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WORD FORMATION MECHANISMS OF ENGLISH ECONOMIC TERMINOLOGY

WORD FORMATION  MECHANISMS OF ENGLISH ECONOMIC TERMINOLOGY
Ирина Усаченко, доцент

Ирина Лощенова, доцент, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент

Ектерина Шапочка, доцент, кандидат педагогических наук

Феликс Лощенов, студент

Николаевский национальный университет им. В.А. Сухомлинского, Украина

Участник конференции

The article describes the influence of industry, professional, national and gender factors in the formation of names, which serve as economic terms, and analyzes different morphological methods’ productivity levels of their formation.

Keywords: economic terminology, productivity, wordbuilding model, morphological methods of terms formation.

 

The rapid social and economic development of many countries, globalization and informatization of society encouraged linguists to all-around study of features of English economic terminology, which in recent decades has undergone significant changes and updating [1, P.9], [2, P.71]. It is necessary to note that the interest in disclosing the cognitive aspect of creation British economic terms has grown [3; 4; 5; 6; 7], as linguistic studies today are closely related to the study of language representation of human experience that allows to install the cognitive processes’ influence on the formation and functioning of language units. At the present stage the cognitive activity of a native English speaker is egocentered, that is directed at himself, to meet one’s needs and preserve one’s life in difficult survival conditions [7, P.13], [8, P.14]. More egocentric direction of human cognitive activity, on the one hand, and the growing role of British economic terms in society, on the other, determines relevance for the topic of our study. We tracked the cognitive factors that influence the formation of names of persons by means of morphological method (by affixation, compounding and shortening) in modern English economic terminology. Achieving this goal required the selection of names of persons in the function of economic terms resulting in morphological terminology formation; description of the structural and semantic features of selected names; establishing of the link between social – economicand formation processes; identification of key cognitive factors that influence the creation of names in modern economic terminology.

The results of scientific studies based on lexicographical sources of English economic terminology and periodicals made it possible to determine the influence of industry, professional, national and gender factors in the formation of names that serve as economic terms [9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16].

An industry factor is predetermined by a specific economic knowledge. Definition of the economy and its subsystems (marketing, management, finance, etc.) indicate the existence of certain relationships between economic agents – consumers, producers, suppliers, employees, managers. So, the economy is defined as “the study of how society decides to use resources to produce goods and services and distribute them for use among various competing groups and individuals” [17, P.44]. Management is “the process of getting something already done, efficiently and effectively, through the support of others” [18, P.5]. Marketing is “a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging of products and values with others” [19, P.3]. Managing of personnel refers to “a series of integrated solutions that form labor relations” [20, P.2]. These definitions indicate that a person who is an expression of economic relations at the individual and social levels is the center of the economy as a naturalistic science. That is why English economic terminology is represented by a significant number of names: names of professions, specialties, followers of certain beliefs, professional activities in finance, marketing, customs and banking, management, accounting, manufacturing, service areas, etc. According to scientists, the most efficient way of economic terms formation is affixation [21]. It is represented by prefixation and suffixation, but only suffixation demonstrates the high level of productivity in the formation of names of personsin the English economic terminology. Suffixal stems of economic terms with the meaning of names of persons are formed by such suffixes as -er, -man, -al, -ic, - ate, -ive, -crat, -ary (-ory), -ian (-an), - ist, -ant / -ent, -eur. The high level of productivity is peculiar to the suffix -or / -er due to the fact that to characterize the relationship between economic operators in the process of purchasing, sales, financial transactions, auditing, insurance a significant number of verbs is used. Almost 80% of the verbal stems in English economic terminology is the basis of formation of names of persons with the suffix -or / -er. These are derivative nouns with the following meanings:

  • 1) the names of professions and professional activities: importer – імпортер, forger – фальшивомонетник, investor – вкладник, taxer – фінансовий чиновник, auditor – бухгалтер-ревізор;
  • 2) qualification: villager – житель села, poulterer – торговець живністю, staffer – працівник апарату, treasurer – казначей, управляючий фінансами [21]. It should be noted that the suffix -er / -or is often used for formation of the names of persons from the stems of compound words and phrases, such as: copyright → copyrighter – власник авторського права, part-time → part-timer – робітник, зайнятий неповний робочий день, supply-side → supply-sider – прибічник економіки пропозиції.

