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The problems of cross cultural aspect in translation

Автор Доклада: 
Loshchenova I.
Награда: 
The problems of cross cultural aspect in translation

THE PROBLEMS OF CROSS CULTURAL ASPECT IN TRANSLATION

Loshchenova Irina, Ph.D. in pedagogical sciences
The Mykolayiv V.O.Sukhomlynsky National University

The thesis under consideration highlights the problems of cross cultural communication in translation process.
Key words: cross cultural communication, cross cultural competence, world model, native speaker, foreign language.

У статті висвітлено проблеми міжкультурного спілкування, що виникають у процесі перекладу.
Ключові слова: міжкультурна комунікація, міжкультурна компетенція, картина світу, носій мови, іноземна мова.

Globalization and international relationships intensive development, which nowadays are inseparably connected, made the basis for the increasing interest for the problems of cross cultural communication. Developing cross cultural communication problems in translation seems to be very important and significant in terms of the existence of cross cultural asymmetry, on the one hand and the necessity of this aspect considering while professional translators training, on the other.

One of the important features of our time is the increasing number of people, who are in contact with cultures different from their native one during the whole life period. People typically face difficulties when their familiar cultural environment is changed. The study of cross cultural communication and its problematic spheres are currently very promising area of research.

Ideological foundation of globalization trends contains the developing of the basic principles of life system shared understanding by the absolute majority of people on Earth; they promote communication understanding between different cultural systems as essential elements of the modern world model.

Processes, related to the phenomenon of globalization, often involve regular contacts in various fields between different cultures. In general, cross cultural contacts are no longer a kind of elitism; they become more frequent and continued. This situation requires the simultaneous practical problems and issues of cultural adaptation solving, which may not always easily done. Cross cultural competence, in turn, helps to develop practical skills of communication with the other cultures representatives, minimizing the possibility of dishonoring their feelings and maximizing cooperation and understanding.

One of the important tasks of future translators training is cross cultural skills inculcating and developing [1], which include the ability of initiating connections between their own distinctive national and foreign cultures, of different strategies recognizing and using for establishing contacts with another culture native speakers, acting as a cultural mediator between domestic and foreign cultures. There are some more considerable points among the above-mentioned ones, which are aimed at contributing effectively in the situations of misunderstandings and cultural conflicts if they arise, giving some kind of information about the Ukrainian events and social life, evaluating them in the European context.

Sociolinguistic component is the part of the linguistic aspect of sociocultural competence, and deserves more detailed consideration, as soon as speech is primarily a social phenomenon [2]. Thus, social relations markers are extremely different in different languages and cultures, as they depend on the factors such as age and social status of interlocutors, closeness of relationship, index of speech, etc.

The modern theory takes translation as a special form of interlingual communication among the entire set of its own linguistic and extralinguistic factors. However, there had been proved in linguistics that translation as a special type of communication cannot be influenced by pragmatic categories of speech.

Cross cultural communication occurs in terms of the two interconnected concepts. We view this notion as information exchange in the process of different cultures’ interaction, as the kind of intercourse that occurs in significantly different conditions, caused by cultural and communicative competence of its participants. The differences significantly affect success or failure of the communicative act. Cross cultural communication is characterized by the fact that its members use special language choices and discursive strategies in direct contact that are different from those they use when communicating within the same culture. An exchange of messages is transmitted from one person to another in the process of communication. There is a great number of situations where cross cultural interaction is observed. Among them there are some borrowed phenomena from alien culture, or a person’s long time living and working in non-native society. There are also situations where a foreign culture is studied to determine its specific characteristics.

Communication is considered to be successful if the participants of the communicative act understand each other, i.e. the addresser’s intentions meet the expectations of the addressee, and the set of the addresser’s language means is adequately interpreted by the recipient; moreover, there are no contradictions between the both participants of the communicative situation. If the sender and the receiver share the same cultural and linguistic community and have the same national-language world, the basis for understanding is much more comfortable and resultative.

In his professional activity any translator faces linguistic and extralinguistic problems. If the existence of interlingual differences, national and cultural characteristics of the target audience are ignored it could result in a communication failure.

The study of intercultural communication attracts scholars’ interest for many years. Today, it is not necessary to prove the importance of this issue for human development in general and for each individual apart. Much more important is the organization of theoretical and practical courses and programs of cross cultural communication in the future professional interpreters’ training.

The term “intercultural communication” appeared in 1973, and it is usually associated with E.C.Condon’s thesis Introduction to Cross Cultural Communication [3].

