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Public Consciousness Manipulation as a Censorship Form

Public Consciousness Manipulation as a Censorship FormPublic Consciousness Manipulation as a Censorship Form
Елена Агапова, доктор философских наук, ph.d. философских наук, доцент

Агапова София Григорьевна, профессор, доктор филологических наук, профессор

Гущина Людмила Викторовна, доцент, кандидат филологических наук, доцент

Южный Федеральный Университет, Россия

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Россия";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in modern political discourse and dwells on the complex phenomenon of censorship and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the principles of research, as well as its scientific results, including the general philosophical methodological concept of dialectic materialism in accordance with the principles of unity of form and content, cause and effect, general communication of the phenomena. In conclusion, it summarizes that mentioned above phenomena are serious and dangerous, being capable to influence people’s consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and even dooming them to the passivity of life.

Keywords: Political discourse, manipulation, censorship, mass media.

 

1. Introduction.

The relevance of the present article is caused by the fact that the beginning of the 21st century is accompanied by the creation of global informational space and formation of new people’s world outlook that are greatly influenced by all means of mass communication. Nowadays the urgency of the state control is increased over the informational space of the modern post-industrial society in the conditions of transformation of several governmental institutes. It should be mentioned that information itself represents one of the most important instruments of social management and, therefore, cannot be made public completely. Some part of information is secret and confidential. In this way, the fact of its existence can be regarded as the objective basis of censorship.

It is obvious that censorship as some control of the power over the contents and distribution of information should be viewed through the prism of political discourse. In the last hundred years there were some evolution and improvement of governmental technologies and social management. Modern mass media has created new opportunities for this purpose, increasing the efficiency of the usage of information. A real revolution has occurred in social and political management. The main orientation of the evolution of power technologies and the purpose of their alterations and improvement involve the usage of the smallest expenses of means in order to gain the maximum effect of impact on people, providing their voluntary subordination. A. Toffler (1990) notes that the superior quality and the greatest efficiency of the modern power is given by the knowledge that allow, firstly, to achieve the required goals, spending power resources minimally; secondly, to convict people in their own personal interests in this purpose, and, thirdly, to turn their opponents into allies.

 

2. Public Consciousness Manipulation as a Censorship Form in Modern Society.

The mass media plays an important role in modern society, being a powerful resource used by politicians. It has contributed to the creation of such phenomenon as political language. As a result, the informational field has become very inconsistent and created a set of various representations of one and the same phenomenon, reality or event, often mutually excluding each other.

Political language represents a special sign system intended for political communication. It is not a prerogative of professional politicians or government officials, but a resource that is open for all the members of language community and connected with some specific use of public language as a means of persuasion and control. Political language can be defined as a subsystem of national language, intended for the political communication, including propaganda of some ideas, emotive impact on citizens and their subsequent motivation to some political actions, developments of public consensus. Political language is generally available as it is situated between two poles: the functionally caused special language and the slang of a certain group with the ideology peculiar to it. Therefore political language has to be available to comprehension according to the aims of propaganda and focused on a certain group for some historical, social and psychological reasons.

In other words, political language is deprived of the "secret speech" property. It does not contain specific lexicon, unknown and unfamiliar to some members of society. Thus, language becomes political due to the contents of transmitted information and circumstances in which the distribution of information and functions takes place. Political language is a political reality as language is not only a tool to describe some events, but also their part that has a strong impact on the formation of their value, contributing to shape political roles recognized by politicians and society on the whole.

It is obvious that political language represents the integral part of political communication as some speech activity focused on propaganda of these or those ideas, emotional impact on citizens of a country and their motivation to some political actions for the development of public consent, acceptance and justification of socio-political decisions in the conditions of plurality of viewpoints in the given society. According to A.P. Chudinov (2003), there are four kinds of political communication: 1) office (internal, bureaucratic) political communication, focused on the interaction inside the governmental or public institutions; 2) political communication in the public political activity, oriented toward various segments of population, being a form of implementation of professional and public work of political leaders and activists; 3) political communication which is carried out by journalists and focused on the mass audience in forms of interviews, analytical articles in newspapers, written by journalists, political scientists and / or politicians; 4) political speech activity of "ordinary" citizens (not professionals in the field of political communication), participating in meetings, demonstrations, etc.

Thus, it is clear that the distinctive feature of political communication is its mass character. It explains why political language is applied to different types of impact: persuasion, control, manipulation, and the mass media becomes its direct means of implementation and realization.

Discussing the mass media and its influence on masses, we should note that in the post-industrial society the power of knowledge and information becomes prevalent in the social management, overshadowing the influence of the state coercion. The governmental, power coercion is replaced with the informational influence and psychological coercion. The spiritual sphere of society is subjected to the direct influence of informational environment, whose destructive changes in the form of distorted ethical standards and criteria, inadequate social stereotypes and affirmations, false values influence, in their turn, the state and processes in all main spheres of public life. The distinctive feature of the modern world seems to be a shift to a new qualitative condition of society, characterized by a sharp increase of informational processes and creation of the whole industry of production of information. It is possible to assume that the society of the 21st century is transiting to the qualitatively other form of its existence – to the informational civilization.

The mass media constitutes a specific social institution, i.e. addressing to the society in the course of mass information support of its functioning. It creates a peculiar informational analog of social institutional activity in all their manifestations. The initial function of mass media is information transfer. The analysis of information transmitted through the mass media makes obvious a small number of info senders and a large number of its recipients. Taking into account that any power needs more mediated forms and means of communication between its carriers, performers of power will and citizens, it is possible to note that the mass media is the powerful regulator of public opinion carried out through the information transfer to its large audience.

The mass media has always been the important part of human life. The scientific and technical progress has become an incitement to its development, and as a result, – to psychological means of influence on people. The field for work with the public opinion has grown in hundreds times lately. Knowledge in the fields of psychology and PR have gone deeper. All the enumerated facts have contributed to the emergence of the term "manipulation".

It should be noted that the term "manipulation" (manipulus) occurs from the Latin words which mean: a) a handful (manus – "a hand" and pie – "to fill"), b) a small group, a handful (manus + pi). The second meaning of this word was used to denote a small group of soldiers (about 120 people) in the Roman army.

