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Бухарский государственный университет, Узбекистан
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Узбекистан";
The problems of strengthening will in Jaloliddin Rumiy’s “Masnaviyi ma’naviy” is analyzed pedagogically in this article. The ideas about greed, passion, vanity, wandon, labour, brevityand patience are given according Rumiy’s thinking. These thoughts of the medieval humanist also completely correspond to the principle of modern pedagogy, where the most attention is paid to labor education of youth. The problem of the choice of the craft, sort of the occupation also did not remain outside of field of vision of Rumiy. He emphasizes that person must approach seriously to the choice of the sort of occupation, crafts or some art, and not to hurry in order not to make a mistake. From the theoretical point of view teaching of Rumiy is based on the system of “yesterday-today-tomorrow”. Through his ideas and views he wanted to define the present-day activity by means of heritages of the ancestors and realizing his essence to create the base for the upbringing of the future generation. His creative activity is mostly realized from the period of being teenager: the period of formation of personal features (from 14 till 18 years). Because beginning from this age person begins understanding the essence of the social relations, can deeply think about these relations, his spiritual moral world outlook and idea about nature is already developed.
Will is one of the highest points of spiritual activity of mankind, and it leads people to behave with mind, knowledgeand understanding. Man controls his dreams, wishes and motions with his will; thanks to it he overcomes spiritual, practical, and financial difficulties. The person, who has a strong will, first of all, becomes self-confident, he is ever afraid of taking difficult task to his shoulders. A great scientist Jaloliddin Rumiy, whose life and literary activity belongs to the XIIIcentury, describing an educated person, paid a great attention to strengthening man’s will and appeals to “greed” to develop a will:
Nafsi avval urdi soniy nafsga do`q,
Dumdin ermas, boshidin aynir baliq.
(The first greed shouted at the latter one
The fish gets spoilt not from head but from tale.)
Under the first greed person’s natural talent and ability is meant, the second greed means his wishes and dreams of his lifetime. Because, greed is man’s financial property, his personal “I”. there is no equivalent of it in our language. The person, who follows greed, becomes its slave. If a person cannot stop his greed in time, he makes too many spiritual and practical mistakes; at last, he gets into a bad trouble. The only way of stopping greed is, of course, spiritual upbringing; man’s strong will plays a leading role in it.
Greed is a completion of two ideas which are opposite to each other. “The first is of those who earn for their living, who give some profit to people with their good and noble works, and also of those who deeply understand the meaning of existence, and live not only for today’s luxury, but for flourishing of their second, real life. The second is completely opposite to the first one, that’s to say they never think of these problems, they like the luxury, greed and their wish is in the first place for them,they never think of their parents and children’s happiness, also they are indifferent to their responsibility before their people and country.” These ideas fid their reflection in the man’s chosen life position. We bring example to description of greed can be seen in Rumiy’s work “Masnaviyi ma’naviy” which is the source of spiritual education:
Qo’ydi odam bir qadam, ul zavqi nafs,
Bo’ldi jannatning firoqi tavqi nafs. 
(As a man made a step towards his greed
This greed became a trouble in reaching heaven)
It is impossible for a man to get rid of greed after entering its power. That power makes difficult his becoming a real man by which shows him that it is impossible to reach heaven. That is described in two lines given above. We know that there are three characteristic features of greed in Sufism trend:
1. Nafsi ammora – this type of greed leads to bad way and ends fatally.
2. Nafsi lavvoma – this type of greed makes a man to reject namazbrings regret to a person who violates.
3. Nafsi mutmaina – this is the greed of anbiyos (anbiyo is a type of saints). It should be mentioned that nafsi lavvoma is saints’, and by time it becomes mutmaina. Nafsi ammora is a greed of ordinary people. If it is so we should fight against greed.
The result of greed is explained in the following way in “Masnaviy”:
Nafs agar nafs birla khush, khandon bo’lur
Zulmat ichra yo’l basepinhon bo’lur.
(Greed becomes happy with another one
The way through dark gets hidden)
In this example greed means martyrdom and wish. Martyrdom and wish together with each other leads man to fatal, darkness and in this case a man cannot find his place in the society. Rumiy says the following to such men:
Nafsingni o’ldirding, qozonding e’tibor,
Dushmaning yo’q endi, khavfsizdir diyor.
Killing greed you earned attention of others
You have no enemy, the land is not dangerous.
