- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Абасова Назифа Али, Шамилзае Тамела Мехди, старший преподаватель
Сафарова Туркен Гусейн, Джабарова Вусала Сафар, студент
Сулейманова Алия Фикрет, Маханкова Ульяна Ростиславовна, студент
Казимова Лейла Алияр, Алиева Разия Зафар, студент
Агаева Нуране Нурадин, Аббасалиева Нуране Эльфак, студент
Маммадова Улькар Видади, Ализада Ханимбаджи Илькар, студент
Карали Нермина Махаммад, Ахундова Фиранкиз Эльман, студент
Бакинский государственный университет, Азербайджан
This Article describe questions of problems of environmental protection on territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and California State (USA). As a result of comparative analysis of the nature and economy of both territories are constructed on the basis of which the maps of similarity of geosystems are compiled on regions. It has been revealed that the arid subtropic zone where is cultivated cotton, viticulture, lemon, orange, watermelon, etc., occupies a great place on both regions. Besides the natural similarity one can observe the similarity of technology of cultivation of agricultural crops and the similarity of melioration of salted soils and carrying out of melioration--irrigation measures. The structure of vegetative and soil cover is much similar as well. The similarity is met even in introduction of plant and animal species. For example, Ordubad walnut is cultivated in the territory of California, then Eldar pine and other tree species also grove in California.
Keywords: comparative analysis, environmental protection, correlation, nature, economy, geographical information system, tree species, animal species, geosystem, agriculture
Geographical location of southern part of the State of California (USA) and a number of other natural factors was conditioned the similar peculiarities of environment with Azerbaijan. As a large territory of Azerbaijan and southern part of the State of California (USA) are located between the 38 and 40 degrees of northern latitude, besides this the orographic outline and proximity to the large reservoir, both to the sea and to the ocean, created the similar nature, which requires the careful and detailed comparative analyses the results of which can be used in improvement the methods of preservation of nature for coming generation.
For this purpose we create a geographical information system(GIS) on the basis of existing literary and cartographical sources for both territories. In creation of GIS we use a number of computer programs, MAPINFO PROF.5, VISUAL BASIC, VISUAL FORTRAN, dBASE 4, ADOBE PREMIERE, Surfer 8, and etc.
The causal mathematical and geographical analysis of the created databases are carried out by the help of the programs STATWIN, STATGRAF and SURFER, which the diagrams and maps of coefficient of correlation and coefficients of similarity are constructed.
1.Comparative analysis of California and of Azerbaijan agriculture.
California is a leader in agriculture for nearly 50 years, more than 250 plant and animal products in the United States. Here are just 4% of all US farms and farm land with 3%, which accounted for 13% of the total agricultural income. 99% of the popular products in California, in fact, that produce the most profitable in the United States, these include: almonds, artichokes, avocado, alfalfa, dates, figs, kiwifruit, olives, persimmons (persimmon), pistachios, qaragavalı, raisins and walnuts. California's agricultural revenue has constituted a total of 25.9 billion dollars in 2001.
Agriculture has always developed in California. Until the middle of the nineteenth century the Spanish missions and Mexican ranchos are engaged in the cultivation of a wide range of livestock and livestock for the local market, began production of wheat and cotton. In 1870 wheat was basic goods (products). Later, citrus fruits and vegetables was created and a large quantity of fruits and vegetables grown in single-family households in the fertile lands of the Central Valley. European settlers planted vines on the slopes of Sonoma and Napa Valley, and thus laid the foundation for California 's wine industry, which, today, produces 90% of the local wine of the United States. During 1900, intensive irrigation made fertile gardens for specific products in the sandy Imperial Valley in the southern California. After World War II established the largest single-family farms.
Today, the state in the US produces 55% of fruit and vegetables. in 2002, 11.2 million hectares of land is used for agriculture in California.
