facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Global international scientific
analytical project
GISAP
GISAP logotip
Перевод страницы
 

The Morality of Proverbs

The Morality of Proverbs
Kanat Syzdykov, старший преподаватель, кандидат педагогических наук

Участник конференции

 

Б?л ма?алада а?ылшын-?аза? ма?ал-м?телдері м?н-ма?ынасы талданып, оларды? жас жеткіншектерге беретін т?рбиені? сан алуан  м?селелерін ?оз?айтын т?лімдік ба?ыттары ?арастырылады.

В этой статье автор пытается провести анализ значений пословиц и поговорок в английском и казахском языках, а также старается определить ихроль в методике воспитания подрастающего поколения.

The main purpose of proverbs is to give people's assessment of the objective reality of phenomena as an expression of world. In proverbs and sayings express the peculiar store of [mindset] peoples’ intelligence, a way of judgment, view features, they reveal the ways oflife and everyday life, the spirit and character, manners and customs, beliefs and superstitions.

Proverbs and sayings illustrate lifestyle, and geography, and history, and traditions of a community united by a single culture most clearly. On this subject, written many scientific papers.

National specific character of proverbs is most clearly revealed in the comparison of different languages. It is known that the Kazakh and British people who live in different social and natural conditions have a different history, religion, morals, principles, morality, psychology, etc.

The topicality of our work is a comparative cultural analysis of Kazakh and English proverbs and sayings

It has long been observed that the wisdom and spirit of the people manifested in his proverbs and knowledge of proverbs those people not only promotes better knowledge of the language, but also better understanding of the mindset and character of the people.

A proverb is a short and precisely formulated result of long experience, the sum of past absorption.

Proverbs accompany people from ancient times. These means of expression, as an exact rhyme, simple form, the brevity of proverbs have made resistant to remember and necessary in the speech. The publication of Russian proverbs and sayings, collected in the last century over the course of many decades by V. I. Dahl, the outstanding dialectician and writer.

V. Dahl examines the proverb as a product of extremely popular medium of communication: "What kind of proverbs and sayings have to go to the people, this one will not be argued, in an educated and enlightened society, there is no proverb. Finished the proverbial high society does not accept, because it is alien to him a picture of everyday life, and not his tongue, but its not resign, [compose] perhaps out of politeness and propriety of the secular: the proverb splits the nail, and right in the eye"[1,10].

Just about everyone has heard at least one proverb, and most people have heard more. Proverbs offer a concise record of folk wisdom and have appeared in oral tradition, literature, art, and popular culture for centuries. One of the most varied and fascinating types of folklore, proverbs are studied at all levels and are of interest to a wide range of audiences.

The author gives here the suggestion that proverbs provide the core of education.

Recently, a special interest in research in the field of folklore has appeared. The peculiarity (originality) of life, life, history and culture of the people are especially pronounced in proverbs. Knowledge of and active possession of folk wealth not only beautifies it, but also promotes a better understanding of the mentality of the people of the target language.

The significance of this work lies in the fact that the problems of communication of cultures and people are intensively studied in relation to the increasing importance of knowledge of foreign languages.

To study a foreign language’s proverbs not only enhances the effectiveness of learning vocabulary, but also helps enrich the language area expertise, reflecting the specific conditions of life.

Proverbs enrich everyday language, making it more colorful and expressive. They can concentrate the meaning of several sentences and make it more capacious. Because proverb is usually a succinct statement that stands in place of a long explanation and expresses a truth about reality. Profound truths are talked about in daily words, which are simpler and the grounds of arguments are more persuasive. Also proverbs are definite expressions of the crystallized experience of many generations. They reflect the particular history, culture and life of the nation.

Therefore, by studying proverbs and sayings in foreign languages we can better understand the native speakers’ language ??(note that most often they are not translated literally, but the same idea can be expressed using different words), I will give a few examples of English proverbs. At first, I give a proverb or a saying in Kazakh, then - in English, and in parentheses - its explanation.