If you can manage your greed you can get rid of your great enemy and your world will be safe and bright. So, greed throws a man to vanity, martyrdom, it departs a man of his mind, leads to weakness, that’s why Rumiy says that the person who can manage his greed is happy. Being on point duty, a man comes across with familiar and unfamiliar case, and sometimes thanks to his strong will overcomes these difficulties, but some who are on post become victims of their greed. There is one story in “Masnaviy”. One young rich man spares all his money and wealth to women and as time passed went bankrupt. His enemies laughed at him. One day he met ran into one pilgrim and said: - Give me your blessing; I have lost everything, even my way. Give me your blessing and let me out from this moor, I want to reach my previous position again. The pilgrim said: - Your hands and legs are not tied; you are not a prisoner, nobody manages you, and no one can stay over you. What prison should I free you from, and what should you be free from? Chains can be sawn, prison can be destroyed, but all the masters of blacksmith cannot tear your chains.
Lazy people who has no will become the slaves of greed, they never feel any responsibility, and never show any propaganda. Behaviour and character of a man who has no will had more negative influence on others, but not only on themselves. The character of such man is always pessimistic. He watches hopelessly world and life, and sees negative and bad sides of others character. He blames others in his failure and lacks.
The other story in “Masnaviy” which is about overcoming the greed speaks the following: one bishop everyday throws one dirham from his full purse into the sea. But the greed always tried to spoil him because of wish and martyrdom.
- If you want to throw your money into the water throw them all at once in order to let me tolive freeand in luxury.
But the bishop said:
- I will never give you this luxury.
Overcoming the greed, strengthening the will and reaching this strength is described here. Pedagogy in the field of upbringing and forming new features and rejecting bad features starts slowly, from easy to difficult. So, as the story tells man meets different problems and gets into troubled conditions.Such cases can be overcome by those who has a strong will, self-confidence, and also powerful spiritual world. Spiritual wealth gives power and strength to men at that time. As the spirituality high so will gets stronger. Will has the following types according human character:
1. Wish and duty to realize a concrete aim;
2. Man’s pscho-spiritual condition which helps him to subdue barriers, to direct his wish and dreams, acts in reaching his concrete aim. If a man has these two types he can reach the strength of will. Vanity, snobbishness and selfishness appear because of the weakness of will. Rumiy says: Keep your soul away from deception and vanity.if there is much deception and vanity in man, he cannot be human, he loses his spiritual position.
While descirbing strength of will of their personages, painters included pride and naivety, brevity and strength, kindness and strictness together with it. The united description of these features shows the real owner of the strong will. Reading a description of strong-willed person in Rumiy’s works we can imagine a man who is far from greed, vanity, deception and who is patient, hard-working, naive and brave. For example, “Masnaviy” tells the following about brevity and naivety:
Ibrat ol tog`din, ey mayda cho`p
Sen o`zingni elga ko`z-ko`z etma ko`p.
(Hey little stick, the mountain should be a model to you
And you shouldn’t show yourself to the world. )
Rumiy describes strong-willed man as a mountain and model of naivety, so even being so high, he is too far from vanity. About boasters and snobs Rumiy tells the following:
Sen kalitsiz ham eshik ochgum dema
Kibr ila maqsadga yondoshgum, dema.
(Don’t say that you can unlock the door without keys
Though you can reach your aim without vanity.)
He treats to snobs that they shouldn’t believe their power, and estimate themselves so high, they should keep away the vanity and become wiser. There is also one sample story in “Masnaviy”. One mouse took a rope of camel and began to go his way. Having a camel after him following, mouse imagined himself a lion. Seeing that a camel decided to teach him a lesson and show what result would bring a boast. He made his way to the waterside. Mouse cried: “Stop, where are you going? I will sink.” But the camel said: “Don’t be afraid, water reaches my knee, so you will not sink.” Mouse said: “There is a difference between your and my knee. If this water reaches your knee it will go hundred times above me.” The camel said: “If it is so, you may show yourself off those who is like you.”by this story Rumiy says that a man mustn’t be deceptive and snobbish as mouse, but be modest and strict as the camel. From pedagogical point of view the right upbringing develops a man multilaterally: it increases his knowledge, will and feelings, develops characteristic features and strengthens his wealth. The process of knowing, feeling and will comes out and develops during the study and work period.
In order to develop spirituality and will which is considered its leading part, one should work honestly, with shame, mind and also hands. Because labour is a great educator. It strengthens the will. Labour forms and shapes such features of a man as behaviour, patience, cooperation, friendship, tolerance. That’s why labour considered as the main source of forming human psychology. Labour consists of activity which is directed to produce socially useful, financial or spiritual product. Labour can also be accepted as an activity providing and leading to victory over other types of existence and at the same time it is a special human action which makes man use natural forces and things. In Rumiy’s teachings an attention is paid to the educating of modest, honest and kind man. He thinks that the main spiritual feature which makes people happy and respectful is hardworking.