Irrigation is essential to agriculture in California. 10% of the land is used for irrigation. Agriculture consumes 28% of the state's water supply. Main irrigation system is implemented with the Colorado river system, which is irrigated with 200,000 hectares of land in the Imperial Valley.
Azerbaijan is a country with ancient agricultural culture. The diversity of soil and climatic conditions are extremely rich in vegetation that has led to the development of the country's main crop (including grain) allows us to say that one of the products. One of the richest countries in the world, according to the diversity of the vegetation. 70 per cent of the flora of the Caucasus, the vegetation grows. More than 4,500 plant species in the country, as well as fruits, berries, vegetables and melons there. Even in ancient times, were engaged in gardening and horticulture. Long before our era, garlic, peas, carrots, watermelon, etc. before. vegetables and melons grown in the country, the population has been one of the main occupations and food sources. Many of these species to be cultured in the past, and then spread to various countries of the world. Agricultural production in the traditional sector. The history of wine-growing, fruit-growing areas of silk production and widespread. Since a large part of the territory of the country is mountainous, continuously played an important role in the lives of people living in the cattle.
The unit of land area of 1715.0 thousand hectares of arable and fallow, 161.1 thousand hectares of perennial crops, hayfields 109.7 thousand ha, ha homestead 259.0, 2538.3 thousand hectares of pastures and grasses are used. The remaining area of 1.04 million hectares of forest, 2.8 million hectares in other areas.
The Central Valley is one of the regions exporting more agricultural products in the world. The farming area is part of less than 1% of the United States, and the Central Valley produce8% of local agricultural, according to the statistics of 2002. The agricultural production is based on both surface waters and ground waters for irrigation. In the US, approximately 1/6 of the irrigated land in the Central Valley. Virtually all non-tropical plants grow in the Central Valley, which are the main source of many of the food products in the United States. These include: almonds, grapes, cotton, apricots and asparagus. In here early agriculture focus in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. This area is located close to the water basin and the irrigation water was easier to transport, but later irrigation projects was into use many parts of the valley. For example, (Central Valley Project) was created in 1935.
The northern part of the Central Valley has a hot Mediterranean climate. In the southern part of the dry zone. Valley in the summer is hot and dry, while winter is cool and wet. In winter often comes thick fog, it called the "tule fog" by the local people. During the summer the temperature reached 32oC (90oF). At times, the hot waves raises the temperature of 46oC (115oF). The end of summer till autumn passes rainy season, compared with half of the summer. south-easterly winds forms the origin of tropical storms According in the southern part of the San Joaquin Valley , and sometimes to in the Sacramento Valley. The northern half of the Central Valley is very little precipitation from the semi-desert of the southern half of the valley. There is frost in the winter, but the snow is falling in very rare.
Citrus and walnut orchards, cattle were developed on both sides of the valley. Sacramento Valley agriculture is diverse and is similar to that of San Joaquin Valley. In south San Joaquin almonds and walnuts is important to export. The "Coring" in town "Olive City" calls. Here are producing olives for oil and fruit consumption. The valley produces one-third of production of black plum in the world.
The weather conditions in Sacramento Valley is very similar to San Joaquin Valley. Although there is a slightly higher humidity and rainfall. Especially in the winter and spring months (from October to May). The dry season continues from May until September.
As the most developed regions of California's agriculture, Azerbaijani field of agriculture in more developed regions are available. An example of this, climate feature of the Middle and Lower Kura depression is a bit similar to the Central valley and the Sacramento Valley. Local climate with mild winters and summers are dry and hot desert and dry steppe climate prevails. Sometimes in summer the temperature rises up to 40-43oC. Winters are mild and frost has passed, in January, the temperature varies between 1-3oC. Agriculture depends on irrigation. For this purpose, where the creation of large water tanks (eg Migeçev water tank) and irrigation canals were taken. The country's main agricultural region. Only based on irrigation farming. Cotton, dry subtropical specialized areas of agriculture and horticulture. Also grains, grapes, potatoes, sugar beet, sunflower, forage crops. There are a range of opportunities for the development of animal husbandry and the use of the cattle, sheep are kept.