Scientists point to the high productivity of wordbuilding models with suffixes -ant / -ent, -ist, -ian (-an) and -man. Most terms with -ist suffixes denote types of professional activities: monopolist – монополіст, technologist – технолог, agriculturist – агроном, industrialist – промисловець [21]. However, a significant number of terms with the suffix -ist have the meaning of follower of theories, opinions, political and economic trends that is the result of the historical development of economics, during which different areas of research in economics appeared, from mercantilism in the XV-XVII centuries, which became a prerequisite for the selection of English economic terminology, to consumerism and technocracy of the end of XX-the beginning of XXI centuries, e.g.: neo-malthusianist – прибічник неомальтузіанства, managerialist – прибічник доктрини “менеджеризма”, consumerist – захисник інтересів споживача, restrictionist – прибічник демографічної політики, мета якої скорочення росту населення[21]. The terms which indicate the names of persons with the suffix -man are usually qualification meaning, e.g.: comitteeman – член комітету, dairyman – робітник молочної промисловості, deliveryman – робітник, що доставляє покупки додому, middleman – посередник.The economic terms with the suffix -ant / -ent meaning “the type of professional activity” are also widely presented: appellant – апелянт, complainant – особа, яка подає рекламацію або претензію, recipient – отримувач, subtenant – суборендар[21]. The names of persons with the suffix -ian (-an) indicate the names of occupations or have qualification meaning, e.g. agrarian – аграрій, contrarian – інвестор, який діє наперекір тенденції ринку, statistican – статистик, artisan – кустар, ремесляник. Suffixes -ic, -ate, -ive, -crat, -ary (-ory), -eer, -eur are inefficient in the formation of names of persons in the function of economic terms. We discovered less than 10 derivatives with these suffixes: entrepreneur – підприємець, dispacheur – диспашер (спеціаліст з розрахунку розподілу збитків), beneficiary – бенефіціар, особа, що отримує економічну вигоду, fiduciary – довірена особа, physiocrat – фізіократ, executive – керівник, виконавча особа, representative – представник, subordinate – підлеглий, rustic – сільський житель, mechanic – механік, auctioneer – аукціоніст (особа, що продає з аукціону), bucketeer – брокер фондової або товарної біржі, який займається незаконними операціями.As far as economic relationships usually involve two parties, one of which is active, and the other is passive, the suffix -ee in the meaning of reversing agentivity is also productive. In this case the names of persons with the suffix -ee are formed mainly from verbal stems that ensure the availability of active doer with the suffix -er / -or, for example: to interview → interviewee – особа, з якою проводять співбесіду, interviewer – особа, яка проводить співбесіду; to lease → lessee – орендар, lessor – орендодавець; to mortgage → mortgagee – кредитор по закладній, motgager – боржник по закладній; pay → payee – ремітент, отримувач платежу, payer – платівник за кредитними зобов’язаннями. However, the suffix -ee of newly formed terms of English economic terminology of recent decades can be joined to stems losing their passive meaning and acquiring the agentive meaning of an active doer, e.g.: absentee – прогульщик, nominee – отримувач (страховки) за довіреністю, queuee – особа, яка очікує в черзі, retiree – пенсіонер.The obtaining of agentivemeaning by the suffix -ee is apparently due to cognitive reinterpretation of the role of passive agent given the status of an active member [21].

Prefixation is less productive way of formation of names of persons in the function of economic terms than suffixation. As far as prefixes bring only a certain modification in stem’s semantics (locative, rank, phase, evaluation, quantitative, etc.), the prefixal names of persons have modified meanings similar to suffixal ones:

  • 1) the names of professions and professional activities: vice-president – віце-президент, co-debtor – один з боржників, exproprietor – експропріатор, remodeler – особа, яка займається переобладнанням, subpurchaser – перекупщик, underlesser – суборендодавець;
  • 2) qualification:transmigrant – іноземець, який знаходиться у країні проїздом, superintendent – директор, out-migrant – переселенець (у межах однієї країни), nonrespondent – особа, що не повідомила відомостей (при переписі чи опитуванні)[22].