The idea of Middle Ages scientist completely suits nowadays principles. The main role of nowadays pedagogy is to educate people through labour.Rumiy didn’t forget the problem of choosing trade, profession and practice. Rumiy considers that the man must be strict and must have a serious approach in choosing profession or trade. According his nature a human being cannot live without labour. Working activity up brings a man physiologically, psychologically, spiritually, and culturally, helps to strengthen his will.
One of the lacks of man’s psychic developing is his will’s weakness. Psychologist scientists, besides different types of mental activities, widely use various types of labour in order to overcome this weakness of will. Labour educating is widely used in pedagogy to form the strength of will, and it really helps in this case. By labour educating teachers teach their people such features as devotion, hardworking, and patriotism. Describing labour as one of the estimating features of man Rumiy says: If one serves with a pleasur. He will have a chance of getting a favour. So, if one serves honestly, with a great pleasure, in justice, this service gives a positive result to that man. We can see also the following lines about labour in “Masnaviy”:
Nafsi mo`min ham magar bo`rsiqdir ul,
Mehnatu zahmat ila komil bo`lur.
(Even a badger with its bad greed
Can be a good one by work and difficulties.)
The greed of a man is like a badger (Melinae wild animal of musquash ), that is to say it is like lazy animal without will. If one reaches everything by hard work and through difficulties, he can be strong-willed and reach proficiency. In his “Masnaviy” Rumiy gives some examples of prophets sayings about labour:
Mustafodin keldi bizga bul tariyiq,
Ish amal ermish vafodoring, rafiq.
Yakhshi ersa, toabad yoring bo`lur,
Gar yomon ersa, jabrkoring bo`lur.
(Mustafo gave us this saying
The work became your friend
If it is good, it will be close to you
If it is bad it will always hurt you).
Man should organize his work carefully, the work or the position organized carelessly brings damage to other people. Rumiy also gives the following lines about labour in his work:you work won’t finish up to your death, as it is impossible to get on the roof without stairs. Really, the main companion of a person among others is labour which follows him up to his death. Only labour can help people to overcome difficulties and find solutions of their problems. Rumiy also gives the following idea about labour in his work:
Ey, azizim, qo`yki har kimsa bilar
Yerda nisbatan ko`kda yuksakdir hunar.
Oh, dear, please, everyone knows,
Trade is appreciated highly not on the ground but in the sky.
Rumiy highly evaluates social incoming labour, because it is the most planned trade among the other types of labour, it challenges a man to think, to act, to make conclusions and it also strengthens the will. Specific features of will are: behaviour, strictness, brevity, patience, principles, independence and others. The power of will is shown according the reflection of these features. A man overcoming difficulties with intellectual steadiness and patience based on great ideas becomes a person of strong will. Will is closely connected with human character; it plays a leading role in character’s formation. For instance, the great spiritual reflection of human will is brevity. Brave person never deceives others. He has strong shame and pride.
From psychological point of view man’s brevity shown in various difficult and hard cases straightly depends on his will. About brevity and strong will Rumiy underlines that not only control and limits but freedom is also important in growing person’s will. The scientist gives the following lines in “Masnaviy”: Clarity and brevity is for brave man, deception and alien is for coward. The line says that the brave man’s features are brevity and he always acts with clarity. But the man, who is not courageous, is far from humanity and spirituality, and unscrupulousness is one of his features. Symbolism also plays a main role in Rumiy sayings about the strength of will:
Bolari etgan yumushni, yo`q shak,
Na arslon udda aylar, na eshshak.
(No doubt, the work done by bee
Can be done neither by lion, nor by donkey.)
These lines clears that bee has a strong will, its will is so powerful that neither lion, no donkey can do the work that bee does. This shows that will is never measured according solidity and shape, solidity and hard work are only components of will. Strong will is estimated thanks to psychological cheerfulness, consciousness, belief and solely growing. Such contrary ideas in Rumiy’s thinking only prove us that he had a wide philosophical outlook. Rumiy says “Qismatin asraydi mardlar ahd ila.” (Brave man save their destiny with swear). That’s to say strong will is the result of kept swear. He also thinks that education brings to brevity and patience and says:Water never cleans itself, Man can overcome his greed with education. There is one more story close to it in “Masnaviy”: one catcher put a snare to bird and a bird got into snare. The bird began speaking like a man and asked the hunter: Hey, hunter! You have eaten sheep and cows up to that day. And now you want to eat my valueless meat. If you let me go, I will give you three advices. One of them I will tell in your hands, the other on the roof, the third from the tree.