Lankaran region of Azerbaijan has developed citrus fruits. humid subtropical climate conditions of the area created conditions for the development Fresh vegetable, humid subtropical (citrus) fruit and tea culture. Here, tobacco, rice, cereals, grapes are cultivated.
As understood from the foregoing, California and Azerbaijan has similar natural conditions. Also the same agriculture that are available both in California and Azerbaijan. This similarity enables different types of fruits and vegetables and livestock, as well as to develop mutual brought to Azerbaijan from California or vice versa. Example: mohair and some types of these crops( nuts, kiwifruit, olives, persimmons, pistachios , asparagus, grapes and others).
25% of California's agricultural production is exported to Japan, and the Pacific Basin countries, less than half of its agricultural products are exported. The sale of agricultural products of California has high potential in exported markets
From this point of view, Azerbaijan has a high potential. Be directly output to Russia and Central Asian countries, offers ample opportunities for the sale of its agricultural products.
2.Nature Conservation Problems" of Azerbaijan and California.
Climates of Azerbaijan and California are similar. Azerbaijan is situated in subtropical and temperate climates, as well as California is situated in subtropical (Mediterranean-type) and its north-western part is in temperate climate zone. Caspian sea in Azerbaijan and Salton sea are similar according to their impact to the territory and other features.
The relief of Azerbaijan and California was formed on Alpine Himalayan mountain range. Azerbaijan is surrounded by Great Caucasus Mountains from the north, north-western part, Lesser Caucasus Mountains from west, Talysh mountains which are continuation of the Lesser Caucasus from the south. There are Kur-Araz lowland in the center part of Azerbaijan. The relief of California is similar with Azerbaijan relief. There is California valley in the central part of California. There are Cordillera mountains in the west, Sierra Nevada mountains in the east, Cascade mountains in the north and Tehachapi mountains in the south of California.
Demand is increased for the areas where there is good natural conditions and it leads to the deterioration of the environment as a result of this. Nowadays, one of the most pressing issues in in the world is threaten the stability of human civilization and the environment that surrounds it, conformation of environmental protection with the rapid development of the economy, increase of existing ecosystem's risk of collapse. Depletion of ozone layer in the atmosphere, global warming, covering of larger areas by desertification processes, the sharp decline in biological diversity, wide spread various diseases in the result of environmental pollution are serious problems concerning the world.
The territories of Azerbaijan and California are met with these problems and various measures are carried out to solve these problems. Although, some of the measures are the same, many of the activities are implemented in different forms. One reason for this is economic, political, and social indicators of these countries. As there are more differences in the state budges of Azerbaijan and California, it has an impact on these issues. Because, in the case of allocating much funds for protection of environment, implementation of environmental protection will be provided more.
California's environment is divided into various ecoregions. Ecoregions of California can be grouped in four main groups: four main groups: field ecoregions (as Mojave desert), Mediterranean ecoregion (as the Central plains), forest mountains (such as Sierra Nevada) and coastal.
National Parks, as well as Preserves are used for both nature protection and tourism fields in California. National Parks in the territory of Azerbaijan are left aside of tourism field. In the case of the national parks in the territory of Azerbaijan are used for the purposes of tourism, will have a major impact on increased focus on environmental protection measures and the development of the tourism sector. Shahdag hotel was constructed in the Shahdag national park in Azerbaijan. But number of tourists coming there are outnumbered. The main reason of this is poor road conditions here, as well as costs are very high.
There are 15 state reserves, 9 national parks in Azerbaijan: Turyanchay State Nature Preserve, state nature reserve Pirgulu, Ismayilly State Nature Reserve, Nature Reserve and the Ilisu State Nature Reserve Garayazi in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan Ordubad National Park and State Natural Reserve, Shirvan National Park, Gol National Park, National Park Hirkan, National Park, Absheron National Park, Eldar Pine State Nature Reserve, Gakh state nature preserves in Gakh region.
