- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Ивано-Франковский национальный технический университет нефти и газа, Украина
The relevance of HR training and development in the domestic companies is substantiated. The problems which hinder this process are accentuated. The directions and ways of the improvement of this activity, considering modern achievements in this field, are suggested.
Keywords: training, development, human resources, knowledge, technologies, education.
The complexity and uncertainty of the environment where domestic companies operate require new knowledge for business in such conditions. People are the determinant source of such knowledge in a company, in particular, workers, managers, owners, competitors, customers etc. who participate in business activities of a company. Their cooperation and interactions generate certain experience which considerably facilitates the solution of modern development purposes, enhances the quality and efficiency of decision making in the process of management of a company.
Today the erudition, intellectual capacity, communication skills, work experience, knowledge of not only the leaders, but also of the executants are of utmost importance. Therefore, modern development of the companies requires from managers the selection and training of human resources who could solve the challenges of development by improving HR qualitative component. This requires the continuous HR development which is achieved through working out and implementing a system of interrelated actions, the main elements of which include: the development of training strategy, prognosis and planning the need in human resources of a certain qualification, career and professional development management.
The functioning of such a system creates the possibilities for HR development which should be given to all the employees. This approach allows not only to improve business efficiency but also to provide management flexibility due to the improvement of the climate in the team, the facilitation of the delegation process, high job effectiveness.
Modern company independently chooses the ways of HR development. One of the alternatives is the intensification of the internal potential of a company. It is formed due to the qualified workers, obtained experience of managers and employees, their knowledge and professional skills, mentoring, self-training management, training by the employees of higher qualification.
Another alternative is the usage of external factors. They provide HR development through training with the involvement of external professionals of specialized organizations, professional development of the employees in specialized scientific institutions (universities, institutes, centers, agencies, consulting groups).
HR training and development in a company may be carried out within the traditional forms of training on the basis of higher education. Traditionally, the main sources of the replenishment of a company with new personnel who possess necessary knowledge, skills and competencies are higher educational establishments. However, the situation in Ukraine nowadays is characterized with unfavorable tendencies in high school training, particularly, the growing number of the Ukrainian youth who prefer to study abroad. Figure 1 shows the dynamics of the number of the Ukrainian students who study abroad. Such information is published by national media because as it is mentioned in publications, no agencies in Ukraine collect and analyze such information .
Fig. 1 The number of the Ukrainian students who study abroad
One of the reasons of such situation is the education quality in Ukraine which is estimated as an average. Such estimate was given by 44.9 per cent of the respondents during the nationwide survey "The attitude of the Ukrainian population to the external independent knowledge estimation" which was conducted in 2008-2013. During this very survey only 40.3 percent of the respondents agreed that higher education in Ukraine provides good professional knowledge, while 36.2 percent disagreed with this opinion .
Thus, today the companies face the actual problem–providing the appropriate level of knowledge of the potential workers who are offered on the labor market. In most cases, the companies solve this problem independently. The enhancement of the quality level of a company’s personnel in modern conditions requires effective educational technologies, instruments and brand new organizational forms of learning.
Worldwide experience worked out considerable potential of educational technologies. For their implementation within existing forms of learning classical and active learning methods are used. The first ones include lectures, seminars, conferences and demonstrations. Among the second ones the most considerable role belongs to mentoring, case study, game learning. Nowadays the following learning technologies and relevant organizational forms of learning are used: training, casing, coaching, mentoring, tutoring, banding, shadowing, secondment, business games, intellectual games. Some forms of training are not known enough in the domestic practice, so we suggest their quick overview.
Secondment denotes the type of staff rotation both within a company and beyond it. The specialists are sent to another structure to obtain certain skills and knowledge.
Shadowing is a form of training which allows the beginning managers to observe how the experienced successful managers act in practice and to adopt their methods.
Banding is a form of training according to which the learners are divided into groups by their intellectual level. This level is determined with verbal and thinking abilities tests, which measure the level of learning abilities.
Tutoring is a form of training which is based on the obligatory and regular individual classes of a tutor and a listener.
Mentoring is one of training and staff development methods, when more experienced employee (mentor) shares his knowledge with his novice during some time.
Coaching is an instrument of personal and professional development which is built on the principles of training, positive, cognitive and organizational psychology, on the idea of conscious life and possibilities of constant and purposeful human development.
Intellectual game is an individual or collective solution of tasks which requires productive thinking in conditions of limited time and competition. Intelligent games combine features of both playing and learning activity – they develop theoretical thinking as they require the formulation of notions, the fulfillment of basic mental operations (classification, analysis, synthesis, etc.).
We may conclude that there is a significant potential for the enhancement of intellectual component of HR development and training in a company. However, the basis of transformations in a company is in the sphere of qualitative changes in the education system, in particular, professional and specialized system. Nowadays the involvement of companies, organizations and firms into the cooperation with higher educational establishments is also an important task. This would allow, on the one hand, to approximate science to the practical sphere of activity, on the other hand, it would favor the enhancement of the employees’ intellectual level and encourage them for self-education. Indeed, the basic idea of the modern higher education paradigm of is to teach how to study.
In conclusion it should be noted that today in Ukraine the available potential of the improvement of HR training and development in companies is not used. International experience of solving this problem should be taken into account. As for domestic reserves for the improvement of higher education in Ukraine, the following approach deserves the attention. It is well known that the demand determines the supply on the market, and this rule is the main landmark for the development and usage of measures for the improvement of the education quality in Ukraine. Urgent steps for the improvement of higher education according to the requirements of the main consumer of educational services in Ukraine should be the following (fig. 2).
Fig. 2 Directions of the education quality improvement in Ukraine [2, p.34]
The main directions of the improvement of HR training and development process in a company should be as follows:
Despite the information mentioned above, it should be noted that even taking into account these requirements, domestic higher education won’t overcome the crisis without an appropriate attention of the state and the government. Consistent solution of macroeconomic problems, considering financing of the education, state order, the involvement of the education into practical sector will favor not only the enhancement of the intellectual potential of the country, but will provide the economic growth, the improvement of international image and the increase of the people’s well-being, because a man is the most important driving force of the development.
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