- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Людмила Пьянкова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
Кузбасский государственный технический университет, Россия
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Россия";
Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;
The problems concerning the modern family readiness for parenthood, including the phenomena of motherhood and fatherhood, as a complex of attitudes and values, emotional and sensual side, the personality characteristics of parents are considered in the article. It is noted that quite a number of studies conducted in medicine, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, culturology allow us to treat motherhood as an independent reality that requires a holistic scientific approach to its research.
Keywords: society, family, parenthood, motherhood, child, personality, upbringing, behavior.
Inrecent years, the necessity of strengthening the family institution is extensively discussed in the Russian scientific literature. In modern Russia, the primary unit of society is experiencing a severe crisis due to the problem of alienation in the sphere of parent-child relationship: the loss of emotional ties, the declination of kinship and parenthood importance, value and intensity of joint communication, the time allocated to it, deviant motherhood. This also may include a number of problems concerning not only mothers abandoning their children, but also representing the breach of mother-child relationship. Often it becomes a cause of reduced emotional well-being of the child and its deviations in optimal psychological development in infancy and early school age.
According N. V. Bogachyova, “self-affirmation and autonomy as the most important principles of modern life lead to the destruction of the traditional family foundations. In this marriage becomes the main line of family relations, whereas parenthood – the secondary one” . These processes, as the author notes, occur against a background of high divorce rate, low birth rates, which doesn’t prove the simple reproduction of the population; the gap between the increased demands on the quality of relationships in marriage and family, and the degree of their satisfaction; contradictions between family and professional roles of spouses; lack of coordination between the social demands, and socializing family opportunities.
In these circumstances,readiness for parenthood, including the phenomena of motherhood and fatherhood, as a complex of attitudes and values, emotional and sensual side, the personality characteristics of parents act as a social and psychological problem because it covers both the important sphere of social life, and the highly personalized (psychological) one presented by the complex series which is not to be confined only to behavioral acts.
It is importantto note that when determining the specificity of maternal and paternal behavior the various indicators are used in science. L. B. Schneider notes that the family education is naturally based on feeling. Initially, the family is usually based on the feeling of love that defines the moral atmosphere of this social group, style and tone of relations among its members: the manifestation of tenderness, affection, care, tolerance, generosity, forgiveness, a sense of duty . The experimental study conducted by E. V. Miliukova, aiming at the comparative analysis of paternal and maternal love, revealed a number of significant characteristics of both types of love. Father's love is conditioned by the child's achievements, merits, behavior and his appearance. A mother's love is unconditional, in most cases. Maternal love involves the child's personality and behavior differentiation, i.e. the mother’s condemnation of the specific actions of the child doesn’t entail the denial of his emotional significance and the decrease of his personality value . The differentiation of paternal and maternal feelings was being pointed out by Freud. Thus, the scientist considered differentially the role of mother and father on the pregenital stages of development. He considered the mother to be the key figure in the development of the basic personal qualities; the development of a boy or girl on the phallic stage (preschool age) being entirely dependent, in his opinion, on the characteristics of overcoming the Oedipus conflict centered around the figure of the father . Besides the father’s figure in the theoretical model of Freud is the key one in the process of the shaping of super-ego, i.e. socially oriented qualities of the child.
The importanceof maternal behavior for the child's development, its complex structure and the way of development, the multiplicity of cultural and individual options, as well as a sufficiently great number of current researches in medicine, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, cultural studies allow us to treat motherhood as an independent reality that requires a holistic scientific approach to its research. Thus, B. Burns, in the preface to the book "Different faces of motherhood" writes: "If we want to understand the child’s development, and we are convinced that the early years are important for the child's life, then perhaps it is important to examine our ideas about the mother. If we want to understand the human’s development, motherhood, of course, is an important area of research" .
The issues considered by themodern psychologists-researchers in mothering are wide and varied. The idea of mother and child subjectivity deeply disclosed in the concept of motherhood developed by G. G. Philippova. Motherhood is considered not only as the condition for the development of the child, but as the specific need-and-motivation component of women’s psychology, being formed throughout her life. G. G. Philippova marks out three parts in the content of the maternal sphere: the need-and-emotion block (step-by-step development of the need in the emotional contact with the child and the care about him and the need in motherhood arising on the basis of the reflection of her experiences); the operation block (the operations of care of the child and communication with him/her), having the specific emotional coloring that provides these operation with the style characteristics: careful, gentle, caring, etc., facial expressions and vocalizations specificity; the value-and-sense block (treating the child as the independent value, as well as the value of motherhood as the state of "being a mother").Discussing the issue of biological or social nature of motherhood, G. G. Philippova is convinced that this phenomenon is not evolutionarily fixed, but is formed throughout the life. In this regard, one can speak of the concrete cultural model of motherhood as the content of all blocks of the maternal sphere of the woman focused on the development of appropriate concrete cultural variant of the child’s personality. Education required for each culture of the of individual maternal sphere type, in its turn, is ensured by various means (model of family, motherhood and childhood, traditions, the system of family and public education, etc.) and can be described as "the ontogenetic path to the model".