Main problems of reserves the territory of Azerbaijan is the lack of attention. Thus, hunting of different animals in preserves and cutting different kinds of trees are observed here. To prevent this penaltied are applied. Preserves become national parks in order to provide a better Nature protection in Azerbaijan and California. This provides pay of more attention to them. There are 10 famous national parks in California. They are Death Valley National Park, Yosemite National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park, Point Reyes National Seashore Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, Pinnacles National Park, Devils Postpile National Monument, King Range National Conservation Area, Redwood national and state parks.
Lassen Volcanic National Park in California was established in order to study the volcanic cones and to protect this area from emergency situations. Here, the road having the length of up to 2594 m was constructed to the Lassen peak.
More than 3 million tourists visit Yellowstone national park in California. About 1200 visitors come to the Shirvan national park in Azerbaijan. As it can be seen that, national parks of Azerbaijan are short of excursionist. The reason for this is absence of conditions for the interest of excursionists.
The south part of California has subtropical dry summer climate zone. As a result, landslides are observed more clearly in the south part of California. To prevent soil erosion in California "Eldar pine trees" were sent from Azerbaijan.
There is more pollution in Baku and Los Angeles as they are capital cities. Movement of vehicles more than 12 millions, strong development of industry and pollution of environment by population has a negative impact on the health of the local population in Los Angeles. It causes to the spread of respiratory tract diseases (asthma) here. There are also environmental problems in large industrial cities of Azerbaijan.
Our comparative study showed that, nature protection issues in California were solved according to the very strict laws. Solution of unsolved problems in the future is implied among these. Interesting thing is that, "GENTLEMEN" agreements are concluded between poachers and governmental organizations in California. This method was resulted in benefit. If we use it in Azerbaijan, our environmental issues will be also resolved.
3.The compare of the vegetations of Azerbaijan and California
The vegetations of Azerbaijan and California are very rich. Cause is that, there are varieties in their relief, climate, land cover. There are more than 4200 plant species in Azerbaijan and it arranges 70% of all plants in Caucasus. 9% of the vegetation of Azerbaijan are endemic plants. In the results of the researches it is noticed that there are 5862 plant species in California. 2153 kinds of them are endemic plants. In 18-20 century newcomer immigrants found 1023 kinds of non-native plants here. The vegetation of California is in the following groups :
1. Common Trees of California. 1.1 Coniferous trees, Among the wide-spread plants Coniferous trees play important roles. 8 kinds of them more well-known here. 1.2 Other alpine trees. 1.3 Oaks. California is considered home of the many kinds of oaks. In most places of California, for example, coast ranges, valleys, woods, mountains oaks grow. 1.4 Riparian trees,In riparian places many plants like willow, alder, plane tree etc. grow.
2. Common Shrubs of California.
3. Common Perennials of California. Common Perennial plants are wide-spreaded mostly in the wet, moist places.
4. Common Bulbs of California 4.1. Dichelostemma. 4.2 Calochortus
5. Common Annuals of California.
6. Common Vines of California.
7. Common Grasses of California.
Plants are divided into the zones in Azerbaijan: Plains and semi-desert vegetation in the foothills zone - The upper limit of the semi-arid crops are different in regions, (200-350m). Desert vegetation is spreaded in the arid plains. Dry steppe and desert vegetation - it is spreaded in sloping foothills and plains. Natural landscape is changed in the result of the influence of people.
Forestry and forest-shrub vegetation- 435 kinds of trees and shrubs are spreaded in Azerbaijan. It arranges 11% of all plant species in the republic. The number of shrubs are 3 times more than the number of the trees. Arid sparse forests- one of the main researchers of the forest plants of Azerbaijan L.I. Prilipco divided arid sparse forests into some formations.