It is stated that in some European dictionaries "manipulation" in the general meaning is defined as the treatment of objects with some special purposes and intentions; as a manual control and manipulations, made by hands, – i.e. manual actions. The use of this term is closely adjoined to the specified meaning of "manipulation" as skillful actions with levers made by hands. The levers and handles are quite often called manipulators too. As a result of the process of mechanical complication, simulators and artificial substitutes of hands have been called manipulators as special appliances for hard shifting of things with the distanced management (e.g. for loading and unloading of cores with nuclear fuel). All these extensions of meanings contribute to the appearance of the modern figurative sense of the word "manipulation" as a dexterous treatment of people as with objects and / or things.

According to the analysis of some European dictionaries, we can observe a current trend of defining the words with the root “manipulat” in their first meaning as something connected with control or influence for one’s own purposes, and only the second meaning comprises the notion of working with skillful use of one’s hands (Longman Dictionary 2002).

It should be mentioned that the word “manipulation” in the meaning of an act of influence on people or management or some things with dexterity, especially with some scornful implication, as the hidden management or processing, has changed the previous term “Machiavellianism” in political dictionaries (the name of the Italian politician N. Machiavelli became nominal for designation of the moral position "the purpose justifies any means”). Such state of things is caused, firstly, by the shift of the leading accent from the estimated look to a technological one when treating the given phenomenon; and, secondly, by the expansion of a circle of the phenomena to which the term "manipulation" belongs. Today the problem of qualities of certain political leaders changes into the problem of activity of the whole governmental institutions and organizations. Thus, the term "manipulation" is applied in relation to the mass media and political actions, directed to program opinions and / or aspirations of masses, their mental conditions, etc. The ultimate goal of such efforts is directed to have a control over population, its manage- and governability as well as obedience.

Summarizing the information given above, we can suggest that the term “manipulation" has a disapproving coloring. Therefore, we consider a manipulative impact as such influence on the addressee’s behavior that will cause some negative emotions in him / her and which and that, according to S. Kara-Murza (2004), will induce him / her to make such acts that in result the addressee will become "a loser or even a fool".

Being a type of the hidden impact on the addressee and a specific way of his / her management, manipulation is characterized by unseemliness of the manipulator's actions and intentions, contradicting the addressee's will and doing harm to him / her. In our opinion, the main signs of manipulation are as follows: 1) spiritual and psychological influence without any physical abuse (in this case, the targets of manipulation are people's mental structures) in the form of some psychological force or game on the addressee’s weaknesses; 2) orientation of the manipulator's actions in such a way that his / her ultimate goal and the fact of the influence will be unnoticed by the object of manipulation, who still will have an illusion of his / her independent decision-making and implementation of actions, – i.e. the hidden influence; 3) the influence demanding certain knowledge and considerable skills; 4) the treatment of the objects of manipulation not as of people, but as of things, – means of achievement of the manipulator's own purposes; 5) the wish to receive one-sided prize; 6) motivation; 7) the manipulator's skills in the realization of his / her manipulative actions.

One of the most important rules of consciousness manipulation is the ensuring of totalitarian influence, i.e. providing the information, taken only from the completely controlled sources. To ensure the illusion of pluralism, some information messages are created as if from different types of organizations, but they shape uniformed stereotypes. "Unnecessary" information is suppressed. The stream of advertising breaks off the complete perception of information. The impossibility of the analysis and concentration of attention on serious events occurs. The flow of worthless information complicates the search for sense.

It should be noted that consciousness manipulation by means of mass media, first of all, is created for the average person who belongs to the consumer culture rather than to a high one. Information randomization seems only visible. The mass media constructs informational flows in order to create a necessary image of reality for the owners of these or those mass media sources. Selection criteria of messages are based on developed theories and mathematical apparatus. Information is divided in such a way that a person will never gain complete knowledge. All these methods are used to support a necessary level of nervousness which reduces the ability to estimate critically the arriving information in society and increases its suggestibility. Thus, society turns into a ruled mass, consuming the mass culture and being anxious to achieve pleasure at any cost and by any means. Modern society forms a mass person. The dominated way of life in this mass has already been created: it does not have any inclinations to intellectual tasks. The education status significantly has been worsening. People have been judged by their material prosperity instead of their intelligence. New manipulative techniques have brought huge masses of people to the foreground, who are both technically armed and spiritually deprived, for whom the mass culture is the only type of culture. So, in this way the mass culture becomes a useful means to manipulate people and their consciousness.

The freedom of distribution of information has become the basic principle of social atomization and establishment of the liberal order of life. Thus, the acceptance of similar ideas has become a cultural and spiritual shift of great value. The mass media is turning into the main tool for distribution and broadcasting these messages that are urged to influence the public consciousness. In fact, the mass media becomes a peculiar filter that passes ideas, increasing the value of the one and depreciating of the other, polarizing the whole field of culture in this way. To achieve these purposes the mass media refers to some methodical techniques, such as: fabrication of the facts or a direct lie, a special selection of events of reality for messages, gray and black propaganda, psychoses, changes of the sense of words and concepts, simplification and stereotyping, statements and repetitions, etc.

A man of the mass is a special reality without striving for any change and movement. Reflections are replaced with the spontaneous manifestation of the unconscious, motives are changed into impulses, definiteness is exchanged for intolerance. The cultural and creative position loses its status and value. Its place is taken by the consumer’s position, directed toward the material, outside world. The replacement of the cultural domestic production with the western third-rate production contributes to it. The last is aimed at the revision of former cultural representations and values, traditional ways of life, characterizing nations' life from generation to generation. Thus, the illusory forms of life, propagandizing non-spirituality and the consumer’s treatment of reality, are imposed on people. The ideas of criteria of truth, good, beauty are erased. They inhaled the mass with the force and arrogance of modern progress, but forgot about the spirit. People become mechanistic, lose the integrity of their own nature and as a result lose their ability to have adequate relations with the changing world.

It is easy to manage such society. The majority of people is not capable to analyze and adequately resist manipulative techniques because they consider benefits as their only goals and sense of life. Manipulation is possible due to the control over information and communication that dictate affirmations, representations, rules and models of human activities. In other words, manipulation is possible in the presence of rigid censorship.

 

3. Censorship: to Be or not to Be.

In the modern society, preliminary, retaliatory censorship does not seem effective, but the power cannot miss the control over the processes occurring in society. In this way, manipulation plays a great role and realizes the functions of censorship. It proves one of the means of social control and is based, first of all, on the rigid use of the information apparatus and the apparatus of formation of ideas.

