- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Мамонтов Владимир Дмитриевич, первый проректор - проректор по образовательной политике, доктор экономических наук
Тамбовский государственный университет им. Г.Р.Державина, Россия
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Россия";
The challenges faced by Russia have become a real threat to its integrity, put it in front of profound transformation and modernization of spheres of public life. Reputable scientists in their research show that Russia needs a breakthrough development strategy. But the implementation of this strategy requires the identification and understanding of the current trends of social development, except which is fraught with the deepening of the crisis.
Keywords: modernization , population, development , social change , the market crisis , individuality.
Problems of social policy in Russia is directly related to the choice of strategic priorities for the country's development. In the long-term development strategy up to 2020 realistic goals and the ways of achieving them were identified. According to the Ministry of Economic development, the engine of the economic system will be a modernization. In this context the main focus of social and economic policy is to improve the quality and standard of living of the population, based on the country's competitiveness . Thus, the purpose of the study is to identify the main problems of Russian social policy and its prospects.
Social policy - an activity to achieve social indicators, namely the growth of welfare, human development, reducing income inequality that meet the objectives of social development and ideological assumptions of the state and society. [1 ]
As the economy of the country will follow the innovative path of development, one of the main goals of social policy will be the formation of highly qualified workers able to meet the requirements of modern social production.
Currently, there are certain problems in Russia.
1. Poverty of the population. Over the last ten years the problem of poverty reduction is solved by several times, and this is a real result of economic growth and efficiency of social and economic functions. But, according to the macroeconomic data, with a decline in the number of poor population, the reduction of the poverty gap is not observed. The source of information is the average income deficit, measured as a percentage of the minimum subsistence level. For the majority of the poor it does not exceed 40 % of the subsistence minimum.
2. Income differentiation. The growing polarization of the population is accompanied by the impoverishment of a large part of the population, a sharp reduction in social security and public spending on social protection. There is lack of a middle class. Today the state of the middle class is one of the indicators of the level of economic development and the nature of the political system. A significant share of this class in society reflects about the relative prosperity of the country. According to the Ministry of Economic Development, the monthly income per family member as a representative of the Russian middle class in 2006 was about 600-700 dollars a month , and in 2010 - 900-1100 dollars, but in practice we have seen a different picture. In Russia, the total income of the richest 10% greater than the total income of the poorest 10% of the population is 30 times, while the "normal" is not fraught with social upheaval is tenfold gap. Consequently, the efficiency of investment in the economy is quite low. [2 ]
If we talk about the causes of the situation, the representatives of all economic schools come to the conclusion that the thing here in the state of practical economic policy, which didn’t not stimulated , did not create the conditions , and sometimes actually slowed the transition to innovative development.
Serious challenges faced by Russia in the last decade, the real threat of loss of economic independence, integrity led to the realization of the need for profound transformation, modernization of all spheres of public life, the innovative development of the country. Research reputable scientists show that in this situation, Russia needs not a "catch-up" but a breakthrough development strategy. However, the implementation of such a strategy requires to reveal understanding of the real underlying trends of social development, the deep nature of the post-industrial, "of informational" of society, those of indigenous and irreversible changes in the depths of the social system, the inhibition of which is fraught with the deepening of the crisis. There is no doubt that the ways out from Russian system crisis inextricably linked with the ways of overcoming the global civilization crisis, reorganization and modernization of the existing public institutions, the formation of new global principles of social interaction and co-existence. The difficulties in this regard appear as a result of inconsistency and uncertainty of the development phase, which has entered the modern world civilization. This explains the growing importance of the issues of risk as the expression of a new attitude and understanding of the society of the future (W. Beck, Luman, Z. Baumann, etc.). According to G. Behman, contradiction of our time, principled openness and pluralism of scientific and technical society raise serious problems of orientation. The risk is related to "internal threats" own behavior of the social system, which encompasses inaction. This finding clearly indicates that the risks are associated with the violation of the internal logic of the system, eliminating pluralism as a possible basis for the development and vision of the future. [3 ]
