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Сумской государственный университет, Украина
The author's intention is concentrated on means of verbalization of the concept TERRORISM in British newspaper discourse. The illustrative material is taken from the British periodicals and newspapers.
Keywords: verbalization, discourse, concept, nomination, terrorism.
Статья посвящена исследованию средстввербализации концепта ТЕРРОРИЗМ в британском газетном дискурсе. Иллюстративный материал отобран из периодических британских изданий за 2014 год.
Ключевые слова: вербализация, дискурс, концепт, номинация, терроризм.
The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that this study stands in line with the most popular trend of linguistics. In the spot of modern linguistics are topics related to notions involved with other branches of science. The article analyzes the concept of TERRORISM, determines its nature, structure, complexity and means of verbalization of the concept of TERRORISM in the British periodicals and newspapers.
The objective of the article is a study of means of verbalization of the concept TERRORISM in the British newspaper discourse of 2014. To achieve the objective a number of problems is solved in the article. They are grounding theoretical-methodological basis of the study; ascertaining a definition of the concept TERRORISM; clarification of its content and structure; determination and description of peculiarities of verbalization of the concept TERRORISM in the British newspaper discourse.
The subject is a concept TERRORISM, verbalized in the modern British newspaper discourse.The object is the means of verbalization of the concept TERRORISM in the British periodicals and newspapers in 2014.
The interest to the study of concepts is steadily growing, and taking into account the present socio-political situation in the world, the concept TERRORISM is one of those concepts which require elaborate study. To define the concept TERRORISM it’s necessary to determine what the concept in general is.
Concept is a substantial side of a word sign, related to a notion connected to mental, spiritual or material spheres of human existence, fixed in the experience of a nation, has historical roots in its life and relevant to other notions.
V.I. Karasyk gives a number of approaches to the definition of the concept developed by various authors: concept is an idea that includes abstract, concrete-associative and emotional-evaluative features; concept is a personal comprehension, interpretation of objective meaning and notion as a meaningful minimum of meanings; concept is an essence of the notion which is evident as its substantial forms (shape, notion, symbol) [3, p.46].
The scientist emphasizes that the concept can have occurrence even without a special verbal designation. He defines the concept as a cultural unit, expression of the objective content of words which has a meaning and therefore it is transmitted into various spheres of human life, particularly into spheres of conceptual, figurative and active development of the world [2, p.103].
There are no clear boundaries for the concept, during life of a linguistic society its applicability and intensity of its value may vary. Based on the experience scientists formulated and substantiated such characteristics of the concept as value, insufficiency with consciousness of the carrier, convention, fuzziness, variability and complex structure.
The study is based on the research by M.V. Nikitin who defines concept as a complex gestalt of interconnected operandi modi. Every modus contains cognitive (objective) and pragmatic (emotional-evaluative) elements. A number of modi is various: it is the result of a preparation of accumulated knowledge about the world [4, p.188]. Image plays an important role in the modus structure; it occupies interposition between logical and social ideas which provide movement of a thought from individual to general ideas and vice versa.
Logical notion is formed in the classifying modus as systematizing the experience of comprehension of the phenomenon of terrorism. The function of logical notion of terrorism is systematization of common experience. The formation of logical notion that tends to the scientific definition is a result of goal-directed cognitive activity of a subject of cognition. Logical notion is the most detached from a personal evaluation and emotional experience of subject. On the linguistic level logical notion is formed through the interpretation of semantic features of a concept in typical abstract contexts, fixed in dictionaries [1, p. 40].
Commonsence notion of terrorism is actualized through the notion of discourse. Features of the commonsence notion are systematized in the structural modus of a concept. As compared to the classifying modus, structural modus is a more complex way of organization of conceptual features. In accordance with O.I. Morozova in this modus “cognitive act of ordering features of a concept can be complicated with differentiation according to their level of typicality [5, p. 12]”. We also agree with the opinion of M.V. Nikitin who argues that in the identification modus the process of conceptualization is carried out between the extreme points: from the observation to the level of generalized abstractions, and vise versa: from abstractions to the level of concrete images of the individual [6, p. 189]. Commonsence notion serves to systematize individual perceptions of an appropriate content, loaded with emotional-evaluative associations. It is based on the features which a subject will intuitively associate with the corresponding class of contents.
The interrogation about units that reflect commonsence notion of the concept of terrorism in minds of ordinary people was conducted in the light of the current political situation in Ukraine particularly and in general in the world. Thus we received a number of naming units that form a synonymic row of the concept TERRORISM.
The synonymic row of the commonsence notion TERRORISM includes a number of related notions through which the concept is verbalized, they are: separatism, alarm, fighter, Donetsk national republik, Luhansk national republik, Islamic State, horror, anarchy, rebel, violence, dismay, sabotage, menace, shelling, bombardment, oppression, threaten, dread.
For the better understanding of its commonsence notion naming units that form synonymic row of the concept TERRORISM were analyzed. Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language and Oxford Dictionary of English were used this purpose. We shall give only few examples of these units.