  • «Жеті ?лшеп, бір кес»,
  • «Look before you leap» (Avoid acting hastily, without considering the possible consequences)
  • «К?рпе?е ?арай к?сіл»
  • «Cut your _______ according to your cloth» (Live within your income; don't be too ambitious in your plans)
  • «Жолдас?адірінжоры?табілерсі?, дос?адірінсо?ыстабілерсі?»
  • «Prosperity makes friends, adversity tries them»  (If you are rich and successful, you will attract many friends, but if you should suffer hardship or have misfortune ( adversity ), your friends will quickly depart)
  • «Жо? кездегі дос – дос, бар кездегі дос – бос»
  • «A friend in need is a friend indeed»(A friend who helps when one is in trouble is a real friend)
  • «?мітсіз тек шайтан»
  • «Hope for the best, expect the worst»
  • (Never lose hope, but be prepared with an alternative if things do not go as planned)      
  • «?олы?имылда?анны?аузы?имылдар»
  • «Business before pleasure»
  • (It is better to finish your work before you have a good time)  
  • «?з ?йім, ?ле? т?сегім»
  • «East or West, home is best»
  •   (You feel safest, most comfortable and most at peace in your own home)      
  • «Ашты?та тал?ам жо?»
  • «Hunger is the best spice»

(When you are really hungry, everything tastes good, and you eat up everything placed in front of you)    

People - an instructor, people – a good educator. But nevertheless there is the necessity for further research on proverbs. Comparison of different nations proverbs reveal that how much these people have in common, and contributes to better understanding and rapprochement by turn. Proverbs reflect the rich historical experience of the people, ideas which related with work, lifestyle and culture of people. Using proverbs correct and appropriate makes speech unique originality and the expressiveness.  

In its basic form, the proverb is an ancient saying that takes wisdom and endows it with youthful vigor. The most concise, informative and perhaps, the most commonly used messages are proverbs. By their use, we make our communication bright and expressive.

Proverbs of all nations have much in common, but along with this there are specific features that characterize the color of the original culture of a particular people, based on its long history.

There is a deep wisdom in proverbs. Proverbs are slices of life that picture what life is usually like. Here we can see the culture, traditions, and history of the people and learn what is good and evil.

Proverbs are a short genre of folk poetry: invested in short, rhythmic sayings that carry a generalized idea and/or conclusion. In proverbs there is not any futuristic opinion or suggestion about a case, but rather the summing up of cases: the final purified extract of many cases from various sides, rather than only one.

Folklore - this is folk art, and nowadays it is very necessary and important to study folk psychology. Folklore includes works that convey the most important basic representation of the people on the main values ??of life: work, family, love, debt, home.

By the composition of such works has been brought up our children. Cognition of folklore can give a person the knowledge of the any nation’s background, and eventually about himself.

M.Zhumabayev the Kazakh famous poet and writer said: “It is not necessary to educate children the same as who educates them but they must be educated to the future requirements… Every tutors teaching methods are moral values of Kazakh nation” [2, 8]

There are various sources about the history of proverbs. In order to become a proverb, a statement must be perceived and assimilated by ordinary people. The turning of a word phrase into a proverb becomes part of public consciousness, who invented the proverb does not matter. We can safely assume that any proverb was created by a certain person in certain circumstances, but for many old sayings, the source of their origin is completely lost. Consequently, giving opinion about the original proverbs that were created from the collective wisdom of the people is much more correct. In the set of propositions, summarizing the daily experience, the meaning of words, apparently, grew into the shape of proverbs gradually, without any explicit declaration.

The phrase “Make hay while the sun shines”,-derived from the practice of fieldwork, it is an example of such proverbs. Any farmer feels the rightness of this idea, not necessarily expressed by these words. But after hundreds of people have expressed this idea in many different ways, after many trials and errors, this idea finally gained its memorable shape and began its life as a proverb.

Similarly, the proverb “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” was the result of much practical experience in trade relations.

Folklore does not only provide a historical picture of the spiritual development of people. From the works of all genres, it appears multi-faceted and at the same time expressed the solid and unique character of the entire Kazakh nation.

Courageous, strong, harsh – in epics; sly, mocking, mischievous - in tales; wise, observant, witty - in proverbs and sayings - this is the Kazakh in all his/her grandeur, simplicity and beauty.

Collecting proverbs began a long time ago, but manuscript collections have come to us only from the xviith century.

Proverbs show the views and opinions of the people, their understanding of the phenomena of reality. The cognitive significance of proverbs is also in the fact that they are types of phenomena; they divide between them the most exemplary and noteworthy or essential features of them.