Thus, censorship does not disappear (in connection with the adoption of some laws about its cancellation), and is transformed into more effective ways of control and filtration of public consciousness. Having arisen as a primitive taboo at the beginning of the human history and passed a long way from the burning of the dissidents' literature to the establishment of the censorial institutions that existed up to the 20th century, manipulation as a method of control and modeling of reality reveals itself in a more difficult and effective form – as public consciousness manipulation that formalizes people's consciousness and directs them to strictly definite purposes.

Manipulation-censorship carries out some functions that were not used by the usual censorship: 1) the diagnostics function, i.e. the act of recognition that confirms a certain identity; 2) the administrative function, that assumes a system of symbolization of norms that confirm a human right to do something independently from his / her symbolical status; 3) the function of producing a certain point of view.

The strong base for manipulation of mimicing censorship in modern society is made by incompetence and low-education of the mass. The object of manipulation, thus, is the conducted majority that prefers facilitated interpretation to knowledge, losing a systemic image of reality.

There is no culture in the world where everything would be allowed. The man arises not with freedom, but with a certain limit, with the line of insuperable. In the world of culture that surrounds the person, here is a special world of words – logosphere. The transformation of language into a tool of domination has started the process of language destruction.  Its transformation into a kind of goods and elimination of sanctity has made freedom of speech possible. The symbol of freedom takes the central place in the system of mentality of the modern West, many concepts are connected with it, including the freedom of speech. It looks like a specific guarantee of all other freedoms, however, the internal organization of this concept is asymmetrical.

The freedom of speech is turned not to the state but to the one-sided process. A word exists when it is said, therefore, the freedom of speech means freedom of the said word. The conscious word usage requires the speaker's address to his / her recipient. Thus, the declared freedom of speech fixes the speaker's dictatorship in relation to the listener; i.e. the agent's freedom to influence the recipient. The freedom of speech needs a counterbalance because of its asymmetry. The ideological power, the power of the uttered word can be constrained only by censorship.

Censorship is the institution that provides a kind of protection of the recipient’s rights, of the passively listening majority, from the agents' word arbitrariness who constitute the ideologically active minority, seeking to transform mentality of society to their taste. Desirable thoughts are made by agents of the minority in such quantities that own thinking sinks in their mass, and these desirable thoughts are so thoroughly introduced into consciousness that recipients accept these thoughts as a result of their own thinking. Thus, a hidden, anonymous domination occurs, that is carried out by nonviolent methods. H. Ortega-i-Gasset, for example, thinks about the need of spiritual dictatorship in all the eras of history. He considers that the majority of people does not have their own opinion and does not possess theoretical understanding of life of things. Therefore, opinions should be "squeezed" in people under the outside pressure as "lubricant oil in the car". G. Frank, G. Domitslaf, K. Jaspers, G. Shishkov and others share the same viewpoint. So, public consciousness manipulation as a form of censorship is implanted in society from the moment of the emergence of the word. Therefore, it is possible to explain the phenomenon of sociopolitical mimicry, that suggests changeability of censorship both as a special institution and a concept, as well as its functions in the process of changing of society.

Censorship should not have a political coloring. It has to be substantial, to estimate contents of the speech and to correlate the contents with moral criteria existing in society. Censorship is necessary as a constraining mechanism that prevents from any dissociation of the society on atoms and absorption by other cultures. The consequences of acceptable censorship regulations for Russian culture (as the centuries-old history proves) are less harmful than its replacement by the West invention – public consciousness manipulation.

In modern realities, the protection of identity and statehood lies in the correct use of censorship as a guarding mechanism, in resistance and elimination of consequences of "information or media wars". The theoretical basis of information wars comprises the theory of "a cultural kernel" by A. Gramsha, the theory of the cognitive dissonance, the concept of stage-by-stage distribution of information by Lazersfeld etc. The main purpose of such wars is the destruction of the value system of society, its destabilization at spiritual, political and economic levels. Thus, the social massovization, primitivization of national culture and attempts to manage mass consciousness to direct it to alien and primitive norms and values, is the result of information wars and the lack of censorship as a counterbalance.

For the last decades, there was a substitution of cultural values by quasivalues and their propaganda. The dismantle of the value system starts with the identification of weak points in the opponent's semantic space, the definition of discording facts, stereotypes and representations that become more significant by means of propaganda in the mass media a bit later. Thus, a new model of the world is suggested for the society, based on its illusions and stereotypes, but not rooted in its historical memory, national traditions, deep psychological affirmations. It directly contradicts some socio-historical conditions of its existence.

One of the conditions of manipulative effects is the removal of mass consciousness from the usual framework of norms, values, stereotypes, destabilization of mass consciousness by means of propaganda and distracting actions. The victory in information wars is reached when the destructive system of values is perceived by the target audience as "a way to freedom", and possessors of these values as considered "liberators". Information wars are the main element in the modern geopolitical division of the world, and the development of means of counteraction to manipulative techniques as well as the development of methods of management and protection of information space becomes more and more urgent. As a result of the lack of methods of protection of information space, the outlook matrix has been dismounted, the population has lost its system of valuable coordinates. Now, there is only a mass of people, who do not possess transpersonal consciousness and collective will. They have lost their coherent picture of the world and ability to think logically and identify relations of cause and effect.

It is obvious that the moral and intellectual degradation of the considerable part of the population took place at the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries. Scandals, fights, exposures are necessary for the electorate. It seems that even the best election program will not be heard, read, voted for by the majority if there are no actions and intrigues. It is explained by the fact that the majority of the electorate is not interested in politics. As a result, it is possible to reject the influence on the intellectual minority and create a consequent "show" for low-educated masses with a small capture of a marginal segment within political techniques. In these conditions, it is obviously certain that some specific circles of "elite" and "conductors" of its ideas decided to deprive science and education of the opportunity to influence masses' opinions and to disturb further simplification of manipulative techniques. All this goes in parallel with the exponential increase of manipulative scales.

At this stage of "transition", censorship has: to assume the function of detachment and obliviousness (concealment in the mass media's activity) of pseudoscience from science; to form the public opinion focused not on the western samples and values which historically are not implanted in people's mentality (e.g., Orthodoxy – Protestantism); not to allow the distribution of manipulative techniques that lead to some changes in the individual's psychic and worsening his / her health; to provide the fundamental education (since school), controlling the quality of teaching and providing with qualitative manuals (from the scientific point of view) that do not allow the propaganda of pseudoscientific views and ideological interpretations. The main complexity is that censorship belongs to those concepts that are perceived by society from the negative point due to objective and subjective reasons (the history of development of censorship and censors). European countries that have rejected the institutions of censorship, dictating their own model of the world order, in reality did not do so, having hidden and blurred censorial bans in their legislation.

