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Historical development of cadet movement in Sumy region

Historical development of cadet movement in Sumy region
Юрий Свидлов, кандидат военных наук

Сумской военный лицей, Украина

Андрей Сидоренко

Участник конференции

Sumy Cadet Corps was one of the youngest in the Russian Empire, it was founded in 12 of December 1899 by decision of the Military Council and opened in 18 of January 1900.

The main building was set up by charity known Ukrainian sugar manufacturers - Kharytonenko family, which gave 50 acres of land and 500 000 carbovantsiv free to Military Office for construction Cadet Corps in Sumy.

The building was typical of all new buildings of that time, while it differed from them, it was especially luxury outside and inside. The building had own power, paved streets and sidewalks, a large parade ground. It was only one of the buildings in the Russian Empire, which had at its disposal such a large piece of land, gorgeous park and direct access to the river Psel.

The first director of the new Cadet Corps was inspector of 1st St. Petersburg Cadet Corps Colonel (later Lieutenant General) L. Kublytskyy-Piotuh, graduate of the Kiev military school. He was an experienced administrator and teacher and had to start a new school. Almost a year has been chosen pedagogical and educational composition of the Cadet Corps, provided construction of facilities and services.

Already in 31 of August 1900 began teaching for 61 students in temporary buildings. Commander of Kiev Military District Adjutant General M. Dragomirov and all the city notables took part in open of Cadet Corps. In the beginning of XX century Sumy was the deep province, so interest to Corps was exceptional

In the beginning of the 1902-1903 school year were already build the main building, two wing for caregivers, home for the director, office. At that time were formed two companies, in 1904 and 1906 were formed third and fourth companies.

In 1902 school year, the classes were conducted by full-time teachers and teachers from local high school. For the classes were perfectly equipped laboratory, chemical room, classrooms, library.

From the memoirs of many graduates, the staff mentors was "perfectly excellent" all subjects taught very well.

Since the opening of the Cadet Corps there was a lot of good teachers who love their job.

Important role in the learning process took military training. Military occupation regulated by the instruction “Regulations for military training sessions in the cadet corps” approved by military minister.

It consisted of theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part of military training was in teaching certain military subjects, and in carrying out theoretical studies of senior companies. Practical lessons for junior mouth consisted of combatant training and gymnastics, for senior companies - marching, war walks, information about guns, shooting, gymnastics and fencing, swimming, topographic work.

Cadets performed a march of 16 miles, moving in four column with outpost. After 8 miles were organized halts, during which officers checked the health of students.

Much of the success of the educational process affected the second and last director of the Corps, Lieutenant General A. Saranchov. It was a rigorous and demanding leader, and at the same time - the humane and cultured person. He well versed in people and was able to find good officers and teachers. In memories of Cadets, “...we saw him in the arsenal, and in the kitchen, and in the hospital, and located at distance classes of drawing, chemistry, physics, history, on the parade ground, in the summer garden. Every student he knew by name, knew about his successes and shortcomings.”
The discipline in Cadet Corps was strict, from an early age cadet taught to order and cleanliness. The parents were able to monitor the progress, behavior and health of their children, in the case were made printed forms, in which teachers received marks, behavior, and all that things that in their opinion concerned the cadet. Completed forms sent to parents of cadets every week.

There were such kinds of punishment: kids remained without sweet dishes; were placed on the “fine”; for all – cancellation of vacation; lower marks; for senior - cooler. The most stringent punishment for cadet was removing of shoulder-straps.

In 1906, the chief of military schools Grand Duke K. Konstantinovich presented for the Sumy Cadet Corps the flag. It was the great ceremony, more than 800 people were there. For people of a small town it was a real holiday.

Cognitive and educational for the Cadets were trips to local sugar. In 1912 the Cadets visited the Borodino field and Moscow. Since 1906, Sumy Cadet Corps begins to publish the magazine “Cadet”, whose first issue was published on 15 of October. “Cadet” as students' edition, fully consistent with its purpose: to give the public access to literary works of Cadets.

In 1916, during II World War, came to the Cadet Corps cavity of Polotsk junior cadet corps with their servants and remained in Sumy till the date of liquidation. In 1917, the was not issue, and in early 1918-th Corps was disbanded.
During the leadership of Ukraine Hetman P. Skoropadsky Cadet Corps was opened again and called Sumy military college. From Russian Empire arrived Cadets.

Pupils kept the old dress code, but without straps and Cap Badges. In the Cadet Corps entered the Ukrainian language.
Over the years, Sumy Cadet Corps has 11 full issues. Among his pupils may be called graduate of 1904, the author of the epic "Port Arthur" A. Stepanov. Students of Cadet Corps were brave soldiers on the fronts of II World War. Knowledge and experience of Cadet Corps were used during the Great Patriotic War by Colonel M. Neyelovym, he former the first Soviet Suvorov schools.

Literature:

  • 1.The symbol of the world Kadetstvo return to the Sumy - electronic resource http://www.ukr.aif.ru/society/news/46279
  • 2. Like the Sumy as I love ... - electronic resource http://svaku.narod.ru/text/cadet3.html
  • 3. Sumy Cadet Corps. History of creation and organization - electronic resource http://cadet.org.ua/history/emperors/19-sumskoj-kadetskij-korpus.html
  • 4. Sumy military lyceum - a powerful base for the Ukrainian army - electronic resourcehttp://www.oblrada.sumy.ua/actual/4832-sumskyj-vijskovyj-litsej-potuzhna-baza-dlja-ukrajinskoji-armiji.html?format=html&Itemid=31&option=com_ content&id:sumskyj-
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