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Российская академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации, Россия
Елькин Алексей Владимирович, магистрант
Уральский институт-филиал российской Академии народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации г
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Россия";
The given article is concerned to realization of the national project «Accessible and comfortable habitation for Russian citizens» in the city of Yekaterinburg and the basic problems which young families and the separate categories of citizens are taking part in the project face.
Keywords: mortgage; habitation; house; National Project.
In the given article the author suggests to consider a theme of availability of the habitation provided by the program of the National project «Accessible and comfortable habitation to citizens of Russia» (further - the Program) for needy families and other "preferential" categories of citizens of the Russian Federation. Under the resolution of the Mayor of Yekaterinburg, in 2007 was stated the subprogram «Yekaterinburg – the city of accessible and comfortable habitation»(further - the Subprogram) of ensuring by accessible habitation young families, the families concerned needing improvement of housing conditions, state employees, teachers, doctors, engineers and some other categories of citizens has been declared. Practically nobody will dare to argue that such projects are necessary and important. But the quality of its fulfilment, in this case-a question of real availability of habitation - can be absolutely various.
The program of the national project provides several variants of decreasing bottom-line cost of habitation. The basic method is decreasing of m2 cost at the expense of a building’s volume growth. Developing basically an economy class, it is planned to reach costs 1 м2for 30-35 thousand roubles. Although now it is 46-48 thousand roubles in Russia in average and 54-56 thousand roubles in Yekaterinburg. It looks not quite well, but in 2012-2013 years cost was even bigger, positive dynamics are traced.
There is a question - whether enough only to decrease costs of 1 m2 of habitation? No. The categories of citizens designated in the text of the Program, in the majority can not afford even such sum. But authors of the Program have not forgotten about it. Development of relations with banks on issue of mortgage loans on the minimum rates, carrying out of auctions on rent of the municipal property, enhancement of the market of rent of habitation on fixed prices, and social payments are provided. Social payments can be used for acquisition of habitation, or on repayment of the first contribution under the mortgage, or the basic credit amount and percent. For a city of Yekaterinburg the share of social payment is - 35 % the federal (regional) budget, 5 % the budget of municipal union the city of Yekaterinburg.
Mortgage lending deserves separate attention. One of methods of decreasing habitation’s cost is restraining of rates and subsidizing on mortgage lending. Considering the statistics, the amount of mortgage lending grows from year to year, increasing roughly by 40-50 % for the Program’s first years (2007-2008 year). In the 2013 the market of mortgage lending grew on 33%. In the first quarter 2014 – 20%. Such a high progress shows that people prefer to take the chance and buy their own habitation rather than renting housing. Let’s take a look at the data – an average rate of mortgage lending, given by the Agency of Mortgage Housing Lending – 9,5%. Compare to regular rate – 12,5% - not a big difference. The majority of clients of the Subprogram have stable, but rather small income, owing to what can not pay at once all cost of apartment or other type of habitation. Within the limits of the Subprogram of providing habitation to young families, a city administration of Yekaterinburg together with the banks working in a city, provide new, more favourable conditions of a mortgage. Important step is gaining of a chance to lower the initial contribution. It is necessary to pay attention to possibility to consider at registration of mortgage loan incomes of parents of a young family which frequently help the relatives, and on conditions of getting delay of payments at a birth of the child and for the period of real estate building.
The author of the given article has done a research of productivity of all described above arrangements and has come to a conclusion that by the end of 2012 19,8 % of families, by own means and social payments from federal and local authority budgets, could acquire a house. For the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that this index was planned as 30 %.
At this stage, according to the author of the article, for improvement of results of realization of the Program it is possible to offer some methods. It is necessary to give the greatest attention to mortgage lending development, in particular improvement of cooperation with authorized banks for decreasing and stabilization of rates which, despite decrease, remain quite high. More than one year the authorized committees achieve acceleration of positive dynamics in this question, but unfortunately, not always successfully. The planned payments from the federal budget (20 billion roubles), passing distribution by regions of Russian Federations, Sverdlovskaya oblast reaches not enough – it is a problem and it is necessary to be concerned of. And still there are problem of “speed of work” on a local level – some cities got enough money for social payments and building itself but can not spread this amount quick because of bureaucratic delays. In the city of Yekaterinburg, demand for inexpensive "social" real estate grows, pace of construction are frequently behind demand. The increasing of scales of construction of economy class habitation will help to lower target cost of square metre.
Certainly, habitation cost in Yekaterinburg still remains at high level, but level of incomes grows also. The main indicator - an index of availability of habitation (cost of 1м2 regarding to the average level of the income of townspeople) - in Yekaterinburg it is 180-190 %. Other cities with the population more 1 billion point more than 200 %, Moscow - 350 %.
Thus, the directive of the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin is realizing according the plan and «working families», not all, but nevertheless had an opportunity to get accessible and comfortable habitation. The situation in the city of Yekaterinburg encourages and with due attention from the authorized structures the Program is in a fair way to succeed.
The governmental order of the Russian Federation from 12/17/2010 №1050 «About the federal target program «Dwelling» on 2011 - 2015»//Meeting of the legislation of the Russian Federation, 1/31/2011, №5, item 739.
Analytics from IRN.ru (Real Estate Indicators)