Due to the information revolution, it is impossible to control informational flows by old methods. Therefore, there are new ones that take into account modern realities. In order to understand what exactly needs to be changed in public consciousness and society on the whole, it is necessary to investigate new censorial technologies and the degree of their influence on the mass consciousness, as well as possible and current consequences of the situation when the usage of these technologies occurs not with the purpose of preservation of society, but of achievement of financial and political benefits by a certain social layer.

Realities of the modern world form new claims that need adequate answers. The characteristic feature of the new century is the formation of a new planetary outlook that is peculiar to big masses of people. This process is accompanied by some isolation of the world information space. However, the term "the world information space" is rather extensive. We believe that it is more correctly to apply the term "infonoosphere" , because this term limits the essence of the concept, emphasizing the fact of people's creation of this space, their intervention in nature. Thus, the world space seems boundless while the infonoosphere has its borders.

The formation of the infonoosphere has led to some difficult consequences. The audience has got almost an unlimited access to any information. It uses it and thus creates a convenient parallel world for itself, that in its turn captivates the person to multimedia, throwing him / her out of the real life. All this seriously simplifies actions of manipulative techniques that replace censorship in many respects and work even more rigid. The mankind has always tended to a freedom of speech and release from censorship. However, it is difficult to find the practice of social existence without a certain censorial regime and / or its organization to some extent in the history of mankind. The history of censorship shows that it is a necessary and obligatory attribute of any type of power. As a rule, censorship or the institution of censorship is a constituent part of any government apparatus, both its type and character depend on the type of the state. There is an opinion that in modern democratic states we cannot find censorship. In our opinion this point of view is wrong and based on the narrowed idea of what censorship is. However, censorship had existed long before the very word "censorship" appeared and the invention the printing-press in Mainz, and first establishments of censorship. Its evolution in 20-21 centuries has contributed to more perfect, not always noticeable forms of retaliatory. Subsequent censorship veiled in articles of laws, judgments that are usual forms of the state control.

Actually, the sources of censorship lie in the volume and quality of the circulating information in the society, available to the masses. As a rule, not all information is given to publicity because, in fact, it is one of the most important instruments of management of society. The power differently solves the problem of access to information. In modern conditions, the formulation "regulation of information streams" is used to mask censorship. In any society some part of information is secret, that is already the objective basis of censorship and its guaranteed existence in the future. While there is a state, interested in preservation of certain secrets, i.e. some information restrictions, there will be censorship in this or that form. The existence of censorship can be confirmed by present contradictions and conflicts of the social environment, collisions of different interests and requirements that lead to criticism of outlooks and views. All this raises a problem of restriction of a freedom of speech in order to rule the society. In this way, there is a new regulator of information – market, commercial, economic control of information, that in many respects replaces usual censorship.  The modern censorial regime is characterized by uncertainty. The main participant of creation of censorial regime is undoubtedly the capital spliced with the power, where the usage of manipulative techniques strengthens the regulation of information flows, available for society.

Censorship is a rather difficult and developing problem area. In general, the fact of selection is censorship itself. So, any selection can be perceived by the interested person as violence. However, life is a constant choice, that is a refusal from something, a survival mechanism. In the modern world, censorship is complicated, multiobjected and takes various forms. The person finds himself in the world of infinite censorships of various degrees of intensity. The most serious mechanisms of censorship are stereotypes created by means of manipulative techniques in the mass media. The invisible, daily censorship is most effective. Everything participates in it, forming such reality that the power wants to see. The essence of manipulation is a system of ideological, social and psychological influence with the purpose to change people's thinking and behavior contrary to their interests. However, if censorship is connected with violence and bans in the standard point of view, that is with the lack of a free choice of the managed one, the manipulation is a transformation of the world model according to the aims and tasks of the power, when the illusion of a free choice is preserved. Referring to the principle of W. Pareto, despite the variety of techniques, forms and methods of management, each of them can be referred to two main types: violence or manipulation. Thus the power of all times has been based on the practice of management of masses either on violence or manipulation, or on the synthesis of both. Manipulation is carried out in three spheres that are considered the main ones: ideological, economic, and social, the last comprises upbringing and education.

The ultimate goal of manipulation by means of mass media is creation and support of a certain political mythology. Any power needs legitimacy and symbols of its embodiment. But the production of such myths in democratic and totalitarian states is organized differently: in the democratic one, myths are created in the conditions of information surplus, decrease of masses' intelligence, influences of mediacratia and manipulative techniques; in the totalitarian state, the condition of creation of the myth is an artificial restriction of information fields (censorship).

Thus, at the present stage the role of mediacratia significantly increases in perceiving more and more complicated reality. Transforming and controlling activity which is directly connected with the impact of mass media of structures of consciousness of individuals amplifies. Texts of mass media prevail today over all other types of texts. Thus their influence on individuals' consciousness and behavior is evident. Influencing individuals' opinions and affirmations, the mass media compels to realize certain types of behavior. It does not express but creates public opinion, without reflecting a person's ideas of the world, but forming them. In other words, the mass media does not represent reality, but constructs it using mediacratian affirmations. The mass media focuses recipients' attention on certain fragments of reality, but does not induce them to take actions. Modern systems of communication carry out the whole complex of functions from neutral informing to social control and manipulation. The consciousness manipulation assumes the realization of possibility to invade the language sphere in order to regulate the perception of sociopolitical and cultural phenomena. The high axiological status of vital success, wealth and opportunity to derive pleasure are characteristics of the "western" culture. The person who has achieved vital success becomes the hero of his / her time. Such words as ambitious, a businessman, career, and others have lost their negative connotations.

The creation of information and its control (the hidden censorship) at the federal level allows to expand the influence and confirmation of systematic reliability. The government or mediacratia rules the global apparatus of processing of consciousness and conviction of masses. It decides what information should to be published. Public opinion today cannot be considered as an active element of the system. The passivity of society is convenient for the management of masses. The mass media uses semi-marginal evaluative stylistics, filtering the information in and out. It contributes to the decrease of the mass audience's ability to think critically. Masses are infixed with those affirmations in symbolic forms that allow to operate more effectively, without applying the repressive apparatus and censorship institutions as an irritating factor. Censorship in the form of selection and filtration of information by mediacratia, is not obvious, but hidden and more effective due to the use of manipulative techniques in order to achieve the control over information. Censorship becomes more serious and dangerous in modern society as it influences individuals' consciousness, depriving it of critical thinking, and dooming them to the passivity of life.

