- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Сорокский Аграрно Технический Колледж, Молдова
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Молдова";
Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;
Evaluation of the agronomic education system, on the one hand, and the changing education, on the other hand, is absolutely necessary for the assessment carried out and agricultural education strategy. He identified the state of affairs in this field in order to highlight further the development trends of agricultural education, the level of satisfaction of the educational offer to pupils, parents and society and showed the impact of the process of renovation of educational management.
Keywords: Change, education agriculture agronomics, educational management, educational standard, quality management, project management, business management training.
Introduction: Nowadays, it is very important how you understand the nation as it plays vital role in shaping society. In this context, the nation's prospects depend largely on the degree of training and education of the young generation, of the mentality, formed in educational institutions, the behaviour of the parents and of the State structures of future citizens. Unquestionably, a substantial part of the education system in any country you formed Polytechnic and technical training, the Fund, in the technical colleges and previous colleges. Without a doubt, this system has worked many decades and, currently, is characterised by both advantages and disadvantages. In this context, the author addresses the specifics of this national system at the college level, the emphasis being placed on internal factors and, to the extent appropriate, the external system.
Results and discussion: Education in the Republic of Moldova is the one area where is the future, the sources of development and the negative consequences of the operation of other social institutions.
Note that most of the authors in the country and abroad believe that colleges form the foundation of youth training in many areas, in particular, at the Polytechnic. It should be noted that vocational schools and colleges were created in a system of education that, at present, about 45-47 prepares% of contingent specialists, who, at the age of 18-21 years of age, are employed in the labour field, presenting a potentially highly trained work force. In the vision of many scholars, the educational system of the colleges enhance the work both horizontally and vertically. Therefore, if the horizontal ties are based on the cooperation and collaboration of colleagues, watching the old practice of structures in the country or abroad, then the vertical links are more thorough and forward-looking, because integrates colleges, on the one hand – with high schools, and, on the other hand – with the universities, which are included in the structure of most of them.
In the Republic of Moldova, coordinate colleges with agricultural profile, vertically and horizontally, is manifested through the synchronization of plans and procedures for educational and professional activity, does not resolve all the problems in this area. For these reasons, requires a deeper analysis, taking into account the following contradiction:
- during the period of post-privatization, the practice has become quite the economic dynamic, lovingly in the forms and new methods of management and the system of staff training in technical and technological fields do not provide the opportunity to ensure the necessary specialists in due course;
- in accordance with the laws in force, in recent decades they appeared more private educational structures without full insurance with teachers needed, equipment, textbooks, databases for practice and without sufficient attention given to the Ministry concerned;
- the quota and the structure of students in colleges and professional schools do not meet fully the demand, labour market;
- the State provides some facilities for specialists with higher education in the first years of activity, and for graduates of colleges does not envisage such subsidies;
- there is a gap between the share market as baseless and that of colleagues, etc.
It should be noted that in most countries postsocialist these problems are partly researched and solved, while in the Republic of Moldova only a few authors have approached them proposing solutions at compelling and constructive. Unfortunate is the fact that neither the scientists nor the ministries for a long time have not formulated principles for improving the work of colleges. However, in addition to the above-mentioned problems are problems of internal use, such as the methods of teaching, the structure of the fundamental disciplines and binding, linking classes optional and facultative, share practical classes in the curriculum, etc., which, at present, are not scientifically substantiated and justified.
As for FSU, we find that in some regions of Russia, the concept of colleges under the new part is applied on the basis of extensive research by the theoretical-methodological solutions and practical to update the educational process at various levels. We consider important the fact that the type system is rated as a College Professor of short duration, but quite viable, for the training of young in several areas. As a landmark, for the pursuit of the activity of operation of colleges in the market economy, the competent Minister of Russia recommends:
The idea of translation fully market-based mechanisms in the education and training of personnel is not supported any of the scientists of the Russian Federation, nor those of other countries postsocialist (Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, etc.), because the training services form a specific sector of the economy, which not always can be funded by a single investor.
In fact, this sector of the economy includes both the educational and instructive, and some traits and national and regional traditions. At present, the topic does not exist, that would elucidate the possibilities of improving the education system. Noting that only some national specialists reflects the ways of improvement of colleges, however, if we refer to the colleges of agriculture, then, such publications are generally lacking. Emphasize that the phenomena in question, with reference to the colleges, were investigated on the basis of both their own investigations, and with the support of specialized literature, which refers to the two rings surrounding the short-term education – secondary and collegiate to find the rationale of ideas and conclusions set out in this paper.