Intercultural Communication as a concept was created to address practical issues of post-war world, which were formed among the intellectual environment and public opinion in regards to “exotic cultures and languages”.
Globalization at the present stage applies to all areas of life, including education and cross cultural communication. There are four main directions of cross cultural communication research (M.Berhelson): 1) sociological 2) psychological, 3) linguistic and 4) applied.

The most common socio-linguistic issues related to social adaptation of migrants, preservation or loss of traditional cultures in the minority.

Psychologists in the field of cross cultural communication are interested primarily in the impact of cultural differences on the interpretation and concretization processes, and the origin of the behavior stereotypes. It is the matter of linguists to observe and describe the means of foreign professional communication developing. Accommodation is applied to such options of communication, as the subject of speaking, the appropriate choice of vocabulary when talking to foreigners. Investigations in the sphere of cross cultural discourse, cross cultural pragmatics become widespread among scholars all the world over.

In cross cultural research applied aspect is regarded to be principal; the study of professional communication belongs to it. The central concept in the field of cross cultural communication is intercultural sensitivity; its improvement in conditions of a society ambiguity is an important part of a future specialists’ professional fitness. Currently, research in the field of cross cultural communication focuses on the behavior of people who are faced with speech differences and their consequences. The description of cultural specifics in terms of expression and interpretation of communicants’ situational speech actions resulted in the investigation. Such descriptions help to acquire cross-cultural competence.

Detailed review of the cross cultural communication sources makes it possible to state that in the process of communication the blending of foreign conceptual model of the world takes place, i.e. those which are based on historically and culturally conditioned concepts. As soon as we accept these concepts both collectively, within the society, and individually, through our analytical skills, the only thing that may cause communication conflicts are deep conceptual differences in the vision of world model [4, p.39].

Despite the fact, that cultural and conceptual models of world events are speculative, we could see how the nations see the world around having done the associative questionnaires. Many European countries are associated with students' earnings, employment, labor migration, political, geographic and socioeconomic conditions. Associations which occur in a foreign language create the language world model of students who are its inseparable part. Besides meaning, associations like Beatles, McDonald’s are also linguistic, because such words do not require translation and are those units of foreign language, which the country is associated with.

There of course, also exists the real model of the world. Between the compared models (real and conceptual) there is a man, his thinking process, which means that it reflects reality in two zigzags: from reality to thinking and from thinking to the language [4, p.239].

Due to various conceptual models there exist different languages models, thus, when representatives of different nations hear certain units of lexis, completely different images are represented in their minds. For example, the translation of the word table as a compact, systematic list of related facts, figures, values, etc. in orderly sequence, and usually in rows and columns, may seem strange in Ukrainian because of the commonly known word table as a piece of furniture consisting of a flat, horizontal top usually set on legs. That is why we often move our communication strategies from native language into foreign.

Like communication within a particular culture, cross cultural communication faces the important problem which is aimed at meeting the needs of society and using certain resources with minimal losses for both interlocutors. But the situation can get worse with two reasons. First, during cross-cultural communication not all the participants in the communication process need information available to the representative of another culture. It happens because people who consider a particular language as foreign, perceive certain linguistic structures not like native speakers. They in turn, also cannot use all available means of communication, as soon as the other side does not understand their dialogue. If a problem occurs in the community dialogue participants can broaden or narrow the boundaries of the conflict, depending on the content of relevant information and existing means of transmission.

According to Ukrainian scholars, in the communication process of different cultures’ representatives some problems, caused by relations to different cultures can arise. The problems of such kind are difficulties in understanding, misunderstanding, and discussing problems dealing with separation, dishonouring, and mental isolation.

Thus, we can state that the translation process itself is included in the bilingual communication. Although the process of translation creates its specific characteristic, the study of translation, however, has to find out the origin of the source text, conditions of understanding of the target language, social status of communicants, linguistic situation, and various related phenomena, in other words, it is everything that is a part of the complex notion of cross cultural communication.

References

  • 1. Modern Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. A Common European Framework of Reference / Council of Europe. – Strasbourg, 1998. – 224 p.
  • 2. Швейцер А.Д. Современная социолингвистика. Теория, проблемы, методы. – М., 1977.
  • 3. E.C.Condon. Introduction to Cross Cultural Communication: New Brunswick, NJ:Rutgers University Press.
  • 4. Communication Strategies: Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Perspectives / Ed. by G. Kasper and E. Kellerman. – L.and N.Y.: Longman, 1999. – 398 p. 
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