At the present stage, the censorship institution as one of the control levers of masses, is inefficient. However, where information exists, there is some control too. In other words, that form succeeds, that is more modernized, effective, and adapted for new realities. So, we can define some cardinal shifts in the history of censorship: the first occurred during the formation of human society and the establishment of the first taboos and bans, often instinctively or by experience; the second happened when education and states were formed; the third was rather long and took place with the invention of the printing machine in Mainz; the fourth occurred in the 19-20th centuries and was connected with the formation of democratic societies, and raising influence of mass media; and actually the fifth shift covers the beginning of 21 century, is known for censorial mimicry, emergence of new forms of control over information, selection and broadcasting of the last. Undoubtedly, the fifth stage remains the most disputable and least studied one, characterized by the emergence and existence of a new form of censorship – non-public – manipulative, with a more difficult and veiled structure, practically unnoticeable for individuals.

Censorship as a phenomenon always existed and will exist. Its absence is possible only in the ideal society and state. Depending on the development of society, state and their tasks, censorship takes various forms that do not change its essence, however.  In reality, censorship is a specific tabooing of actions or the ideas, whose role is just to keep the power in the hands of a certain category of elite. But the methods of censorship get new forms, depending on the level of social development, states, volumes of information and degrees of its distribution.

Thus, the sense and role of such phenomenon as censorship is unchangeable, it is a peculiar constant. Its methods are mobile and react to the changes of the "state function" in the socio-economic-political system of the society / state. The functions of the state are the main directions of its activity, they express the essence and social purpose of public administration. The functions of the state reflect its essence and structure, i.e. the internal structure which is defined first of all by its role and activity. Both forms of manifestation of censorship and its methods are dependent on the functions of the state. Thus, we can speak about the continuity of functions and the updating mechanism. Functions can gain their own meaning, being dependent on concrete historical conditions.  Elements of functions can gain their independent value. Nowadays it is obvious that European states have refused official censorship and tried to carry out the ideological function through manipulation, avoiding the open power force.

In the political and manipulative society, people lose their social, active roles and real freedom, formally remaining free. Ideological manipulation changes human consciousness, introducing some stereotypes and prejudices of mass culture. In the modern manipulative society, based on the market economy, the dissent is not directly forbidden. However, its limits are thoroughly outlined by the positive law. All conditions to discredit ideas and points of view that do not fit in the state ideology are created. The intellectual elite effectively copes with this task in the framework of the positive law. It forms the specific mass culture on the basis of its ideological concepts, expansive and indifferent to ideas.

Censorship is undoubtedly a production of society that needs some restraints. The hidden or obvious censorship establishes a social framework for the people who live in this society. As a social institution, censorship is not in stagnation. Being created by people, censorship has a rather flexible structure, that is capable to fit in new requirements and realities at the slightest change in society. In the modern world where information technologies have expanded opportunities of information transfer and receiving, censorship as a state institution is not able to cope with a huge flow of information. Due to the specific of preservation and developments of any society, restraints are necessary to prevent disintegration and degradation. However, modern types of censorship, including manipulative techniques that partially carry out censorial functions, are directed to degradation because they contribute to decrease of activity, the level of talent and mind, moral, health and actually the survivability. Thus, those forms of the hidden censorship that are encouraged and practiced in the modern Western world, lead to consciousness deformation and emasculation of the intellectual component of society. All this can really lead even to the destruction of censorship itself as a consequence of full degradation of society and transformation of consumers into marionettes deprived of any analytical skills.

The person is not capable to thinking free yet. Now it is easy to manipulate him / her. But here is the biggest danger of the modern world, where not only "West" exists, but also "East" does with a rather high degree of passionarity, the method of conviction that allows to think, analyze and make decisions independently. "Manipulation-censorship" cuts off the possibility to reflect on, being in reality of a hi-tech deception, directed to the destruction of people's ability to think. "Ideology-censorship" is directly opposite to manipulative techniques; it considers a person as a subject, making or convincing him / her to accept the necessary point of view. The person accepts or rejects the official ideology, but it is his / her conscious choice. So, manipulative techniques deprive the person of a free choice, switch off his rational consciousness and thinking. The purpose of manipulative techniques is the transformation of the person into an object, that takes a passive position of living (society of consumers) that becomes easily manageable. The emergence of the states of manipulative and consumer types in the world political arena will lead to their full absorption by stronger states (not in the technological aspect, but in more passionate competitive one).

Manipulation-censorship turns the homo sapiens into the person-consumer whose meaning of life, thus, gets a purely utilitarian component where there is no ambition for the ideal, no place for feats and service to the Fatherland. All thoughts and actions are directed to achieve your own benefits, satisfaction of your stomach, etc. The society breaks into atoms, thirsty for its own benefits and place in the sun. Such state is close to the state of an animal. Such society does not give birth to great writers, artists, playwrights, scientists. It gives rise to dullness, impersonality and consumption. The culture of such society is directed to the satisfaction of ignoble purposes and fits in the lowest samples (modern show-business, false mirrors, various factories and houses). Thus, the main function of culture, consisting in the spiritual development, acquaintance with the best achievements of the world reason, upbringing and raising up over the level of everyday routine, is not realized in such society due to the depersonalization of masses and blockmaking of their interests.

We have missed one important aspect that explains the possibility of existence of manipulative censorship, that is the continuity of forms of social development. For example, capitalism of the 19th century generated the forms of the bourgeois-democratic organization of the state and both the corresponding ideology and censorship. The crisis of 20-30s of the 20th century generated fascism as a form of the direct dictatorship of the upper bourgeoisie, that could not manage masses by means of old bourgeois-democratic institutions any more. Globalization of the end of 20 c. and the beginnings of 21 c. generated new forms of political dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, among which we can observe manipulative techniques. Thus, it is impossible to rule masses by old methods in the condition of globalization. Actually masses are not necessary in such quantity (even at the modern level of birth rate). Therefore, on condition of globalization processes in the world, the effective control can be realized over a rather small amount of people, who are absolutely deprived of their own will and ability to analyze. Thus, we have received a rather powerful internal "challenge", that requires an adequate "answer" in short time. Moreover, this "challenge", in our opinion, occurred in the second half of the 20th century and was connected with the evolution of material culture of the mankind. In other words, a grandiose qualitative rise took place there. We believe that the most grandiose take-off happened in the spheres of sign culture, information and intellectual technologies.