According to the literature relating to upper secondary education, we note the presence of a considerable number of specialists from many countries, whose works are devoted to education. One of the most successful monographs of this kind is the collective work of authors, which are addressed a number of issues concerning education in present circumstances [1, p. 17-27]. According to the various comparative models of reform of education in different countries, the authors have outlined solutions, later to focus on a single issue, that of the current situation in the Republic of Moldova and ways of reforming it.
With reference to other works, we should mention that Michael Caulfield is the only author who uses the combination of student, the methodology applied and in our research. In this order of ideas, suggestions and constructive proposals for the education system in general, in the context of European integration, are made by v. Pîslaru , according to which the Republic of Moldova still has not developed a political doctrine for the educational system. Pîslaru proposes a conceptual support pretty clear of the matter. Are also brought in the foreground, both stages of documentation, as well as basic aspects and principles of education reform. However, the contents and considerations of this work leaves an impression contradictory: on the one hand, it is the author's optimism regarding the compatibility of the educational system of the Republic with the European systems, on the other hand – the existing situation, which the author describes in part. This fact makes us aware of the distance that we have covered up to integration with Europe.Because the education system in the country include foreigners, including instruction in the Russian language, we cannot ignore the potential of scholars and experts reached the Russians in this area. The science and practice of educational management in Russia are addressed in many valuable works. In our opinion, for those concerned with educational management, special interest presents the work ' Управление развитием школы", which promotes the idea of the school in the development of an innovative, which is acceptable to be implemented in the Republic of Moldova. The need to include the State standards in the field of higher education is becoming a unifying element and a coupon, a globally recognized by UNESCO, which, in 1997, adopted International Classification of Standards Education – ISCED-97.
In fact, the process of intensification and diversification of studies and complementary educational services conditioned the emergence of institutions of college education. This process has evolved in the way, time and place quite managed:-integration of pre-University/University collegial at;
Famous, that integration does not act, binding, uptake and totally by the universities of collegiate institutions: for example, University of California (USA) has colleges and institutes, which are located in various cities, regions and localities with a RADIUS for hundreds and thousands of miles. It is the integration of methodological work, advanced educational practice of teacher recycling, etc.
In the period of transition to the market economy have been carried out multiple actions with the purpose of changes and reform measures in education, then let's ask this: the extent to which changes have been made in this field of social importance; became, really, the agricultural education a national priority; What is the quality of education, taking into account the resources used for reforming education, restructuring options/society and the younger generation in the context of time requirements; they were not determined correctly the direction and strategy of the development of agricultural education; What activities should be undertaken in the future; What is the efficiency of investments into the agricultural education in relation to social progress.
Research makes possible the complete description of the problems in the education system, which works under agronomic influence of external and internal environment .
The educational institution is the key element in agrarian this treatment, structural, fundamental agricultural education system, designed as a system with well-defined objectives, the actual behavior is determined by new educational goals and objectives of the agrarian, the institution is viewed as open system on all aspects. The institution is also apparent efficiency of agronomic education, therefore the issue of management, at the basic level of education, holding a proper .
Management of agricultural education has special significance and, therefore, are the principles that ensure the integrity of the work, the techniques and methods of students ' unions. An educational institution of the commune, then may exercise its functions if the model they will reflect the needs for the educational services, required by employers in rural areas. The relationship between the educational institution and the agricultural employer is shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Relationship between agricultural employer and educational institution in total quality management
Source: adapted by author.
Proposed model will correspond to a democratic model of management, being drafted from the perspective of a postmodern paradigms with orientation towards self-management. Educational management will optimize the participation of agricultural producers of various actors in the countryside to reorganize the institution, strengthening of integration.
The involvement of State structures and civil society involvement determines the factors with decisive impact on agricultural education strategy in addition to other factors, which do not depend on the subjects of agronomic education system, but there are some big objective of the educational system in the form of formal requirements, decisions, regulations, instructions, etc. At the same time, to become the reason of the strategic development of agronomic education, these objective factors are aware of pupils, teachers and directors of institutions.In Figure 2 is the evolution of the strategy and the action itself:
Fig. 2. The evolution of agronomic education strategy
Source: adapted by author.
Of the components that represent changes in the composition of the strategy, "reasoning", further we present factors that determine the motivation for achieving good results can be grouped as follows:
Fig. 3. Motivating staff educational institution
Source: adapted by author.