A single logic of development and pluralism form, according to some researchers, the most current dichotomy of the modern theory of modernization of society. Modernization (modernity), received for the last decade the status of some "megatrend ", is undergoing today quite interestint theoretical evolution. Developing mainly in the framework of neo-liberal theoretical models of society (I.L. Horowitz, S.P. Huntington, K. Furtado , D. Lerner , R. Redfield , S. Eisenstadt , etc.) the concept of modernity are far from the idea of unifying the global Westernization, grouped around the idea multi vector modernity. However, this thought is very superficial, that V.G. Burov and V. Fedotova seem not to notice. In almost all neoliberal versions of modernity the implicit setting remains, when Westernization, with its "market orientation" is regarded as a core line of civilization and national model of modernization - as its local "cultural" forms. Defining the individual features of the Chinese national model of modernization, these authors are missing, from our point of view, the kind of thing - the essence, the main vector of the modernization project of China. We think that it is a socialist, planned- market project of modernization is on the basis of the modern "China boom", a breakthrough into the global economy, "even though the world does not quite understand his reasons ". Nor understood other causes of enormous socio-cultural breakthroughs of the twentieth century - socialist modernization project implemented in the country. [4 ]
The collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent collapse of the social and economic institutions almost the entire territory of the former social State, on the one hand, and on the other - the success of Chinese socialist project, forcing a new look at the famous problem of correlation of capitalist and socialist economy. The good news is that gradually it is forming a National Science powerful opposition to utopian, and even fatal, in the context of Russian reality, the postulates of "market fundamentalism." Thus, according to I.I. Kravchenko, the leading role in the modernization process should belong to the state. This includes: the expansion of the public sector, strengthening state control in the sphere of credit and financial transactions, government regulation of money and bank credit etc. , the implementation of the state function of long-term programming and planning. In the context of the dialogue market /plan we found very interesting and fruitful, from our point of view, search trends and identify the ontological foundations of the existing "economic model" of man and society ( V.G. Fedotova ). Thus, the "economic man" of neo-liberal economic theory ( J. Byukennan, M. Friedman, etc.) is increasingly opposed to a "institutional man " (G. Simon, J. Elster, P. Weise, K. Brunner, etc.), reporting "invisible hand " of the society and culture in a whole. According to a just remark of V. Fedotova, we are seeing today rather "not the crisis in economic theory in general, but the neo-liberal economic theory" connected with the failing of its basic principles and first of all the theoretical model of "economic man " .
Institutional economic model, with its criticism of completely economic determinism in the sense of "market uncertainty" and social atomism (individualism ), the origins of T. Veblen, which was implemented in the reform program of John Maynard Keynes, really proved itself in practice. This is not taken into account today by those authors who are under the influence of neo-liberal economic theories of revenge at the turn of the century, was subjected to a rather superficial criticism of the views of John Kenneth Galbraith, a follower of Keynes. Galbraith has convincingly shown that the developed industrial economy, aiming to increase its effectiveness and the sustainability of economic growth, eliminates one of the key characteristics of the "market"- its uncertainty and the associated competitiveness ". ... The market mechanism begins to reject just when there is a need for extremely high reliability when planning is essentially necessary ". It is in this sense, Galbraith said about the convergence of capitalist and socialist systems, "Both systems have grown market. We are watching a clear convergence towards similar forms of planning." At the same time Galbraith, from our point of view, doesn’t not give in-depth analysis of the market, and more specifically, using the scientific terminology, commodity production and its limits. With this, obviously, should be linked and that it underestimates the difference, i.e. public maintenance, capitalist and socialist "plans ", manifested itself in the last third of XX - beginning of XXI century in the era of globalization. Elimination of "market uncertainty" in favor of large national (and today is transnational) corporations only increased capital deepening its basic contradiction. Globally, this contradiction is expressed in that "logic of exclusion," which today is working against logic and sense of history. George Soros, for example, notes that the main enemy of the open society stands today is not even a closed society, and the "market fundamentalism" - the belief in the magic of the market and "market" approach to all areas of social activity that threatens self-destruction of the existing system. [6 ]