Information has become the cheapest waste product of people.  Information totalitarianism has turned to be the most powerful means of the ideological dumbing-down and enslavement of billions of people. The main mass in the information stream consists of misinformation, pseudo-culture, means of moral degradation of the person.

Thus, at the present stage, the parasitic part of pseudo-culture has reached big sizes, and nobody is able to limit this process. Moreover, it costs more to preserve and reproduce skills of its treatment. The transfer of many functions of the sign culture and a considerable volume of its operations with technical devices strengthens and facilitates some aspects of the intellectual activity, on the one hand, but on the other, it limits the possibilities of sign creativity. The material culture has become excessive from the point of view of the people, who live in it.  It has got its objective laws, to break which is impossible for a person, and whose breaking will lead to serious consequences and strict punishment. In other words, all human life becomes a regulated force of the supernature. Freedom of behavior and will is reduced only to a choice of the set options. Consequently, the person becomes a slave of forces and laws of material culture.

The person in the modern world has the right to act in a certain way that is not forbidden by laws of sign culture. But the question is: who forms these laws and standards of people's behavior in the modern world that do not give the right of a freedom of choice but only the right of action in the set conditions with the minimum set of "channels" via which the person can carry out his choice? The answer is simple and lies on the surface: it is an ideosphere that is formed by many people and their associations, who in total carry out functions of the processing of people's consciousness and management by the influence on their mind. Thus, in the 21st century, the role of institutions of censorship and censorship itself is played by ideologists in the information society and absolutely new material culture. Their task consists of forming people's consciousness in such way as it is required by the interests of the self-preservation of society.

In other words, the ideology by means of sign culture in modern realities makes such consciousness that is required by the advance set sample. And as a result, due to the action of the ideosphere, there appears a large number of people with the average and standardized consciousness in society. People form a sphere of those who think in the same way and estimate the phenomena of life, of those who are citizens, equally acting in certain situations. They define a total condition of social mentality. Thus, the existence of censorship institutions is an absolutely useless and irritating phenomenon. Any dissent does not find a response in the consciousness of the "processed" and therefore it is safe. If censorship forbids certain kinds of activity, the consciousness manipulation simply puts this ban at the level of an individual's subconsciousness. As the consciousness consists in the ability to operate with signs, the main means of influence comprises specially invented signs and certain rules of their operating concerning the processed people; in other words, special types of set of words, phrases, texts and doctrines.

The task of the ideology of the ending of the 20th – the beginning of 21st centuries with the total cancellation of censorship in all societies of the open type, consists in teaching and accustoming people to see and understand the environment and themselves not as what they are objectively, according to the law of the objective reality, but as it is required by laws of the state and power. It means that people are not taught to perceive the existence individually, but how they should see the objective reality, what part of what they have to face with and how they should introduce into their consciousness. Thus, by means of manipulative techniques, certain visions and understanding of life are invented and imposed in the information epoch. They become aprioristic in relation to the formed consciousness of members of society. The modern ideology invents a certain type of intellectual-language schemes, stamps, clichés, images, generalizing examples and samples, etc. not as subsidiary means, but as the resulting and highest effect of knowledge, i.e. the ultimate truth. Ideological products are made and reproduced for different circles of consumers of the ideological food. Some are for the elite, others – for the rest of the society. The individual has to digest these "products" and view the life phenomena only through their prism.

Thus, ideological doctrines are created for the general population, they are not uniformed, vary in the degree of difficulty; more precisely – in the degree of complexity and verbal twists and turns. All of them are designed to get consumers of appropriate levels. They have to be easily remembered, both figurative and public on the lowest and widest level in order to make certain impressions on feelings. They have to require individuals' desires, make their wishes come true, create the illusion of understanding and exposure to the highest wisdom, and even to mystify. But even if such concepts are composed by the intellectual elite and are intended for the privileged, like Hegelianism, Marxism, etc. they execute the ideological function, because some words and sayings are taken from them and then are put into the ideological circulation. The ideology today claims the only truth status in new information realities. A. Zinovyev believes that there are separate elements in the ideology that imitate the truth, make impressions of it. There are even separate true statements. But on the whole and generally those that take away individuals from the reality and create a picture of the unreal, fictional world dominate in it. This picture is not a lie, because such concepts of truth and falsehood are not simply applicable to it. It is a qualitatively different phenomenon (Zinovyev, 2006). The fictional world is created in such a way that it would resemble the real one, relieving it of the necessity to reflect, fluctuate and make up tough decisions. Rules of people's behavior in certain situations without scientific understanding of these situations are created, if it is possible to say so, blindly and offhand. As A. Zinovyev fairly considers, the ideology is neither true nor false. It is even impossible to treat it from the point of view of the verity and falsity. In other way, it looks like view pictures of Picasso, Kandinsky and some other artists of the 20th century of the same movement from the point of view of their adequacy of the allegedly represented reality (Zinoveyv, 2006).

Thus, the ideology perverts reality, but the purpose is rather clear, it is connected with the suppression of the dissent and the performance of the main censorial functions – a ban. At the same time the ideology turns into propaganda as a normal result of natural-historical development of the ideological sphere due to its objective laws. Owing the latest manipulative techniques that are used in modern society, the laws of censorship and the very institution of censorship are useless in the form in which they have existed from the moment of emergence of the first state. But it does not mean that censorship stops its existence from the moment of its cancellation. It is impossible for any society and any state to exist without the total control over thoughts and ideas that circulate in society. Censorship functions in the information society are carried out by means of ideology, consciousness manipulation, whose falsification of the facts does not take the last place. Information is selected and combined so, that each phrase separately can be true, but their set gives a perverted picture of reality. Thus, the forged picture is created more than once and forever, it changes according to new conditions, opportunities and requirements. It proves that there is a skillful technology of manipulation of people's thoughts in the desirable way for manipulators.

It has led to a more polluted environment than the natural one. But this fact does not cause alarm and determinedly is not noticed. However, we have to note the fact that earlier forms of censorship, forbidding any activity and imposing bans on a certain sort of literature, still did not emasculate the ability to think and estimate adequately the reality. From the point of view of the modern existence, such censorship was ineffective for the state. The modern form of censorship (manipulation) is much more complicated. Its basis suggests prevention of any dissidence of the majority of people by means of falsification of information, mosaicity of knowledge, etc. Human life has become so pragmatic, that individuals are generally given only that space where they can be manipulated.