Lowland forests- Lowland forests developed in some lowlands and plains where desert and semi-desert climate dominates. Mountain forests- Some researches show that, forests cover the height of from 500-600m to 2400-2600m of slopes in the mountains. Mountain xerophytic plants- These plants are spreaded in the different heights of mountains depending on the climate and ecological case. Mountain-meadow plants- The meadow plants of high mountain zone is divided into 2 zones: these plants developed in the areals of the intrazonal and hidromorf landscapes.
The similar plants in the vegetations of Azerbaijan and California: Maple (Acer spp.)
Vine Maple(Acer circinatum). Mountain Maple(Acer glabrum). Big Leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum). California Box Elder(Acer negundo, californicum). Bert's Toy Box (Acer negundo californicum). Western Virgin's Bower (Clematis ligusticifolia). Chaparral Clematis(Clematis lasiantha). Desert Agave (Agave deserti). Catalina cherry (Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii)
Hollyleaf cherry (Prunus ilicifolia ssp. ilicifolia). Bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata). California Juniper (Juniperus californica). Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis). California juniper(Juniperus californica). Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. australis). Utah juniper(Juniperus osteosperma). California buckeye(Aesculus californica). Wood Ferns(Dryopteris spp.). Calabazilla (Cucurbita foetidissima). Rushes(Juncus spp.). Sedges(Carex spp.). Cat-tales(Typha spp). Morning Glory (Calystegia spp). Brodiaea coronaria(California Hyacinth). Hackberry(Celtis reticulata). Broadleaf stonecrop(Sedum spathulifolium). Coast sedum (Sedum oreganum). Feather River stonecrop (Sedum albomarginatum).
Ash(Fraxinus spp.) .California ash(Fraxinus dipetala).Velvet or Arizona ash (Fraxinus velutina)
Northern California walnut(Juglans hindsii).California black walnut(Juglans californica)
Quaking Aspen(Populus tremuloides).black cottonwood(Populus trichocarpa). Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii).Cottonwood(Populus spp). Westren Cottonwood (Populus fremontii). Quaking Aspen(Populus tremuloides). Black Cottonwood(Populus trichocarpa).Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii ssp. Fremontii). Black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa). Fremont Cottonwood(Populus fremontii). Lupines(Lupinus). Lupines (Lupinus spp.)
Mesa Oak (Quercus engelmannii). White oak (Quercus garryana). Tuckers Oak (Quercus john-tuckeri). Kellogg Oak (Quercus kelloggii). White Oak (Quercus lobata). Island Oak (Quercus tomentella). Interior Live Oak(Quercus wislizenii). Interior Live Oak (Quercus wislizenii). Blue oak (Quercus douglasii). Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmannii). Channel Island scrub oak (Quercus pacifica). Meadow Onion (Allium monticola); Polypody Ferns(Polypodium)
Goldback Ferns(Pteridium spp.). Dogwood (Cornus spp.). Mountain dogwood (Cornus nattallii)
Western Dogwood(Cornus nuttallii) etc.
Oaks belongs to peanut genus in Azerbaijan. They are large trees with the height of 40m, a diameter of 3m high. They live more than 2000 years. In California 20 kinds of oaks are widely spreaded and they live only in California. Shrubby kinds of them never grow more than a few feet tall.
We hope that the revealed similarities and compiled maps analysis can give the initial impulse to organize expedition for examination of existing similarities of nature and economy in both regions of the Globe (Azerbaijan and California state in USA).
1. Basirova E.A., Nabiyev A.A. Creation of Geographical Information System of Azerbaijan and the State of California, USA for Comparative Analysis of Nature and Economy// МеждународнаяконференцияЮНЕСКО«Информациядлявсех»: - "ВСЕОБЩИЙДОСТУПКИНФОРМАЦИИ"г. Санкт-Петербург, 23-25 июня2004г. http://confifap.evarussia.ru/spb2004/rus/reports/theme_127_eng.html
2. ABSTRACTS of International Conference - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF THE AZERBAIJA REPUBLIC AND CALIFORNIA STATE (USA) // http://www.ali-nabiyev.narod.ru