There is no doubt that the logic and meaning of the story takes place in the direction of the rule of public interest in the economic and social spheres, the smoothing of social inequality, the real democratization of social systems that, according to Soros, is the movement toward an open society, and in Marxism - the movement towards socialism and communism. At the same time, almost all modern economic and sociological concepts, including in the most influential theories of post-industrial society, the nature and logic of the movement and the future of the world are far from unique. There are serious concerns about the fact that the theorists of post-industrialism, seeing in the development of modern civilization the struggle of opposing trends - social and cultural progress of democratization of life and return to the trend of "dark ages" can not offer the principles of the practical gain of the first and second address. Fundamental drawback of these concepts, from our point of view, consists of the fact that they operate at the level of the phenomenological cut social reality before reaching the limit foundations of social life, its substance - physical labor. It is significant in this regard that D. Bell, focusing on Marx's concept of transition from capitalism to a new form of socialorganization, missed the deep "third scenario". Contained in "Capital" in the implicit form a valid 'scenario' of events is associated with the trend identified by Marx destruction of proportionality between the real and abstract wealth, consumer value and value (portions of abstract labor, which is the basis of commercial production itself - capitalism in particular. [7 ]
Today we can say that the process of degeneration of commodity value actually "comes to the surface" appearing in phenomenon of sharp increasing the role of science and turning it into a direct productive force, the growth of the value of information and information technology, the center of gravity of the economy from production of goods to production of services, the appearance of "networking" and so on, based on generalization of which the concepts of post-industrial society are forming. However, the "thrust" logic of post-industrialism (proposed by D. Bell) includes the straightforward idealism and technological determinism, is devoid of what is called essential basics. "Knowledge" and "technology" - is, of course, quite poor, unclear features of the processes that are associated with the emergence of quality type of labor as a new stage in the development of generic and individual human entity.
One of the most important discoveries of Marx underlying his understanding of the transformation of the capitalist system of production and fully affirmed the further course of history, the discovery of the universal, or scientific labor. At the same time, his interpretation of many of the so-called "post-Marxists " classics of post-industrialism and national representatives of the "old" ( I.I. Changli , V.M. Mezhuyev, J.K. Pletnikov, etc.) and the "new" (A. B. Buzgalin , A.I. Kolganov, etc.) Marxism are not satisfactory ". Universal labour is any scientific work, every discovery, every invention ". First, it is collaborative, co-operative work and secondly, the work accumulating a work of the predecessors. The tremendous productive power of labor is associated not with the idea itself , but with a qualitatively new level of development of universal human ancestral forces accumulated in science and technology, and with more powerful (and potentially infinite) forces of nature. Modern concrete historical form of universal labor is obviously a computer work related to the production of information, material or abstract entities ( V.V. Orlov). Discovering the above features of universal labor, in which a person acts in a certain way is not as well-behaved force of nature, and as the subject of controlling all the forces of nature, a unique view of the emerging immaterial material production initiates radical reforms on all levels of the social system. The most important in this respect are the features of the computer work fundamentally new unity of material and intellectual labor and its deeply social nature, incomparable in content and breadth to the social character of labor of past eras. This is manifested, in particular, in its growing productivity, releasing a large percentage of time shifting the center of gravity of the economy from production of goods to production of services as the economy, directly aimed at the production of human beings, his all-round development. It is in the public services (health, education, research), having according to Bell, a non-market character, most clearly reveals itself a phenomenon of degeneration of commercial value, and as a result, the problem of "non-market economy of well-being" and lack of "adequate evaluation mechanisms public goods" . 
Fundamental changes in the economy over the past two decades have resulted in, as the D.A. Silichev notices, understanding the fact that the "social things are necessary to view as an individual goal and an important sphere of productive investments in human capital, which competes in importance with finance capital". In this vein, as the author notes, the European social model is developing today, based on the principle of the indissoluble link between economic effectiveness and social progress (Council of Europe, Barcelona, 2002) and gradually moving closer to the Scandinavian model of employment and social protection.
