- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Николаевский национальный университет им. В.А. Сухомлинского, Украина
В статье исследуется интерактивный подход в изучении иностранного языка и рассматриваются возможные пути мотивации и вовлечения студентов в процесс обучения. Проблема поставлена в общем изложении и показана ее связь с важным практическим заданием – реализацией интерактивного подхода в обучении иностранному языку в условиях современной высшей школы.
Ключевые слова: интерактивные технологии, интерактивное обучение, деятельность, современные методы обучения, иностранный язык.
The article deals with the interactive approach in foreign language teaching process and possible ways of motivation and involving students in learning process are examined. The problem is presented in general outline and its connection with important practical task of realization of the interactive approach in foreign language teaching is analyzed.
Keywords: interactive techniques, interactive learning, activity, modern teaching methods, foreign language.
The problem statement. The world is in various stages of social, economic and demographic transition. The emerging global economy is both competitive and independent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. So we need to be concerned about the future of the English language in the 21st century. As teachers of language, we have thoughts about our subject matter – what language is, what culture is and about our students – who they are as learners and how it is they learn. It is very important for us to become aware of the thoughts that guide our actions in the classroom. To solve this problem, on our point of view, there is need to research the usefulness of introducing interactive approach into English lessons. However, the question of its usefulness is still open.
The analysis of the last researches and publications.There are many scholars that contributed in some way or another to the topic. These ate the works of H.Douglas Brown (“Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy” [ 1 ], Pometun O., Pirozhenko, L. , Harmer J. (“The Practice of English Language Teaching. ”) , Syrotenko G.O. (“Modern lesson: Interactive Techniques Learning”) [ 4 ], Rogova G.V. (“Methods of Teaching English”), [ 6 ], Richards J.C. and Rodgers Th.S. (“Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching”) [ 5 ].
The main material of the study.Interaction is an important word for language teachers. In the era of communicative language teaching, interaction is, in fact, the heart of communication. And after several decades of research on teaching and learning languages, we have discovered that the best way to learn to interact is through interaction itself.
Interaction is the collaborative exchange of thoughts, feelings, or ideas between two or more people, resulting in a reciprocal effect on each other. From the very beginning of language study, classrooms should be interactive. Wilga Rivers puts it this way: “Through interaction, students can increase their language store as they listen to or read authentic linguistic material, or even the output of their fellow students in discussions, skits, joint problem-solving tasks, or dialogue journals. In interaction, students can use all they possess of the language - all they have learned or casually absorbed – in real-life exchanges….Even at an elementary stage, they learn in this way to exploit the elasticity of language. (1987:4-5)
True human interaction is best accomplished when focal attention is on meanings and messages and not on grammar and other linguistic forms. Learners can more easily proceed to automatic modes of processing. As students become engaged with each other in speech acts of fulfillment and self-actualization, their deepest drives are satisfied. All of the elements of communicative competence (grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, and strategic) are involved in human interaction. All aspects must work together for successful communication to take place.
The complexity of interaction entails a long developmental process of acquisition. Numerous errors of production and comprehension will be a part of this development. And the role of teacher feedback is crucial to the developmental process. Rebecca Oxford pointed out that teacher roles are often best described in the form of metaphor: teacher is manufacturer, teacher as doctor, teacher as judge, teacher as gardener, and others. Following you will find another set of metaphors to describe a spectrum of possibilities of teacher roles, some of which are more conductive to creating an interactive classroom than others.
The most important key to creating an interactive language classroom is the initiation of interaction by the teacher and the teaching style is to provide the stimuli for continued interaction. These stimuli are important in the initial stage of a classroom lesson as well as throughout the lesson. One of the best ways to develop your role as an initiator and sustainer of interaction is to develop a repertoire of questioning strategies. In second language classrooms, where learners often do not have a great number of tools for initiating and maintaining language, teacher’s questions provide necessary stepping stones to communication. There are, of course, other teacher strategies that promote interaction. Pair work and group work give rise to interaction. Encouraging students to develop their own strategies is an excellent means of stimulating the learner to develop tools of interaction. Even “lecturing”(and other forms of orally providing information) and having students read texts are part of the process of creating and maintaining an interactive classroom. When learning becomes cooperative students have more opportunities to learn how to work cooperatively in the classroom. Through a range of group activities like discussion, presentation, meetings, etc. learners are supposed to find a solution to the target problem and present it in the particular written or oral form (a report, a presentation).
One of the basic principles of interactive learning is purposefulness. Whatever the learners do in auditorium: reading, writing, listening or speaking, they do it purposefully, solving problems by means of foreign language. Many group activities lend students to situations where critical thinking skills, such as problem-solving, are necessary.
The main principles for designing speaking techniques by H.Douglas Brown:
1. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency.
2. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques.
3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.
4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction.
5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening.
6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication.
7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
Teaching conversation has two major approaches: an indirect approach in which learners are more or less set loose to engage in interaction, and a direct approach that according to Richards (1990: 76-77) “involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies, and processes that are involved in fluent conversation». The indirect approach implies that one does not actually teach conversation, but rather that students acquire conversational competence, by engaging in meaningful tasks. A direct approach explicitly calls students’ attention to conversational rules, conventions, and strategies.
Conclusion. After analysis of the literature by this theme we think that interactive learning can stimulate a new spiral in the development (and self-development) of an English foreign language teacher of a new generation in this country. When teachers have students who are easier to motivate their experience is more rewarding. That is a teacher who would be able to respond and adapt to the needs of the learners, who could be less dependent on the published course books, while be more creative and flexible in course designing and course accomplishing. From our point of view, everyone stands to win when learning becomes an experience that involves students and makes them active partners in their own education.We hold it true that both English foreign language teachers and learners would get a passport into a career and teachers would largely enrich their professional arsenal.