Many issues of educational management occur due to imperfection of perception of the situation by the frames, which lies in the availability of information, ignorance and impotence of balancing of separate subdivision with common problems of educational institution. Often, managers of educational institutions take decisions according to the situations and events, regardless of the views of subordinates.
Educational institutions in agriculture is facing a multitude of problems adapting to the socio-economic environment changed.
The existing model of educational institutions is a legacy of the agrarian past. Educational institutions, created up to the independence of the country, were not oriented towards achieving economic results by satisfying consumer demand and achieve the minimum level of expenditure. They had objective performance of the state plan, and thus exaggerated the number of employees, low productivity and inability to compete to specialists. If in a planned economy stable these factors not played an essential role and State level is poise, then the crises affecting educational institutions, which essentially lies in the impact zone of the linear model of leadership. However, the need to enhance the effectiveness of those institutions to embrace the new paradigm of leadership, organizational culture diagnosis, he urges the necessity of adequate awareness of the external environment .The concept of leadership. Organization – a "open", researched in the internal and external factors and development prospects. The projection on the education: an essential activity of design; the major role of communication; the need for monitoring of the external and internal environment. Conclusions and proposals: implementing organizational structure based on the matrix and the development of design activity; the expansive space of the structure educational institution in agricultural practice.
The concept of management: situational approach to management, flexibility, adaptation to the conditions of the rule, the accent is put on strategic planning. The design on the education; management of the educational institution is in a direct dependency of the three external factors: the action of the State in the process of modernization of the education concept of the agriculture, application of economic relations in the educational market and the internationalization of market processes. Conclusions and proposals: educational institution strategy development on domestic and foreign market of educational services; approval of new educational and managerial technologies and their implementation in the educational process; selecting the optimal combination between shapes and technologies of education; the evolution of vertical and horizontal integration, including with educational institutions outside the country with agricultural organizations.
The concept of leadership. Employees – human resources, intellectual capital. Design education: segment in terms of improving knowledge and new learning technologies, permanent improvement requirement. Conclusions and recommendations: the development of the institution on the basis of the principles of the organization.
The concept of driving: driving system, oriented towards the philosophy of the institution, the institution and the organizational culture, the motivation of the staff. Design education segment: Mission and philosophy of declarative process eliminates the corporate educational, because it does not regulate the activity of the authors participating. Conclusions and suggestions: merge the corporate principles and standards with those of the Organization; the determination of the conditions of professional, scientific, educational, methodical and other staff.
Educational institutions in agriculture is facing a new situation when management starts to think and to act with class, efficiency and appropriate mechanisms and forms of contemporary management are not yet understood and defined, and the "heritage of the past" prevails in both the thinking and the behavior of several managers.
In these circumstances, it appears that a new ideology, with the concrete practices that will enable efficient management in the conditions of formation of market with educational services and innovations. Innovations in education are studied, on the one hand, the creation of a new objective, the social product, on the other hand – creating a new product, important for subjective personality and its development.
In recent times, a positive impact on the system of agricultural professional training they have some major new approach, characteristic for developed countries, which are the high dynamics of the situation, increasing competition on the market of educational services, the processes of globalization, the changing requirements of employers, the scarcity of qualified staff. The following features have become typical, who gradually identifies and forms new managerial paradigm.
1. An activity and an accelerated growth practically on different segments, which mainly refers to a strategy was developed to increase the volume and quality of the educational activity and improvement of the internal management system. For many agricultural educational institutions is characteristic of an attitude favorable to change.
2. The predominance of a strategic approach to the development of educational institutions; strategic objectives; systemic innovation planning; the refusal from the directions of activity and inefficient; organizing and guiding institutions at the best examples from abroad.
3. Maintaining diversification strategy, only in areas where educational institutions have a stable agricultural priority in the provision of educational services to competition.
4. Development based on the principles of respect for the balance of interests with external agents and various levels of management within the institution.
The education sector is chosen as support for changing the social fabric of society, which prepares specialists both for today and for tomorrow. The problem lies in the fact that if the educational institution claiming to operate efficiently, it must prepare for the agricultural sector and, at the same time, to anticipate future preparedness. It is now the current issue of the environmental innovation institutions, which implies the creation of conditions necessary for the development and implementation of the latest innovations and achievements.