Censorship works in different ways. States can have articles in their constitutions about the freedom of expression, laws, welcoming freedom of information, but at the same time there informal performers of censorship can exist. The Internet is such an example, where information filtering and blocking are applied at the level of the software. Thus, high-quality changes in public life are followed by changes of forms of censorship, but they do not imply the disappearance of the phenomenon. Censorship is ontological, it is implanted in the bases of society. Today we can rather often come across some appeals to renewal of institutions of censorship and the acceptable legislation in the mass media. The state must and has to introduce censorship in order to provide the information safety of the person, society and state, not to allow the concentration of the power in the hands of shadow forces and dictatorship of their own interests. Censorship is urged to provide the freedom of thought, ideological fight between individuals, groups and social classes, reliably stopping the fight against society and the state on the whole. A.S. Pushkin considered such censorship not as the enemy of freedom of press, but as its indispensable condition. However, in our opinion, such actions are senseless at the modern development of society. Censorship did not provide freedom of thought and ideological fight at any stage of historical development of society. It is explained by the fact that the implementation of this activity was made by people, and a person is far from perfect, as Aristotle stated. To raise a question of whether censorship is necessary or not in society, is not correct enough. It was, is and will be, whatever our desires are. The concept of censorship is much broader than how it is accepted to perceive this phenomenon. The society, state and any other structure exist only until the majority is managed, and it is possible due to many factors among which bans, censorship and  manipulative techniques of the modern stage take part, implying, in fact, the phenomenon of the very censorship.

Censorship ("strict discussion" comes from the Latin "censere" – "to give one’s opinion to, to estimate") is a concrete historical phenomenon: it is a system of state monitoring (and / or church) beyond the publication of verbal (theatrical, visual, musical, cinematographic, etc.) texts, built according to certain rules. Censorship is far the only tool by means of which the power influences public consciousness, culture, and art. The state needs control, otherwise it threatens with self-disintegration. There is neither culture, nor state without a ban.

It is curious that the word "census" has two meanings supplementing one another: 1) restrictive conditions of an admission of the person to exercise any rights (property qualification, educational qualification, resident qualification), and 2) statistical census. The truth content of the phenomenon of censorship is found in the borderland between these externally fetterless semantic fields; it is the desire to treat all alike for possessing the formal right to forbid, and so – to order.

It was K. Jung who openly appealed to judiciousness of his colleagues, inclining before the chimera of "scientific statistics", speaking about the virtuality of the existence of the average size of sea pebble. Probably, there will not be found a sea pebble with a length of 3,567 inches on the whole beach of myriads of pebbles. But this illusory size will prompt to make any real pebble feel defective, i.e. guilty. Censorship as a system of implementation of the state supervision (providing the opportunity of preview) behind the contents of printing editions, radio- and telecasts, theatrical performances, etc. actually becomes the instrument of protection of privileges of the mighty of this world. On closer examination, censorship represents the ordinary outrage, that is based on the stiffened worldview of the limitative, painfully convinced in a "lawful" necessity "to hold but not let in".

 

4. Conclusion.

Thus, it is possible to assume that the authors, who protect censorship and approve both its antinaturalism and harm, are equally mistaken. Censorship as a phenomenon has a supernatural essence. It is impossible to apply the measurement scale "well – bad" to it. Any research has to take place within the analysis of consequences of this or that form of censorship for the concrete society, culture on the whole and some subcultures in particular. Ideally, censorship has to keep the cultural level, prevent from the penetration of the low-quality literature and information that destroy public consciousness and lead to social degradation. However, the modern mimetic censorship – the censorship in the form of selection and filtration of information by mediacratia, is not obvious, but hidden and more effective due to the usage of manipulative techniques in order to achieve the control over information. In modern society it is a more serious and dangerous phenomenon as it influences individuals' consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and dooming them to the passivity of life.

References:

  • 1. Zinovyev, Alexander. 2006. Factor Ponimaniya. Moscow.
  • 2. Kara-Murza,Sergey. 2004. Мanipulyatsiya Soznaniyem. Мoscow.
  • 3. Chudinov, Anatoliy. 2003. Rossiya v Metaforicheskom Zerkale: Kognitivnoe Issledovanie Politicheskoi Metafory (1991-2000). Yekaterinburg.
  • 4. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. 2005. Pearson.
  • 5. Rawson, Hugh. 2000. Rawson’s dictionary of euphemisms and other doubletalk. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
  • 6. Toffler, Alvin. 1990. Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence in the 21st Century. Plaza & Janes.
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Шенцева Елена Анатольевна

Уважаемые авторы! Статья очень интересна, научно-содержательна и ... АКТУАЛЬНА НА ВСЕ ВРЕМЕНА. Пока человечество будет развиваться, его история будет, как маятник раскачиваться между жесткой (жестокой) цензурой - причем иногда в форме вовсе нежестких предписаний, но после которых и дышать, и думать и просто существовать невозможно - как реакцией на отсутствие культурных табу, к осознанию необходимости самоограничения, самовоспитания и т.д. С уважением, Елена Анатольевна.

Луговая Татьяна Анатолиевна

Уважаемые авторы! Замечательная работа: актуальная, аналитическая. Выводы не вызывают принципиальных возражений. Главное, чтобы цензура не перешла в библиоцид, поскольку грань между ними тонка. Цензура — это механизм, создаваемый государством для целенаправленного воздействия на массовое сознание, для регулирования информационного пространства посредством контроля и ограничения передачи какой-либо информации. Она создает препятствия в процессе коммуникации. И ничего пока в этом плохого нет. Однако мы знаем, что исторически сложились два вида цензуры: 1) запретительная (или предварительная), когда для обнародования какого-либо произведения требуется предварительное разрешение цензурного ведомства; 2) карательная — за публикацию неугодного властям произведения его издатель и автор подвергаются определённым санкциям, вплоть до заключения в тюрьму. Разновидностями карательной цензуры с точки зрения применяемых методов являются библиоцид и спецхран. Библиоцид представляет собой полное уничтожение тиража произведения печати, сожжение рукописной книги и т. п. Спецхран — это ограничение доступа к книгам или иным документам. Последние являются признаками тоталитарности культуры и именно тут присутствует манипуляция общественным сознанием. Желаю авторам творческих успехов! С уважением, Татьяна Луговая