Compounding which saves linguistic resources demonstrates a high productivity in the formation of names of people in the function of economic terms. According to the structure the identified compound names of persons form three groups: 1) complex words formed from simple stems: salesclerk – продавець, deadbeat – неплатник, landlord – землевласник;2) compound derivatives with the suffix -er / -or, which constitute the largest group (68 terms): taxpayer – платник податків, storekeeper – завідуючий складом, price-fixer – службовець, який займається контролем цін, leaseholder – орендар, breeder-feeder – тваринник, що веде господарство з повним циклом (від розведення до відкорму), landjobber – спекулянт з купівлі та продажу земельних ділянок; 3) lexicalized syntactic formations: in-andouters – робітники, що зайняті на підприємстві непостійно, go-between – посередник, trade-outs – клієнти, які перестали купувати в автолавках, walkout – покупець, який пішов з магазину, нічого не купивши[22]. Compound economic terms with the meaning of names of persons are often formed to express the systematic relations within such conceptual prototypes as wage, tax, stock, price, sales, land, job, fund, trade, wealth, such as: tax: tax-gatherer, tax- eater, taxpayer, tax-dodger, tax-collector; price: price-fixer, price-cutter; land: landowner, landlord, landlady, land-jobber, landholder, land-grabber; stock: stockbroker, stockholder, stock-farmer, stockkeeper, stockjobber etc. [22]. The selected compound names of persons show that usually their first component is the primary means of complex term’s conceptualization. The second component of a compound term is usually a suffixal name of a person who is already functioning as a term in economic terminology. The most active in the formation of compound names of persons are such economic terms: owner, holder, worker, walker, jobber, broker, keeper. High productivity of the terms holder, owner, keeper, indicating ownership of certain things, is due to the important role of the “property” concept in economic terminology, e.g.: wealthholder, stockholder, stallholder, smallholder, shareholder, policyholder, noteholder, leaseholder, landholder, jobholder, householder, fundholder, bondholder, billholder; landowner, homeowner; storekeeper, stockkeeper, shopkeeper, cashkeeper, bookkeeper, beekeeper. Shortening becomes more productive way of terms formation in modern English economy vocabulary [1, P.12], [3, p.7]. This leads to the appearance of the names of persons resulting in shortenings (abbreviations, clipped words and blendings). Productivity of abbreviations is explained by the increasing role of syntactic formation of terminology in contemporary English economic terminology which becomes the source for a large number of abbreviations denoting the names of persons. Formation of names of persons is conditioned by complications of people’s experience, and therefore conceptual structures, in connection with the development of economic subsystems, appearance of narrow specializations and greater division of professional responsibilities. We found abbreviations denoting as a rule specializations names in economic activities field, such as: CFO (chief financial officer) – віце-президент компанії з фінансів, EA (economic advisor) – економічний консультант, GFA (general freight agent) – головний агент з фрахтових операцій, TA (transfer agent) – трансферний агент (з передачі цінних паперів).Terms formed by clipping, belong to two structural groups: 1) units with a clipped end: sec (secretary) – секретар, rep (reprisentative) – представник, cash (cashier) – касир, aud (auditor) – бухгалтер-контролер, assist (assisstant) – помічник, референт; 2) units with clipped  middle part: add’sse (addressee) – адресат, отримувач, atty (attorney) – уповноважений[22]. The functioning of clipped terms in English economic terminology is a result of globalization and informatization of society, which leads to an increase of the role of written business communication. In order to reduce the time for business correspondence, specialists in economics often shorten terms in business documents. It is written business communication which is often a source of clipping and abbreviation in modern English economic terminology. The survey demonstrates that blending is unproductive way of formation of names of persons functioning as economic terms, e.g.: paytriot (pay + patriot) – продажний патріот, workaholic (work + alcoholic) – людина, що працює з великим захватом. Unproductiveness of clipping in the formation of names of persons can be explained by the fact that many clipped words are situational and their meanings depend on the context, which is why they are often not registered in the dictionaries [23]. The analysis of names of the economic terms proves that it is the specificity of economic science, which presupposes different relationships between economic agents and therefore involves a significant number of verbs to describe these relations, determines the productivity of morphological method in the formation of names that are usually formed from verbal stems. Professional factor that is closely associated with the industry one, also significantly affects the formation of names in English economic terminology.

Thus, morphological ways of creating names in the function of economic terms are affixation (prefixation and suffixation), compoundingand shortening (clipping, abbreviation and blending). Suffixation is the most productive way. A future prospect of our research is to study methods of translation of English economic terminology into Ukrainian considering mechanisms of its creation.

 

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Комментарии: 1

Бучацкая Светлана Михайловна

Dear colleagues, I would like to express my satisfaction and approval of your work. The research you introduce is really substantial and very practical not only for those who are engaged in economy and related fields but also will be of great importance for any educated person. The study of word formation mechanisms is well-grounded and supported by a great number of examples. Wish you new discoveries. Yours faithfully, Svitlana Buchatska
Комментарии: 1

Бучацкая Светлана Михайловна

Dear colleagues, I would like to express my satisfaction and approval of your work. The research you introduce is really substantial and very practical not only for those who are engaged in economy and related fields but also will be of great importance for any educated person. The study of word formation mechanisms is well-grounded and supported by a great number of examples. Wish you new discoveries. Yours faithfully, Svitlana Buchatska
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