We will highlight four groups of factors that determine the attitude of the staff towards changes and we will indicate the objective laws of their own.
1. Parameters of the organizational changes: orientation, radicalism, delivering information to employees and their involvement in the resolution of problems related to reorganization: the preparation phase-change is a positive attitude towards the technical and technological innovations, a negative one – towards the organizational-management; the implementation stage – vice versa;
- the changes range from the simple to the strategic goals. Employees ' attitude towards strategic changes are noted in the negative direction; the more things change, the more employees feel shortage of knowledge and level of inclusion in the reorganization is lower;
- increasing the level of radicalism or innovation in the reorganization, staff considers this negative;
- complete information and extensive knowledge about what needs to be implemented, increases the probability of positive appreciation;
- employee involvement in debating the problems pertaining to the reorganization of and participation in the monitoring groups, increases the critical appreciation of the innovation;
- a high level of dissatisfaction at the beginning gives way, later, in appreciation of the positive reorganization.
- the Feature size, stage of development, the duration of the existence of the climate community, reference groups to change the organizational culture: features-with higher educational institution, the more difficult to perform the change and the more enhanced the resistance level of employees;
- financial conditions unfavorable to the educational institution, which places the institution under disadvantageous from the point of view of competition and fitting material.
The educational institution itself as a stable structure and oppose the resistance changes to be introduced in it.
3. Macro factors. This group of factors is little researched and the impact of factors on the educational institution's staff it is difficult to highlight and analyze it separately from the impact of other factors more obvious;
- an action against the promoters of educational innovations of the management team of the institution's policy, which bears the imprint of the style of leadership in the country, district;
- global changes in the country could give a jolt of innovation or a fatigue innovation. It is appropriate to maintain a balance between the orientation of educational institution to permanent changes and the ability of staff to adapt to them.
4.Characteristic employees: employee satisfaction towards concrete changes will be interdependent socio-demographic characteristics and personality, motivation and personality structure features in full:-the attitude of the staff towards reorganization positively influence the professional and educational backgrounds;
- active minority, which participate in the design and implementation of innovations, considers, first, the beneficial consequences for themselves and unfriendly to the organization in general, while most passive appreciate vice versa;
- Depending on the strength or weakness of the particular orientation towards innovation and organizational skills block, thinking, personality, people can be divided into "innovators" and "conservative"
- creative people are more optimistic change issues and final results positive. However, under the expectation of radical change, researchers usually assessed at a lower level innovations already made,
- to achieve successful change is needed to guide employees towards self-development and professional growth.
Managerial activity will be more effective if managers are going to have a change in attitude toward the institution of personal change.
One thing is for sure, the expected changes in the educational process first determines the essence of alleged, then require new skills necessary for teaching personnel, which will implement the change and do not take into account the fact that you need more time for personal changes than expected implementation of own time of Exchange.
Limiting the possibilities to lead an educational institution depends on:-unable to be used in the new socio-economic conditions of the old stereotypes and managerial activity;
- directing the efforts of the management team to ensure the functioning of the institution, which slows down the reorientation of priorities in education prospects;
- legal-normative base of education, imperfect This disunity and various normative acts;
- lack of accomplishment (enforcement) of the State decisions in the field of education;
- the failure until the very end of the issue pertaining to remuneration and social protection of personnel management; of increasing professionalism, attractiveness and prestige of managerial activity.
Requires a special training of managerial personnel, who would become familiar with new directions in educational management, with leadership positions, related to the use of the following methods: strategic analysis; forecasting and planning; delimitation of powers and responsibilities; focusing on social partnership. Highlight the following forms of managerial training: managerial training; improvement of management; management retraining.
Both theory and practice indicates that arrangements for staff training can be divided into two categories, depending on the venue of this processing: inward processing in the workplace; training outside the workplace.
Educational institutions perform two interdependent functions instead:-the provision of educational services to households and domestic support, which ensures the existence of the institution and its development. And management functions can be classified into: basic support and insurance
Fig. 4. Management training methods
Source: Adapted from author.
As the basic principles of business management can be identified as follows: quality and effectiveness.
Total quality is based on three concentric circles, representing the three types of quality:
1. The necessary quality – the one which needs the serving under required and expected of it in a more or less explicit. This concept constitutes actual quality, and the goal is to accomplish.
2. Scheduled quality – which is scheduled to be produced and which has been the subject of planning management team.
3. The quality achieved - quality-in fact (in reality) product management activities.