Саносян Хачатур

Увважемые авторы. Вами раскрыта очень ВАЖНАЯ проблема. Это манипуляция информацией как как методика конструирования общественного сознания. Процитирую Вас т,к. вы содержательно обобщили проделанную Вами работу: "природа манипуляции в современной политической речи и пребывает на сложном явлении цензуры и ее амбивалентной роли в современном обществе. Решение исследовательских задач осуществляется на основе комплексного методологической базы, которая определяет общую направленность и принципы исследования, а также его научные результаты, в том числе общего философского методологической концепции диалектического материализма в соответствии с принципами единство формы и содержания, причины и следствия, общее связи явлений. В заключение кратко, что упоминалось выше явлений серьезным и опасным, будучи способны влиять на сознание людей, лишив их критического мышления". С уважением, Х.А. Саносян

Агапова Елена

Уважаемый, Михаил Юрьевич Большое спасибо за комментарий и высокую оценку! Несомненно, как заметил Ю.М. Лотман «культура начинается с запрета», а цензура, по сути выполняя роль фильтра, так же является и запретом, и как Вы верно подметили «разброд и шатание» обеспечены обществу без сдерживающих начал. Вопрос в другом, официальная цензура отменялась в истории человечества достаточно часть, но исчезала ли она?! Так, например, Наполеон отменил цензуру, при этом поставив во главе тайной полиции Фуше…и гильотина заработала с новой силой, Европа отказывается от ненавистной цензуры, и на разных этапах существования общества, функции цензуры перераспределяются в полицейскую сферу, экономическую далее в масмедийную. Итог, цензура как таковая не исчезает, просто перераспределяются ее функции в другие ведомства. P.S. Еще раз благодарим за высокую оценку работы, более подробно, если будет интересно, с выводами и рассуждениями можно ознакомиться в монографии "Цензура как способ манипуляции сознанием: диахронический аспект", М., Социально-гуманитарные знания, 2012 С уважением, Елена Агапова

Трещалин Михаил Юрьевич

Уважаемые коллеги! Великолепный анализ, прекрасное изложение материала. Фактически Вы изложили в статье взаимоотношения граждан и власти посредством СМИ (в большей степени телевизора и радио). С другой стороны возможна ли идеологическая работа с массами без манипулирования сознанием и цензуры? Будут "разброд и шатания". А нужна национальная идея. Очень интересная работа. Заставила задуматься. Желаю дальнейших успехов. С уважением М.Ю. Трещалин
Комментарии: 5

Шенцева Елена Анатольевна

Уважаемые авторы! Статья очень интересна, научно-содержательна и ... АКТУАЛЬНА НА ВСЕ ВРЕМЕНА. Пока человечество будет развиваться, его история будет, как маятник раскачиваться между жесткой (жестокой) цензурой - причем иногда в форме вовсе нежестких предписаний, но после которых и дышать, и думать и просто существовать невозможно - как реакцией на отсутствие культурных табу, к осознанию необходимости самоограничения, самовоспитания и т.д. С уважением, Елена Анатольевна.

Луговая Татьяна Анатолиевна

Уважаемые авторы! Замечательная работа: актуальная, аналитическая. Выводы не вызывают принципиальных возражений. Главное, чтобы цензура не перешла в библиоцид, поскольку грань между ними тонка. Цензура — это механизм, создаваемый государством для целенаправленного воздействия на массовое сознание, для регулирования информационного пространства посредством контроля и ограничения передачи какой-либо информации. Она создает препятствия в процессе коммуникации. И ничего пока в этом плохого нет. Однако мы знаем, что исторически сложились два вида цензуры: 1) запретительная (или предварительная), когда для обнародования какого-либо произведения требуется предварительное разрешение цензурного ведомства; 2) карательная — за публикацию неугодного властям произведения его издатель и автор подвергаются определённым санкциям, вплоть до заключения в тюрьму. Разновидностями карательной цензуры с точки зрения применяемых методов являются библиоцид и спецхран. Библиоцид представляет собой полное уничтожение тиража произведения печати, сожжение рукописной книги и т. п. Спецхран — это ограничение доступа к книгам или иным документам. Последние являются признаками тоталитарности культуры и именно тут присутствует манипуляция общественным сознанием. Желаю авторам творческих успехов! С уважением, Татьяна Луговая

Саносян Хачатур

Увважемые авторы. Вами раскрыта очень ВАЖНАЯ проблема. Это манипуляция информацией как как методика конструирования общественного сознания. Процитирую Вас т,к. вы содержательно обобщили проделанную Вами работу: "природа манипуляции в современной политической речи и пребывает на сложном явлении цензуры и ее амбивалентной роли в современном обществе. Решение исследовательских задач осуществляется на основе комплексного методологической базы, которая определяет общую направленность и принципы исследования, а также его научные результаты, в том числе общего философского методологической концепции диалектического материализма в соответствии с принципами единство формы и содержания, причины и следствия, общее связи явлений. В заключение кратко, что упоминалось выше явлений серьезным и опасным, будучи способны влиять на сознание людей, лишив их критического мышления". С уважением, Х.А. Саносян

Агапова Елена

Уважаемый, Михаил Юрьевич Большое спасибо за комментарий и высокую оценку! Несомненно, как заметил Ю.М. Лотман «культура начинается с запрета», а цензура, по сути выполняя роль фильтра, так же является и запретом, и как Вы верно подметили «разброд и шатание» обеспечены обществу без сдерживающих начал. Вопрос в другом, официальная цензура отменялась в истории человечества достаточно часть, но исчезала ли она?! Так, например, Наполеон отменил цензуру, при этом поставив во главе тайной полиции Фуше…и гильотина заработала с новой силой, Европа отказывается от ненавистной цензуры, и на разных этапах существования общества, функции цензуры перераспределяются в полицейскую сферу, экономическую далее в масмедийную. Итог, цензура как таковая не исчезает, просто перераспределяются ее функции в другие ведомства. P.S. Еще раз благодарим за высокую оценку работы, более подробно, если будет интересно, с выводами и рассуждениями можно ознакомиться в монографии "Цензура как способ манипуляции сознанием: диахронический аспект", М., Социально-гуманитарные знания, 2012 С уважением, Елена Агапова

Трещалин Михаил Юрьевич

Уважаемые коллеги! Великолепный анализ, прекрасное изложение материала. Фактически Вы изложили в статье взаимоотношения граждан и власти посредством СМИ (в большей степени телевизора и радио). С другой стороны возможна ли идеологическая работа с массами без манипулирования сознанием и цензуры? Будут "разброд и шатания". А нужна национальная идея. Очень интересная работа. Заставила задуматься. Желаю дальнейших успехов. С уважением М.Ю. Трещалин
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