Naming unit terrorism (n) means unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims, accordingto Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language. In the British newspaper discourse it occurs to indicate a movement, aimed to break the established political order with armed attacks, shelling, intimidation, subversion, etc (1). For example:
(1) Although the British government warns tourists of a “general threat of terrorism” in Malaysia, Kuching is not listed among the country’s dangerous areas on the Foreign office website. (D. T., Aug 5, 2014, p.24)
Notion separatism (n), which is the most often used as the synonym of notion terrorism means the advocacy or practice of separation of a certain group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or gender (2), according to Oxford Dictionary of English:
(2) Ukraine's interim president warned on Tuesday that the country faced a serious threat from separatism amid fears that the Kremlin – deeply unhappy about the revolution in Kiev – may be stoking pro-Russian sentiment in the Crimean peninsula. (G., Feb 25, 2014, p.38)
The derivative separatist (n)(3) andits synonyms rebel (n) (4), fighter (n) (5) mean according to Oxford Dictionary of English correspondently: a member of a group of people who wants to form a new country, religion, etc., that is separate from the one they are in now (3); а person or animal that fights, а рerson who does not easily admit defeat(4); а person who rises in opposition or armed resistance against an established government or leader(5). For example:
(3) The An-26 plane was brought down by a missile near the Russian border southeast of Luhansk, the scene of heavy fighting between Ukrainian government forces and pro-Russian separatists. (D.T., Jul 14, 2014, p.17). (4) The fighter appeared to behead British aid worker David Haines, and two US journalists Steven Sotloff and James Foley, in three brutal videos released by the terrorist group calling itself the Islamic State (IS). (Ind., Sep 25, 2014, p.29). (5) A ceasefire between Ukraine and pro-Russian rebels held despite some violence. (Ec., Sep 13th 2014, p.29)
All of the above mentioned nominations in the British newspaper discourse indicate subjects of terrorist acts that, depending on their purposes, attempts to separate groups of people or territory (2), or to split an established state system (3), or denote members of radical organizations (4), (5) that are ready for any terrorist activity to achieve their goals or that threat to state security.
Nominations shelling (n) (6)andbombardment (n) (7)according to Oxford Dictionary of English mean correspondently: using of a projectile containing an explosive bursting charge; bombardment with bullets used with light machine guns (6);а continuous attack with bombs, shells, or other missiles; а continuous flow of questions, criticisms, or information(7). For example: (6) In northern Israel, at least one rocket fired from Lebanon struck an open area near the town of Metula on Friday, prompting troops to respond with shelling.(Obs., Jul 12, 2014, p.21). (7) The city of Antwerp is being subjected to a bombardment which began, according to reports from Holland, at midnight on Wednesday. (T., Oct 8,2014, p.7)
These nominations denote means of terrorism, which the subjects of terroristic activity use in order to get their goal, that is, to horror average people.
Nominative units: violence (n) (8), horror (n) (9), anarchy (n)(10) according to Oxford Dictionary of English mean correspondently: the use of physical force to harm someone, to damage property(8);anintensefeelingoffear, shock, ordisgustasareactiontotheactionsofsubject (9);а state of disorder due to absence or non-recognition of authority or other controlling systems; absolute freedom of the individual, regarded as a political ideal (10); and according to the Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language: the unlawful exercise of physical force or intimidation by the exhibition of such force (8); anextremestateofdepression (9); absence or denial of any authority or established order(10). For example: (8) Fresh violence flared in Pakistan’s troubled northwest tribal areas yesterday after at least nine members of the security forces were killed in two gun and bomb attacks. (T., Jul19, 2014, p.37). (9) Australians have reacted with horror to images posted by a jihadist from Sydney that purport to show his seven-year-old son holding up the severed head of a Syrian victim. (T., Aug 11, 2014, p.21). (10) The behavior of these protesters is illegal, extremely unreasonable and inhumane, and is even worse than that of radical social activists and almost complete anarchy. (G., Oct2, 2014, p.17)
The nominations, given above, denote the state of people in country or the absence of any order in the country after the subjects of terrorism conduct their terroristic acts.
Unfortunately, because of limited size of the article we do not give characteristics of all nominations, received through the conducted experiment. They can be referred to the future prospects of research.
In conclusion, it may be said that having analyzed notions through which the concept is verbalized in the British newspaper discourse, it can be noted that the concept TERRORISM refers to ethnic, political and social motivated concepts, and although it was formed in the political discourse, today it occurs regularly in the newspaper discourse.
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7. The Oxford Dictionary of English Language. URL: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
8. Webster’s New World College Dictionary.URL: http://www.merriam-webster.com/
9. D.T. = The Daily Telegraph.URL: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/
10. Ec. = The Economist. URL: http://www.economist.com/
11. G. = The Guardian. URL: http://www.theguardian.com/uk
12. Ind. = The Independent. URL: http://www.independent.co.uk/
13. M. = The Mirror. URL:http://www.independent.co.uk/
14. Obs. = The Observer. URL:http://observer.theguardian.com/
15. T. = The Times. URL:http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/