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Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби, Казахстан
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Казахстан";
Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;
In the author’s opinion the origin of the word “assembling” (montage) comes from folklore and written literature works. He analyz all-round text montage of literature.
Key words: mentalconstruction of the text, the seal of time, the mounting perception, journalistic chronotope.
По мнению автора, происхождение слова "монтаж" происходит из фольклора и письменных произведений литературы. Он всесторонне анализирует литературный монтаж текст.
Ключевые слова: мысленная конструкция текста, уплотнение времени, монтажное восприятие, публицистический хронотоп.
In foreign, Kazakh, and Russian theoretical literature the concept of "montage" is associated primarily with film and television technology. As classic exampleswe offer art and documentary films of Eisenstein, Pudovkin, G. Chukhrai, S. Rostotsky, D.Vertov, R. Carmen, Charlie Chaplin, K. Lellouche, M. Antonioni, C. Tarantino, A . Kurosawa, A. Hitchcock, S. Khodzhikov, S. Aimanov, A. Karsakbaev, E.Tynyshpayev, O. Abishev and other eminent artists. Needless to say, the emergence of cinema andsubsequent television technology brought to our measured life elements of the jump dynamics and surprising flights of imagination. The world around us, transforming into a screen reality, began to thicken creatively and to shrink, encompassing only the setboundaries of genre and species. This kind of thinking about taking the time-space of dimension cinema theorists subsequently became known as "assembly". The scholars who develop this method, most often refer to the theoretical views of Dziga Vertov. "He built his paintings by the laws of poetry and selected the material for them not according to the story sequence but associatively, claiming unity through repetition of rhythm of visual representations", writes, for example, M. Bleiman [ 1 ]. Continuing this thought B. Nebylitskyremembers: "With bated breath we were eagerly looking at the screen, amazed by the originality of Vertov’s montage, by the excitement of the director, which is transmitted to the audience. Everything was sweeping there - image capture techniques, rhythm, and the inscription ".
A good example of the lyrical montage of thinking is an art picture from Georgia's filmmakers, "Nikola Pirosmani". A bright-eyed boy of five or six years old rapidly runs on the screen past a shepherd in a black hat and black cloak, playing the flute, grazing flock of black sheep, then runs past a shepherd in a white cloak and a white hat, playing the flute, and grazing flock of the white sheep. He runs over and past the winegrowers. The woman gives him the brush of white grapes. Then the old Georgian man opens the Marani and treats him with wine grapes. And he comes back home as a school student, with a shiny black briefcase. Thus, for ten to twenty seconds Pirosmani is growing up, the original artist, a singer of Georgian dukhans and descriptor of domestic scenes.
Other prominent figures of filmmaking in their time were really interested in the mystery of reality decoding. Among the most significant attempts to reconstruct the true meaning of prominent American director David Wark Griffith, includes, as we believe, the research of S.Eisenstein"Dickens, Griffith and we". He brilliantly demonstrated that some elements of Griffith’s film language can be traced directly to the influence of works of Charles Dickens [ 3 ].
But, is this method as new and fresh at first glance? Wasn’t there construction on "formation" of text and other material before that? Whether the opening priority belongs to cinema only? Definitelynot!
Oneof the characters in Graham Greene's novel "The Comedians" says: "If you have rejected one faith, do not reject faith altogether. There is always a different faith, instead of the one we lose. Or maybe it's the same faith in another guise? "What is our faith and how is it measured is your and our world? On what principle it is mounted? How do we know the reality of diversified? As a counterpoint to the sounds of the universe, where is the support of the wandering and the nomadic world?
Our inquisitive and uneasy mind tries to answer to these questions. At the same time, the running of time in our minds is shortened, then lengthened. And the installation, once incorporated in the human perception of the world, appeared today in our modern abode in another guise, another incarnation. Indeed, in the rough (quiet) flow of everyday life, in a whirlwind of virtual processes, we managed to lose once successfully operating logic system,and now we hastily remove the older versions, we put into circulation new verbs, trying to clarify the hierarchical construction of the modern genre norms.In society, social life signs of assembly ordering of reforms and its logic algorithm are shown as well.
