, as post-modernist technology of public administration. The concept of electronic board is capable to integrate and develop mechanisms of the electronic government, electronic democracy and the open government. 

References:

 

  • 1. Бирюков, С.В. Всепроникающая клиентела.,С.В. Бирюков.,Свободная мысль. – 2012.,№ 7.
  • 2. Бирюков, С.В. Постмодернистская революция как глобальный вызов новой эпохи.,С.В. Бирюков.,Философия хозяйства. - 2008.,№3 (57).,С. 111-115.
  • 3. Бирюков, С.В. Российские «левые» и вызовы современной политики.,С.В. Бирюков ,Этносоциум и межнациональная культура.-2014.,№ 6(72).
  • 4. Бирюков, С.В. Политэкономия ренты: как вылечить Россию от «сырьевой зависимости»? С.В. Бирюков.,Политические институты и процессы. - 2014. №1.
  • 5. Бирюков, С.В. Информационная революция, политические резонансы и проблемы управления публичной сферой/ С.В. Бирюков.,Этносоциум и межнациональная культура. 2014.,№ 12 (78).
  • 6. Ирхин, Ю.В. «Электронное правительство» как интерактивная коммуникации между органами власти и гражданами.,Ю.В. Ирхин.,Вестник Российского государственного гуманитарного университета. – 2009.,№ 6.
  • 7. Сморгунов, Л.В. В поисках управляемости: концепции и трансформации государственного управления в XXI веке.,Л.В. Сморгунов. – СПб.,Изд-во СПбГУ, 2012. 
Комментарии: 2

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Авторское видение проблематики заслуживает должного внимания. Признаюсь честно, будучи юристом, было довольно интересно ознакомится с такой спечифической, прекрасной научной работой. С Уважением, Евгений Королёв!

Тойво Таннинг

Respected Sergey Chirun! The investigation results are interesting and relevant. With best regards and wishes success Toivo Tanning
Комментарии: 2

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Авторское видение проблематики заслуживает должного внимания. Признаюсь честно, будучи юристом, было довольно интересно ознакомится с такой спечифической, прекрасной научной работой. С Уважением, Евгений Королёв!

Тойво Таннинг

Respected Sergey Chirun! The investigation results are interesting and relevant. With best regards and wishes success Toivo Tanning
Партнеры
 
 
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