- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Стефан Тер-Акопов, студент
Тамбовский государственный университет им. Г.Р.Державина, Россия
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Россия";
Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;
Official unemployment in Russia, when compared to other developed countries, is not very high - 5.7 percent. And for the last year it fell by 0.8 percent.
"This is a very good indicator. So, Russia is pursuing the right policies in relation to employment - said Guy Ryder, General Director of the International Labour Organization (ILO). - Only a few countries with advanced economies after the global crisis was able to maintain the previous level of employment. But this does not mean that this should stop. "
If we talk about the global trend, almost all countries "unacceptably high level of unemployment," said Ryder at the presentation of the study "Short-term prospects for the labor market and the main challenges in the countries of the Group of Twenty." He recalled that in these countries without a job today sit 93 million people. Most of them in Spain, South Africa, Italy, France and the European Union. Least of all - in Korea and China. And to return to pre-crisis levels, you must create at least 60 million jobs.
Reduce the "scale of the disaster," some countries have helped to training programs and professional training courses for rural people, women and the disabled, confident CEO of the ILO.
"After participating in such programs 2.5 percent once unemployed residents were able to find a worthy place of work, - said Ryder. - But for such programs need to spend only 1 per cent of GDP."
Of particular concern is unemployment among young people. In most countries, including Russia, the level of youth "idleness" twice the unemployment rate of the adult population. In our country, for example, do not work anywhere nearly 30 percent of young people between 16 and 24 years old.
"I would say more, we are seeing a new phenomenon - said Angel Gurria, Secretary General of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). - More than 20 percent of young people in the world are not busy at all nothing: they do not work anywhere, neither in education nor are vocational technical training. How can this be? We are faced with this phenomenon for the first time. "
Young people all over the world can not find a job because of spending cuts, which could lead to the European version of the "Arab spring".
Not working young people become frustrated with a system that deprives them of the future: jobs and career opportunities. The possible consequences of this situation will be a rise in social unrest and possibly collapse the current political regimes.
The lowest unemployment rate of young people aged 15 to 24 years among European Union countries registered in Germany. In June, 2012 in Germany in this age group were not the work of thousands of people, 350000 or 7.9%. The average European Union unemployment rate was 22.6 per cent, increased by 1.4% compared to the year 2011. "This means that in the EU, almost one in four young people are out of work," said the representative of the Federal Statistical Office of Germany during the release of the report in Wiesbaden.
The worst situation on the labour market is in the countries of southern Europe. So, in Greece, the unemployment rate among young people, compared to the same period last year, rose nearly 9% and amounted to 52.8%. In Spain this figure increased by 6.8%, and accounted for 52.7%. Thus, every second young person could not find a job. In total, the EU has nearly 5.5 million unemployed young people.
In Italy the situation is not so critical, but the problem is also actual. The unemployment rate is 11%, and among young people is 37%. According to Elstat in Greece, the unemployment rate in the third quarter of 2012, was 24.8%. According to Eurostat the unemployment rate among young people in November amounted to 57.6%
German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti recently played attention to the problem of youth unemployment. According to Merkel, youth unemployment is hampering economic growth.
In France, the system of social help is clearly linked with education, and with the scope of work. France faces a high unemployment rate of young people in General, and the boundary between tertiary and secondary education is quite conventional. Employment assistance programs therefore focus not only on university graduates, but also for young people aged 16 to 26 years. France pays particular attention to the protection of young people. So, under the law on return to posts and against the dismissal of the local offices are created for vocational and social integration of young people. «...Their purpose is to help young people aged 16 to 25 years old with their problems with professional and social adaptation. Local offices serve as reception, information, orientation and accompaniment of young people ". You can highlight the positive and negative aspects in the field of youth employment in France.