Kazakh people should not lose his moral authority among the nations - the authority, dignity of the conquered kazakh art and literature. We must not forget our cultural past, our monuments, literature, language

That is why the native culture, as a father and mother, must become an integral part of the soul of the child, the beginning of generating the individual.

Now we are gradually returning to the national memory, and we have a fresh start to relate to the old holidays, traditions, folklore, crafts, arts and crafts in which the nation has left us the most precious of their cultural achievements, sifted through the sieve of the ages.

This moral principle is reflected in proverbs: “As you sow, so you shall reap”, “No pains, no gains”, “No sweet without sweat”, “Love makes labour light” emphasize the importance of the work. People spiritually enriching due to the labor. Linking life with work, people see it as the basis of all wealth and happiness. So proverbs bless labor and condemn laziness. There is no respect to slacker. Here it is proved “Work hard and become a leader; be lazy and become a slave”

In proverbs says that work strengthening the health, endorsed a joint work: “Many hands make light work”, “Many people sharing a job or tasks make easier work of it”, “Commit your work to the Lord, and your plans will be established”. The moral is that in all labor there is profit.

Proverbs can also be used to simply make a conversation/discussion more lively. In many parts of the world, the use of proverbs is a mark of being a good orator

Also, using proverbs well is a skill that is developed over years. Proverbs, because they are indirect, allow a speaker to disagree or give advice in a way that may be less offensive. Studying actual proverb use in conversation, however, is difficult since the researcher must wait for proverbs to happen [3].

Proverbs were created by our nation, and they are priceless wealth of the kazakh language. To know them better develops thinking, memory, vocabulary, and instilling the love of the native language, enhance literary speech, enriches students folk wisdom, enriches our language, give it expressiveness, precision.

They become good helpers in the study of new material while consolidating the lessons. Therefore, proverbs should be paid attention to any lessons and in extracurricular activities.

Kazakh people have a rich spiritual heritage, rooted in ancient times, from the ancient Orkhon-Yenisei written monuments VI—VIII cc. up to these days. So, young people should learn from the wise man.

There in folklore embodied psychology of the people, and folklore provides a wealth of material to draw conclusions on the lifestyle of the people and its customs, traditions and national character. Proverbs are the legacy of people which absorbed the wisdom, traditions, customs, moral standards and ideals.

Proverbs make you think, and not only simply think but invite you consider the meaning of what was said, because each proverb except the direct meaning always exist a hidden or indirect meaning too. The use of proverbs in typical life makes our speech more brightly, imaginative, deeply. Occasionally some proverb replaces verbose explanation of the situations.

Working with proverbs have very beneficial effect on child development, including the development of speech. While memorizing a proverb we should explain to inquisitive youth, firstly the direct surface meaning, and then acquaint with a hidden or indirect meaning of proverbs - in an accessible form.

Life is changed and there are being created new proverbs, forgotten  the old proverbs, but accumulated with undeniably valuable proverbs for subsequent periods. For instance: “Егемен елді? е?сесі биік”. The meaning of this proverb is that “An independent country always keeps his head up high”. Nowadays our country is not under of any country, so Kazakh nation should understand and value the freedom Whatever is mentioned in proverbs - it is always a synthesis. They are spread widely from mouth to mouth. Proverbs are the result that people have achieved in the practice and expressed in beautiful words.

Figurative reflection of reality in the proverb associated with the ethical evaluation of various phenomena of life. That is why some proverbs expresses funny, and sad, and funny and even bitter things. Thus, the main source of proverb is exactly the life of socio-historical experience of the people.

For instances: The first is about individual’s cultivation. “Кісіні? кісілігі, Киімінде емес, Білімінде. К?ш - білімде, Білім кітапта” is cited to indicate it is good to store books get education from it. “Е?бегіне ?арай ?нбегі” is used to expound that people should be cautious to need the harvest. “Ерінбегенелектенсуішеді” is cited to explain that if you keep working hard, you are sure to succeed. Therefore, consistency is very important to ensure the success. “Жігітті? т?сін айтпа, ісінайт” is quoted to explain that the people should not admire the appearance of a worker but the result of the work. “Басы ?атты, со?ы т?тті” is used to emphasize the result will be fruitful and productive. “Ерінбей е?бек етсе? – еріні? ас?а тиеді, Ерініп ілбіп кетсе? – иегі? тас?а тиеді” is adopted to demonstrate in any hardworking job there is a benefit, but who is lazy will lose something at last