In the researches in the development ofmaternal sphere conducted by P. M. Shereshevsky and L. J. Yarrow, the experience of interaction with her own mother, the peculiaritiesof the family model of motherhood, the opportunity to interact with babies and the emergence of interest in their in the childhood are markedas the most significant developmental factors of maternal sphere .
The personalmaturity of mother must also be regarded as the one of the most important factors in the development of maternal sphere. In the paper of R. V. Ovcharova the personal maturity of the mother is the systemic education, representing the unity of personal and parental constituents. The personal constituents are: responsibility; active life position, adequate self-understanding, authenticity, desire for self-knowledge, self-realization, self-development; generated value orientation and the ability to make choices and the ability to build mature interpersonal relationships. The parent constituents include: adoption of the internal position of the parent, sense of responsibility for the educational impact; ability build the flexible relationships with the child, parental love as the highest manifestation of parental feelings .
The ideaof motherhood as a stage in the development of consciousness is discussed in studies of V. I. Brutman, Y. I. Shmurak conducted in line with perinatal psychology [2; 12]. The authors identify the sensitive sphere change, the transformation of the inner world of the woman as the main maternity neoformation. That's the nature of the "inner workings" defines the experience of motherhood as the dynamic phenomenon, belonging to the mother and realized within the system mother-child interaction.
The senseexperience of motherhood, according to S. A. Miryunovoy and E. A. Teterleva is the neoplasm in the area of the woman’s consciousness, who has taken over the parental role. Motherhood, being a qualitatively new situation of the women’s development starts the process of consolidating of her life development purposes and objectives of the child's development. Initially, this process is often uncontrollable. It induces the flow of new and varied experiences that fills the inner psychological space of the mother. But gaining experience in dealing with the child, the woman learns to understand and conceptualize her own experiences, and, in future, to manage them choosing the strategies of parental behavior .
The senseexperience of motherhood as the neoformations in the woman’s consciousness is manifested by a special internal sense-construction activities, carried out in the internal mother’s dialogue of. In this dialog the development of sense positions that reflect the mother-and-child relationship experience in the real life environment, as well as the features of her own inner world development experience take place.
The studyof psychological readiness for motherhood conducted by S. Y. Meshcheriakova, N. N. Avdeev and N. I. Ganoshenko, established the connection between the level of the woman's psychological readiness for motherhood, her real maternal behavior and the characteristics of the mental development of the child at three month age. In this case the main factor in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood, determining the maternal behavior and thereby influencing the particular child's mental development, is the attitude of the mother to the child .
Great popularity inconsidering the issues of motherhood is recently gaining by the ethological approach (D. Dewsbury, E. N. Panov, K. Lorenz, N. Tinbergen, etc.). In this approach the motherhood is considered from the point of view of the assessmentof the parent’s resource costs (parental investment), the revelation the evolutionary basis for the formation of the parental behavior patterns, the mutual insurance of the key stimulation for the realization of the adaptive behavior by the parents and the offspring [3; 8; 9; 15]. Many foreign ethological approach researchers come to a conclusion about the socio-cultural nature of motherhood. The importance of maternal behavior for the child's development, its complex structure and mode of development, the multiplicity of cultural and individual options allow speaking about motherhood as an independent reality that requires further theoretical and practical development.
Taking into consideration the fact that the modernpsycho-pedagogical science is experiencing the serious shortage both of the methodology and techniques of family education and formation of family values, it is necessary to continue the study of the motherhood problem, involving the potential of psychological and pedagogical sciences. Within the theoretical framework it is necessary to find the new "way towards the model" of the maternal sphere, based on the awareness both of the mother’s needs and the child's mental development features.
In this case the psychological and educational support to expectant mothers proposed much earlier their conscious decision about their marriage and the birth of the child can be efficient. School teachers could be engaged in this research in collaboration with physicians, psychologists, because the information support to such important issues can not only perform the preventive function, but also to promote moral regeneration of society. From the practical point of view, it is necessary to develop the diagnostics of the individual characteristics of the maternal sphere, examination of the causes of existing violations, design of the methods for their correction and prevention.
Summarizing, we note that such complex problems as parenthood and motherhood require the comprehensive understanding, in which the desire to achieve harmony of relationships between family and society and other people, the protection from spiritual degradation should come to the fore.