The steady expansion of the non-market public services, the transition from rigid pyramidal governance structures to the network and, finally, directly social nature of computer work (information) - phenomena that hide beneath a deep process of social and economic restructuring, degeneration key to the preceding mode of production of the phenomenon of private property and the formation of a new, more effective in the prevailing situation, individualized public property (V.V.Orlov). The term "hurricane onslaught" of these particular processes -degeneration of the cost of private property (the latter point is remarked by many poststructuralists) - stagger the capital today for the traditional socio- economic institutions and born of their system of values and myths. One of them, pretty dated, but still in demand in the domestic environment, the "reformers" - the myth of the inefficiency of the public (state) property. It is clear that the growth of the thoroughness of the historical action, which is manifested in the scientific and technical progress, obedience to man all the more powerful forces of nature, up to space, and suggest a process of socialization of property. The most common and inevitable, even though the original, form of socialization, as the V.V. Orlov says, is the limit of private property by increasing the government economy. It is in the spirit of this civilizational trends that the "breakthrough strategy" modernization of the social and economic system should be made, from our point of view, which is associated with "certain optimum (maybe even a minimum) of the "market " development and the forced introduction of a post-industrial technology and the economy." 
The destruction of commodity value for a long period of history as a basis for economic, legal, political, moral relations based on the principle of "equivalent exchange "activities ("an eye for an eye " rule "shu", "golden rule" of morality) , leads to a crisis and overcoming the inevitable, "removal" of the latter . A relatively simple, amenable abstraction work with its additive structure and the corresponding structure of (cost)is reflected in the corresponding abstract universal system of values and meanings (abstract equality, abstract "man in general", etc.) , get along tolerably well with the real disparities in living conditions. The origin of universal labor and the formation of a new "humanized " value (the value of ) labor outgrow the principle of "equivalent exchange ", and involves the formation of a new, concrete universal, system of values in which the real equality of opportunities and living conditions will be the basic principle that creates the conditions of maximum and other non-limiting individual development.
Today, we are witnessing a crisis existed more than thousand of years (with some modifications) abstract universal system of values: it is literally "bursting at the seams ." We can not recognize it as satisfactory, really working in a "clash of civilizations" between developed and developing countries and regions of the world, at a time when more than a billion people in the world are starving ... The modern world is struggling to find, or rather, gives birth to new ideals. The new, concrete universal system of human values is created, from our point of view, in the context of intercultural dialogue, gathering strength alter globalization movement, and its elements are clearly visible in the social policies of a number of European countries. The main conceptual aspects of this system, of course, already formed , though still in a rather general form: first, the priority of labor, "human capital" in front of "finance capital" and, secondly, the priority of collective over individual (individualism), concrete universal core, which forms the rule of public interest and the private interest of the property and the property. The deep crisis of the modern education system, acquiring civilizational scale and demanding serious consideration in the context of "continuous vanishing of the"eloquently confirms our conclusions. That system settings values, which until recently focused educational model and Western civilization in general, and that contrary to logic and sense of history is being implemented in our country - a system aimed at creating a specialist, an individualist, are opposed to society, gradually, uneven, painful thing of the past. 
Restoring and improving the level of education - one of the key breakthrough development strategy of Russia, one of the key " trend " of civilizational movement. Modern, logic and reasonable education system should form: in the aspect of proper education (knowledge) - mainly versatile, wide specialist (at that time the system is aimed at both classical university education, the strategy of humanizing education) in the aspect of education (value) - of course, kommyunotarist, community, connecting personal success with the public interest. Abstract and universal system of values with its characteristic double standards, combining surface "abstract humanism" with real individualism and selfishness, has announced the world civilization to the "point of no return". Out of the impasse is seen today only in the context of development, deepening of the emerging elements of concrete universal system of human values - humanity, the priority of public interests over individual, patriotism, love of work, commitment to creativity and new horizons of knowledge.
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