The second is about the family life. “А?айын бар болса? к?ре алмайды, жо? болса бере алмайды. Жо? болса? к?ндейді, жаман болса? ж?ндейді” is quoted to indicate that brothers will bursting with envy if you are rich but when you are in need of help it is hard to share the possessions 

The third is about the social life. “?арыз к?ліп барып жылап ?айтады” reveals that it is easy to borrow money but returning the money takes a long time, is used to indicate the debt should be given for truthful person.?р бат?ан к?нні? атар та?ы бар. Б?лт артынан к?н шы?ыр is quoted to explain that the truth that success and failure can change in turn. We do not have to give up. End of my article I’d like to say the short sentences of wisdom must be venerable.

References

  • 1. V.I.Dahl. Russian Proverbs. – Moskow.: Eksmo press, 2003. – 616
  • 2. Ж?мабаев М. Педагогика. –Алматы: Ана-тілі, 1992. 160 б
  • 3. Elias Dominguez Baraja. 2010. The function of proverbs in discourse. Berlin http://en.wikipedia.org
  • 4. Jennifer Speake.The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs. – Oxford university press, 2004
Комментарии: 17

Федина Владимира

Hello! You choose very interesting theme for your article. You compare Kazakh and English proverbs. You show the way how to understand different culters, histories. Its very very interesting especially for me that you touch this problem in your article because in my work I also use East and West provebs to open, to understand different thoughts of different people. Thanky very much.

Федина Владимира

Hello! You choose very interesting theme for your article. You compare Kazakh and English proverbs. You show the way how to understand different culters, histories. Its very very interesting especially for me that you touch this problem in your article because in my work I also use East and West provebs to open, to understand different thoughts of different people. Thanky very much.

Olshvang Olga Yurievna

Интересный материал для обучения иностранному языку, возможно использовать на разных этапах обучения

Морарь Марина Михайловна

В статье представлен интересный материал, но как его использовать в педагогическом контексте не раскрыто. Вероятно статья больше подходит к другой секции - филологии. Спасибо!

Луговцова Алёна

Представленный в статье ракурс рассмотрения функций пословиц и поговорок достаточно любопытен. Однако заявленная в резюме идея демонстрации и анализа роли пословиц и поговорок в методике воспитания подрастающего поколения, что позволяло бы отнести текст к образовательной тематике, в статье не развернута. На наш взгляд, статья не соответствует содержанию секции и должна быть помещена в секцию «сравнительное, историческое, типологическое и сопоставительное языкознание». Можно было бы предложить автору подкорректировать логику изложения и убрать повторяющиеся мысли. С уважением Краснова Татьяна, Луговцова Алена, Торхова Анна.

Шаяхимова Рыскайша Куандыковна

Для того, чтобы понять характер народа, его взгляды на жизнь и приоритеты, необходимо прибегнуть к достоверным источникам, которыми являются пословицы. Пословицы называют великолепным инструментом, с помощью которого можно изучить любые языки. Спасибо автору. Я с удовольствием прочитала. Желаю успехов.

Konurova-Idrissova Zukhra Kanatovna

Спасибо автору за статью. Данная статья носит ценный характер с точки зрения поликультурного воспитания молодежи. Также автором рассмтариваются такие аспекты народного вспитания, как умственное воспитание ,что важно при изучении такого курса, как этнопедагогика.

Ргизбаева Индира Еркиновна

This article shows moral values thro' modern proverbs and sayings to build very effective and strong character among today's youngesters and children. Human values play vital role in moulding a man’s attitude and nowadays the youngsters are badly in need of such moral values which can practically be applicable to compete in this world, at the same time enabling to maintain peace of mind without tension and stress. Moreover, such moral values are to be presented in such a way as to be interesting, easier to read but instigating to think, and convincing and impressing to follow. DEAR Kanat Syzdykov,THANK YOU!

Naumenko Tetyana

Сама идея сопоставления пословиц в разных языках наталкивает на мысль о психологии нации, о духе народа. В связи с этим, логичным было бы дать и психологическую составляющую исследования. Но тема заслуживает внимания относительно ее воспитательного аспекта.