Montage as it is already existed in the speech communication, oral folklore, Gomer’s "IIliad" and "Odyssey," in "Tarikh-i Rashidi" of Mohammad Haidar Dulati, in the Russian poem “Slovo o polku Igoreve”. It is often used repetition, concretization of multiple events, the different sayings and some tokens, sequestered time and space. For example, having Arabic roots, the Kazakh word formation alkissa, an ancient Russian word Inda or the modern German word also are used in many historical works used in the organization of textual material, becoming the starting point for the continuation of different mental structures. Such a "zero mark" is typical for personal communication, fairy tales, epic and verbal arts of many nations around the world. That is why PhD in Philology, Professor M. Barmankulov, draws attention to this remarkable, century-old property of the word, transfering it on to the television montage method. In his view, the "zero mark" is a total absence of the image on the screen, But such absence which gains special expressiveness" .
The Doctor of HistoricalSciences professor S.Kozybaev, explaining the importance of the white line, writes of a dumb title in the form of blank lines of the same point size is as the text, which it divides. The white line at the junction of bands disappears, and in order to avoid text after it, it quite often begins with the initial letter or word allocated with a capital font .
Hence, and the paragraph or a so-called new paragraph in the text material is also a kind of montage. Let’sturn to the genre of the periodical press materials in which the paragraphs fully work out its roleas "adapter".
"But theholy place was empty not for long - in the new century on a pedestal of children's honor and unconditional love new characters have risen - a crazy squirrel Skreta from " Ice Age", the green giant Shrek, Sponge Bob, ranger-omnipotent Dasha.
Many parents are afraid of the characters thatdo not have real prototypes.How many times have I heard from friends: "So who is this Luntik? He is a freak! And the TVtubbiesare all mutants. "But the children do not perceive them as freaks and mutants, for them, they seem no more strange than the same Leshyi or Water Goblin, which, incidentally, do not exist in nature " .
It should be notedthat in this passage, but "mentally rebound" there is a lexical contrast and comparison parallels of the national character, giving the public figure special charm and completeness.
Let’s take another example. According to Daily Mail, citing "high-ranking sources in the British secret services’’, personally present head MI6 John Scarlett was engaged in the recruitment of an ex-employee of the Federal Security Service. It was on his initiative that Litvinenko had moved to the UK, and after that he asked political asylum for his family. Since 2000, the former Russian secret service agent allegedly monthly obtained two thousand pounds fee from the British secret service.
"This may give a clue to the disclosure of the unexplained murder of recent years, and finally to damage relations between London and Moscow," - notes the British edition. According to the newspaper on the day that Litvinenko was poisoned, he tried to recruit Lugovoi to work for the MI6. However, his former colleague at the Federal Security Service refused and went to Russia, never returning to Britain.
Meanwhile, Marina, the wife of the murdered Alexander Litvinenko, called this information "nonsense." "My husband has never been an agent of MI6,” she reported in an interview to the Sunday Telegraph. “He was a critic of the Russian government, and always spoke openly. For this he was appreciated". The widow separately emphasized that in his time at the FSS, "Alexander was engaged in organized crime instead of investigation". Let’s remember that recently Marina Litvinenko has returned from Portugal, which hosted the summit of the EU - Russia. There, she called on European ministers to put pressure on Russia in the issue of extradition of Andrei Lugovoi to the British authorities' . In the comment by the red line, substantial transit is carried out, time is penetrated, and the inclusion of international problems and euro distances into the text were realized.
The memoirs of Jean Renoir - son of a prominent representative of Impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir have the following lines: "In the twilight his father was finishing work, he had always suspicious attitude to the electric lighting" . And this is the master’s individual method of writing, development of visual art reception and invisible protection, a sense of enlightened space.That is, the artist felt that a complicated game of light and shade can be cultivated only in natural light, and temporal sequencing affects the style and palette of the picture.
The montage without hands in the environment itself: day follows night, bad weather replaces clear weather. In short, man-made montage is a repetition in another scenario of the time-space nature structures, a particularly creative and journalistic chronotope.