The hunter kept the bird very hardly and said: “So, tell me the first”. The bird told his first advice: Don’t believe everything what is not true!
In order to listen to the second advice the hunter let the bird go. The bird flied to the roof and landing at the edge of it said its second advice:
- Don’t regret for your lost time, for past events. Don’t be upset for it!
Then it flew a little, and stopped in the tree, then said:
- I had eleven dirham of expensive ruby in my abdomen. If you didn’t let me go, that ruby could be yours.
Hunterbecame very upset and cried: O! What did Ido? Why did I let it go?At that time the bird said: Why are you crying so loud? I told you not to regret for your lost time, for past events and not to be upset for it. Except it I told you not to believe everything you had heard. What an idiot you are! I am not three dirham myself, and how can I have ten dirham expensive stone in my abdomen?...
The hunter realizedthat he wasn’t right and said to bird: Tell me your third advice. The bird said: That who didn’t follow two of them cannot follow the third also.Rumiy, having a very strong will, described it with such an ingenuity, none of the other authors were able to do that. Some people lose right way even if you show them this way beforehand, because they have no will and independent thinking. The bird got released thanks to its knowledge and strong will. Hunter became a source of laughter for bird because of his ignorance and weak will. “Masnaviy” says the following about it:
Ey, mushukdek solma sichqonga chovut,
Sher bo`libsan may ichib arslonni tut.
(Hey, don’t try to catch a mouse like a cat
If you feel like a lion after drinking, try to catch it.)
This symbolism expresses the cause of upbringing a will, its right formation, and also it shows that no way should be given to vanity in its formation and the direction of forming a strong will should be shown concretely. The will is always based on honesty, in reaching his aim one should direct his power of will, his mind, and attention, he mustn’t be busy with useless things and forget about his main aim. In order to realize will physically and psychologically man should form patience and brevity. Patience is a willingly stopping greed. From Arabian origin Uzbek “sabr” means bitter, patience, tolerance, it is one of the components of man’s spirituality and main component in strengthening the will. It means waiting without hurry, or overcoming the greed, tolerance, and also satisfaction. Sabr also expresses people’s tolerating various difficult cases. Rumiy says the following about the patience of man:Patince is a feeling of great persons, candy is a dream of babies. That who has patience will reach the sky, who will have candy can sweat exactly. That’s to say, Rumiy says that patience is a feature of kind, good man, and also says that patience makes a man high – “the sky”. Patience is a great spiritual feeling, symbol of mind and culture, the mark of respect to others thinking and belief. It means that patience that patience gives a man hope, recovery, profit, and also solution of his problems. Patience makes a man be careful, aware and sober. Impatience can bring different misunderstandings. The good result of work is connected with patience. Usually this term is expressed like patience, satisfaction in Uzbek. Because one needs patience for satisfaction and satisfaction for patience. But these two terms are not the same.Satisfaction, especially, is an agreement with existing conditions, tolerance on trouble, problem and sufferings, and it also expresses waiting for result of any case. That`s why Rumiysays that satisfaction is a symbol of vigilance which stands close to patience, and it is like a hand and wing with patience.
Asking not suitable questions without understanding the coming result shows the impatience of a man. This case is expressed in the following way in “Masnaviy”: The secret comes out if you don’t ask, patience takes you to your place. Don’t think if you ask you hope will come true, impatience makes your work difficult. Impatience proves man’s weak will. That’s why the author underlines that a man should have a strong patience and says “Patience leads to happiness.” Rumiy, expressing that, says that patience gives positive result in all cases, understands the urgency of any case, impatince makes everything difficult, it becomes more problematic to reach aim.
Strengthening man’s will leads to realizing his spiritual duty. Spiritual duty always kills man’s relax, life luxury, it is absorbed to man’s mind or it is accepted as family or national traditions. According to our ideas given above we came into following conclusions:
A)It is important to form and strengthen will of our future generation to up-bring highly spiritualized person of our independent society.
B)Jaloliddin Rumiy’s “Masnaviy”is a main source in forming a strong will in the minds of our youth. Rumiy’s poetry has a great spiritual content, the spiritual ideas in them serve as self understanding and closely connect people with each other, they connect also the ways between peoples’ hearts, show permanent spirituality and lead people to perfect.
C)In strengthening the will Rumiy says that stopping greed, not being interested in weqalth, not to be snob and forget about vanity, not envy others, be patient and have satisfaction be brave, hardworking, not to regret for past times, and not to believe lie, be clever, and find the way to man’s heart can be used in up-bringing spiritually healthy generation.
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