Галиновский Андрей Леонидович

Раздел в своем названии содержит слово "актуальность"., что подразумевает важность и приоритетность иследований в этом направлении. Работа интересная, но характер ее не несет актуальности для настоящего времени. В целом очень интересно и полезно дл ознакомления.

Aizikova Lidiia Vladimirovna

В своей статье автор ставит целью объединить два аспекта изучения пословиц – компаративно-филологический и педагогический (воспитательный). Безусловно, предмет исследования представляет значительный интерес для обеих отраслей, и первый из аспектов раскрыт детально и интересно. Однако, как мне кажется, более логичным был бы выход на реализацию воспитательных и развивающих целей в процессе изучения иностранных языков, нежели на теорию воспитания. Это и объясняет недостаточную реализацию второго задания исследования. Еще раз хочу подчеркнуть высокий уровень компаративного анализа. С уважением, Лидия Айзикова.

Meртинс Ксения Викторовна

Уважаемый автор, прочитав ВАшу статью мне захотелось углубиться в пословицы и поговорки на русском и анлийском языке в области образования.

Тарнопольский Олег Борисович

Oleg Tarnopolsky. The research represented in the article is quite valuable since nobody has as yet tried to compare English and Kazakh proverbs from the point of view of their moral significance. This task is solved by the author quite brilliantly. But regretfully, the role of proverbs in bringing up the young generation indicated in the summary as the second task of the research is insufficiently disclosed in the article itself.

Рубцова Анна

В статье достаточно полно рассматривается содержание ценностной составляющей изучения пословиц и поговорок. Однако, автор не предлагает конкретных методических приёмов, способствующих развитию представленной научно-теоеретической позиции. С уважением, Рубцова А.В.

Praliyev Serik Zhailauovich

В статье автор проводит анализ значений пословиц и поговорок в английском и казахском языках, определяет их роль в методике воспитания подрастающего поколения. Изучения пословиц на иностранном языке не только повышает эффективность обучения лексике, но и способствует обогащению опыта языковой области, отражающих специфические условия жизни. Пословица, как правило, краткое изложение, и выражает правду о реальности. Они отражают особенности истории, культуры и жизни народа. Спасибо автору за статью! С уважением, expert36

Гризун Людмила

It is quite a deep research on literature, language and history, but unfortunately, there is insufficient investigation of proverbs' role in new generation brinning up as it was mentioned in the summary of the paper.

Семенова Лариса Александровна

Лариса Семенова. В этнопедагогике огромная роль отводится пословицам и поговоркам. Автором верно отмечено, что в них передается дух и стремления народа на каждом временном этапе. Интересным представляется использование пословиц и поговорок на иностранных языках для лучшего понимания родного языка.
Комментарии: 17

Федина Владимира

Hello! You choose very interesting theme for your article. You compare Kazakh and English proverbs. You show the way how to understand different culters, histories. Its very very interesting especially for me that you touch this problem in your article because in my work I also use East and West provebs to open, to understand different thoughts of different people. Thanky very much.

Федина Владимира

Hello! You choose very interesting theme for your article. You compare Kazakh and English proverbs. You show the way how to understand different culters, histories. Its very very interesting especially for me that you touch this problem in your article because in my work I also use East and West provebs to open, to understand different thoughts of different people. Thanky very much.

Olshvang Olga Yurievna

Интересный материал для обучения иностранному языку, возможно использовать на разных этапах обучения

Морарь Марина Михайловна

В статье представлен интересный материал, но как его использовать в педагогическом контексте не раскрыто. Вероятно статья больше подходит к другой секции - филологии. Спасибо!

Луговцова Алёна

Представленный в статье ракурс рассмотрения функций пословиц и поговорок достаточно любопытен. Однако заявленная в резюме идея демонстрации и анализа роли пословиц и поговорок в методике воспитания подрастающего поколения, что позволяло бы отнести текст к образовательной тематике, в статье не развернута. На наш взгляд, статья не соответствует содержанию секции и должна быть помещена в секцию «сравнительное, историческое, типологическое и сопоставительное языкознание». Можно было бы предложить автору подкорректировать логику изложения и убрать повторяющиеся мысли. С уважением Краснова Татьяна, Луговцова Алена, Торхова Анна.