Cyclic repetition of time and space, and their montage view in the text of the visual material were reconstituted by V. Rasputin in the story "Farewell to the Matera”:
"And the spring came again, in his own never-ending series, but the latter is for Matera, for the island and for the village bearing the same name. Again, with a roar and passion pile up on the shore ice hummocks had passed, and the liberated Angara opened, stretched into a powerful flow. Again on the upper cape water rustled briskly, slipping on the burner on the two sides, herbs flared up again on the ground and trees, poured the first rains, swifts and swallows flew in and with love for life in the evenings awakened frogs in swamp began croaking. All this happened many times and many times Matera was occurring in the nature of change, not lagging behind and not getting ahead of each day " .
American journalist and writer O. Henry used the maximum benefits of the montage method in his literary text.. He also sculpts space and time in its sole discretion, creating a small and funny world of people who care commensurate with the tone of his presentation of the next story. The writer has settled down, time and space in such phrases as "the next two hours flew by on rosy wings - I apologize for the hackneyed metaphor," "And Jim went out of his stupor. He took Dell's in his arms. We will be modest, and for a few seconds let us review some foreign object " . The narrator's, the artist’s eyes have smoothed the transition to another object, and with it we are also turning our gaze to a secondary decorative position. "Flowers wereblooming, and resorts agents were flourished, air, and court judgments became milder, a hurdy-gurdy, fountains, and gamblers were played all over.
Windows in Mrs. Murphy’s boarding house were open. Small group of tenants sat on the porch of a high, round and flat on the mats, similar to pancakes. Mrs. Mac-Casky was waiting for her husband along one of the windows on the second floor. Dinner on the table wasn’t hot. The heat from it passed into Mrs. Mac-Casky ", O.Henry writes promptly, transferringfrom household attributes to household psychology . Thus, we have a visible artistic representation of the lives of U.S. inhabitants to distant lands in the great stories of O. Henry.
No less gorgeous is the mosaic of the Kazakh national writer K. Zhumadilov. That fleeting triumph of peace and prosperity, the influx and the onslaught of turbulent, uncharted eternity before us followed frame by frame. "Meanwhile, it took several years. It seemed to foreign eye that the time for fear passed, the time of prosperity and peace has come , but a secret, latent struggle was going on, the invasion was replaced by a retreat” .
Jan Parondovsky, a famous Polish writer, truly and elegantly reflects on the writer's vocation, the infernal work of the writer, the production technology of the literary text: "Trying to imagine the writer at work, probably no one would have remembered the scissors, but they have not forgotten about the creator of tombstones in the church of the Holy Callimachus Trinity in Krakow. And to this day there are no scissors in one writer's desk. Most often they appear in the final stage of the reading of the manuscript, sometimes holding the proofs. They cut the pages, transfer whole chunks of text from one place to another, sometimes it happens that what was over the head falls in the beginning. So with the help of scissors and glue appears an interesting story, captivating ease and naturalness " . In this author's judgment is insight into the distant past and the modern interpretation of the test questions. Then, as they say, there is nothing to add, nothing to subtract. An interesting idea in an interview was expressed by famous French film director Claude Lelouch about the historic nature of the montage of thinking: "We came into this world with the most advanced camera - the human eye. Our ears are the best microphone. The brain is engaged in montage. Absolutely all of us are the filmmakers. Movie is the most natural of the arts in contrast to music and literature " .
In my opinion, Paustovsky’s considerations on composite construction works have great theoretical and practical interest, "I wrote "Kara Bugaz "and was not thinking about the proper disposition of material. I disposed it in the order in which he accumulated during a trip along the shores of the Caspian Sea.
After the release of "Kara-Bugaz" critics have found in this story, "a composition in a spiral," and they were very happy. But I'm not guilty of any mind or heart " . In an ironic patronizing speech of the master, of course, lies the mental component of the creative montage of any product claiming a prominent place in the artistic environment. Naturally, the art montage violates the principle of gradualism- ecumenical movement. Consequently, montage, as we present today, is a violation of the principle of time-space sequences, squeezing and moving in an artificially created reality niche. It seems that such a bizarre organization of the material should be classified as a particular chronotope in a journalistic or literary text. And here, of course, the primacy does not belong to the film and television arts but to literature, and graphic journalism.