For example the positive aspects are:
1. Priority is given to young people in the workplace
2. Long-term youth employment
3. A well-developed national system of general social insurance
Negative aspects are:
1. Difficulties in the employment of young people without work experience (national General social insurance system is based on previous experience and previous earnings)
2. The absence of an effective system of support to unemployed youth
In Germany there is no specific legislation governing the employment of graduates. You can, however, pay attention to the paragraph 14 of the law «On general principles of organization of higher education» (Das Hochschulrahmengesetz), which requires universities to notify students and prospective students on educational opportunities, their content, structure and training requirements, as well as maintain them throughout the study period," accompanying study special consultations. It is important that workers are not only training firms in the universities, but also the work of students and young scientists in the firms. This is especially true for special (occupational) high schools, where the teachers are required to periodically have even held practice at the firm. It definitely has a positive effect on the employment of graduates.
In the United States are the principal actors in educational institutions and special advisory and information service. The main forms of assistance include:
1. Consulting-for example, on the issue of opening his own business. In the United States is not just a fact of professional work, but, above all, the base of their business.
2. Internships – for example, the Washington Center for internships and Academic Seminars is an independent, non-government organization that organizes professional training and special academic programs for American and foreign students in Washington, D.C., United States.
3. Postgraduate training.
4. The professional industrial practice includes work for an employer in before or after the release. As a rule, vocational and practical training take place in over a year (or less) after graduation.
A special place in helping graduates takes the Organization of exhibitions on employment in the UK. Participation in the exhibition are the employers and students-graduates wishing to find prestigious work right after graduating from high school. Career development seminars, presentation of different occupations, debates, assistance in resume writing and free professional advice – are at such exhibitions. Some universities offer courses in education and professional training of the future specialists, Ta-Kim way students receive not only a quality academic education, but also a lot of practical knowledge. You can choose a 4-year training program, where the 3-th year students will work on a full-time basis, but during the 4-th year do project work, and after getting a Bachelor's degree. It should be noted that in the UK graduate employment rate is quite high. According to statistics, there is a slight dependence of the success of employment by level of education: 95% of students with high level A-level in the situation with regard to the University collection, found a job within 6 months after graduation, while the percentage employed, coming after the University preparatory school, was only 87%.
The unemployment rate in Norway is only about 2.5%. In this group are usually mothers with young children, as well as workers who undergo retraining. In Norway, with the direct participation of the Central Association adopted a program "Youth guarantee". No able-bodied Norwegian under 25 years of age may not work anywhere or not to learn. If you lose a job and can't find a new one, you will be sent for retraining.
Youth policy in Sweden has been shifted to the Ministry of culture. At the same time operates the State Youth Council, which has the casting vote, the representatives of the Government and Parliament. With the guidance of the State youth policy in the concrete implementation of purposes is, as experience shows, to a greater extent at the local level. In Sweden, a youth employment is the responsibility of the municipalities, they also solve problems of schools, distribute grants (each year is about 1 million Swedish kronor) for local cultural and youth organizations.
The State youth policy of CHINA is in full compliance with the decisions of the Communist Party of China, which pays close attention to the lives of young people, aware of the great importance that the youth has a strong potential for the future development of the country.
The basic principle of the youth policy of China is work ethic, in which lies the involvement of young people in economic and working life. The special role here has the participation of students on the period of summer vacation from educational duties, in a specially established labour camps.
I think that the most effective of the solutions to the problem are:
1. The correct vocational work (it is always better to deal with the problem and not its consequences. If students help in choosing a profession, there will be no privatization proceeds at the prestigious professions, labour market then will not be over-saturated similar experts, therefore, unemployment level will be lower)
3. Vocations fairs
4. Establishing closer ties "State College-employer (State order for specialty = > tuition student State = > guarantee graduate employment at the State enterprise or other = > professional gob).
It is necessary to continue the development of interaction between employers and educational institutions. This interaction can be rational, if the parties are able to combine their interests. And some steps in this direction have already been taken. Well recommended itself involved top executives of firms by degree works of students. Effective student training. Good results gives the joint certification of skills certification. Further rapprochement of the parties may, with the active development of educational management
So, to solve the problems of employment of graduates required not only political will, States considered civilized nature of development of the market relations and active cooperation of the University with companies interested in specialists.