Шаяхимова Рыскайша Куандыковна

Для того, чтобы понять характер народа, его взгляды на жизнь и приоритеты, необходимо прибегнуть к достоверным источникам, которыми являются пословицы. Пословицы называют великолепным инструментом, с помощью которого можно изучить любые языки. Спасибо автору. Я с удовольствием прочитала. Желаю успехов.

Konurova-Idrissova Zukhra Kanatovna

Спасибо автору за статью. Данная статья носит ценный характер с точки зрения поликультурного воспитания молодежи. Также автором рассмтариваются такие аспекты народного вспитания, как умственное воспитание ,что важно при изучении такого курса, как этнопедагогика.

Ргизбаева Индира Еркиновна

This article shows moral values thro' modern proverbs and sayings to build very effective and strong character among today's youngesters and children. Human values play vital role in moulding a man’s attitude and nowadays the youngsters are badly in need of such moral values which can practically be applicable to compete in this world, at the same time enabling to maintain peace of mind without tension and stress. Moreover, such moral values are to be presented in such a way as to be interesting, easier to read but instigating to think, and convincing and impressing to follow. DEAR Kanat Syzdykov,THANK YOU!

Naumenko Tetyana

Сама идея сопоставления пословиц в разных языках наталкивает на мысль о психологии нации, о духе народа. В связи с этим, логичным было бы дать и психологическую составляющую исследования. Но тема заслуживает внимания относительно ее воспитательного аспекта.

Галиновский Андрей Леонидович

Раздел в своем названии содержит слово "актуальность"., что подразумевает важность и приоритетность иследований в этом направлении. Работа интересная, но характер ее не несет актуальности для настоящего времени. В целом очень интересно и полезно дл ознакомления.

Aizikova Lidiia Vladimirovna

В своей статье автор ставит целью объединить два аспекта изучения пословиц – компаративно-филологический и педагогический (воспитательный). Безусловно, предмет исследования представляет значительный интерес для обеих отраслей, и первый из аспектов раскрыт детально и интересно. Однако, как мне кажется, более логичным был бы выход на реализацию воспитательных и развивающих целей в процессе изучения иностранных языков, нежели на теорию воспитания. Это и объясняет недостаточную реализацию второго задания исследования. Еще раз хочу подчеркнуть высокий уровень компаративного анализа. С уважением, Лидия Айзикова.

Meртинс Ксения Викторовна

Уважаемый автор, прочитав ВАшу статью мне захотелось углубиться в пословицы и поговорки на русском и анлийском языке в области образования.

Тарнопольский Олег Борисович

Oleg Tarnopolsky. The research represented in the article is quite valuable since nobody has as yet tried to compare English and Kazakh proverbs from the point of view of their moral significance. This task is solved by the author quite brilliantly. But regretfully, the role of proverbs in bringing up the young generation indicated in the summary as the second task of the research is insufficiently disclosed in the article itself.

Рубцова Анна

В статье достаточно полно рассматривается содержание ценностной составляющей изучения пословиц и поговорок. Однако, автор не предлагает конкретных методических приёмов, способствующих развитию представленной научно-теоеретической позиции. С уважением, Рубцова А.В.

Praliyev Serik Zhailauovich

В статье автор проводит анализ значений пословиц и поговорок в английском и казахском языках, определяет их роль в методике воспитания подрастающего поколения. Изучения пословиц на иностранном языке не только повышает эффективность обучения лексике, но и способствует обогащению опыта языковой области, отражающих специфические условия жизни. Пословица, как правило, краткое изложение, и выражает правду о реальности. Они отражают особенности истории, культуры и жизни народа. Спасибо автору за статью! С уважением, expert36

Гризун Людмила

It is quite a deep research on literature, language and history, but unfortunately, there is insufficient investigation of proverbs' role in new generation brinning up as it was mentioned in the summary of the paper.

Семенова Лариса Александровна

Лариса Семенова. В этнопедагогике огромная роль отводится пословицам и поговоркам. Автором верно отмечено, что в них передается дух и стремления народа на каждом временном этапе. Интересным представляется использование пословиц и поговорок на иностранных языках для лучшего понимания родного языка.
Партнеры
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.