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INNOVATION ECONOMY IN KAZAKHSTAN

INNOVATION ECONOMY IN  KAZAKHSTAN
Земфира Алямова, старший преподаватель, кандидат экономических наук

Aсель Амангали , студент

Кайыржан Казмагамбетов , студент

Актюбинский государственный университет им.К.Жубанова, Казахстан

Участник конференции

Since the speech, Kazakhstan has made significant progress in the areas of innovation and technology. In January 2013, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan announced plans to establish an intergovernmental group called Venture Company - Innovation Technology center of the Eurasian Economic Community (also known as the Innovation Technology Center). The center aims to incentivize innovation, develop intellectual property protection mechanisms, and stimulate technology transfers and commercialization.

Keywords: global economy, industrialization map, technological clusters, industrial zones, business incubators.

 

In an increasingly global economy struggling to return to grows amid continuing financial disarray, Kazakhstan appears as a beacon of hope. Investment is on the rise after stagnation in 2010-11, and socioeconomic conditions remain remarkably  stable, with gradual but steady improvement.

Over the first quarter of 2013, Kazakhstan's short-team economic indicator, calculated on the basis of output figures for the country's main industries -agriculture, industrial production, construction, trade, transport  and infrastructure -showed a 3.7 percent increase year-on-year, according to the Agency of Statistics. The gross domestic product rose by 4.5 percent in the same period. According to the agency, overall GDP growth for the year is expected to be the same. The government's target, however is 6.8 percent, says Yerbolat Dossayev, minister of economy budget planning.

 Within the industrial sector, the strongest economic drivers were trade, which grew 12.8 percent year on year through the first quarter of 2013, followed by communication, with 11.5 percent; transport, with  7 percent; and manufacturing, with 1.9 percent. This' demonstrates the increasing success of Kazakhstan's economic diversification policy, with a gradually lessening of commodity exports and a tendency toward industrial half-fabricates and end-products.

Kazakhstan produced 17.311 million tons of oil in the first quarter of 2013, 2.5 percent more than in the same period in 2012, according to the statistics agency. "Gas condensate production rose 2.2 percent year-on-year to 3.271 million tons," said the report. "Kazakhstan also produced 10.875 billion  cubic meters of natural gas in the period, 5.2 percent more, including 5.401 billion in gaseous form (2.3 percent more), of which 2.925 billion was saleable gas (6.4 percent more). Production of associated petroleum gas rose 8.3 percent, to 5.473 billion cubic meters."

Inflation as of the end-March amounted to 1.9 percent for the quarter and 6.8 percent year on year. The unemployment rate as of end-March was 5.3 percent. Monthly wages during the first quarter of 2013 averaged $ 720, according to current exchange rates.

Direct capital investment in Kazakhstan in the first quarter of 2013 came to nearly $5.65 billion. Year on year, investments in January, February and March were up by 7.5 percent, 3.6 percent and 13.7 percent, respectively. The figures suggest a positive trend in terms of  both domestic and foreign investors' trusting in Kazakhstan's economics development supported by constructive government policies. [1]

First of all, legislative and institutional measures have been taken in order to create the innovative development foundation. All appropriate documents were adopted for a respective period, including the industrial programs on the prioritized economy sectors development, the functional programs, the business support programs, the Scheme of rational distribution of production capacities, the Industrialization map, and territorial development programs.

Developed and adopted were the laws providing for development of special economic zones and reduction of the administrative business barriers, laws on the state support for industrial innovative activity, energy saving and energy efficiency increase. This work resulted in a full-scale basis for the program implementation, i.e. over 50 laws were adopted and modified, 23 industrial and functional programs were adopted. A range of measures were taken to support innovations. Thus, the adopted law "On State Support of Industrial Innovative Activity" provided for the taxation stimulation  foundations, resulting in 50% redaction of taxable base out of expenses on research and advanced development. Users of subsoil will deduct at least 1% of their total annual income on their own research and advanced development. These measures will activate and attract business to innovative activity. Certain tax benefits will be provided to developing venture activity. Seven year tax holidays will be provided the enterprises implementing investment strategic project, including those manufacturing high technology products. This Law resulted in the expansion are  innovation grants. So, the  innovation grants are awarded to acquire technologies, to conduct production research, to obtain an abroad qualification upgrade for an engineering staff, to support activity on production of high-technology products at an initial stage, to patent in foreign and local patenting organizations, to commercialize technologies, to attract high qualified foreign specialist, to involve consulting, engineering and designing organizations, to implement managerial and manufacturing technologies. Also, the Concept of Innovative Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020 was developed to integrate an inter-industrial plan of technological development of RK till 2020, the "Business and science 2020" Road Map and a national project on "100 Kazakh Innovations ".  Finally, by the beginning of 2012, a whole regulating base of accelerated industrialization was completely reloaded. Along with legislative and legal measures an institutional framework was prepared, which included an operating specialized institute for innovation issues, the National Agency for Technological Development, technological clusters ad industrial design offices, an increasing number of commercialization office at universities, a successfully developing Nazarbayev University. To support investor, a National Plan on investment attraction was endorsed to provide for a range of legislative and systemic measures. They include, in particular, significant procedural and visa exemptions, creation of favorable conditions to find in-house investors, support and assistance to investor on both central and regional levels. Expended is the role of special economic zones, which are one of the attraction instruments. The new Law enables attractions to SEZ of professional managing companies in a form of stock companies with successful international experience in implementation of such projects. A package of tax exemptions was determined on a legal base. Investor and state service agencies will relate with each other on basis of "one window". Six domestic and six international venture capital funds were opened in Europe, Central Asia, Eastern  coast of the USA, ASEAN countries, Israel and Germany. Besides, technological clusters, industrial zones, business incubators, special economic zones are opened. In addition to existing six, another there new SEZ  opened at the end of last year to reach total number of nine in various country regions. As of May 2012, SEZ areas have 490 participants register, which is 3 time higher than 2012. Investments were attracted to the amount exceeding 754 billion KZT, including 625 billion KZT of private investments. The volume of products manufactured reached 254 billion KZT; about 10 thousand work places were created. One of the SEZ is Park of Innovative Technologies. The Park's master-plan has been recently developed and approved. Its development second stage plan was approved and the Managing Committed and Supervisory Board were arranged. There measures gave a new impulse for the Park improvement to become a site for the forced implementation of innovations and introduction of innovative projects.  The measures taken resulted in positive innovations development; business and public get more interest in innovative activity. For example, as per the 2011 results, the innovatively active enterprises share increased up to 5.7% out of total number of enterprises, innovative production increased by 65.9%, in-house expenses , on research and developments -by 29.5%.The Productivity - 2020 program was launched to optimize large and medium operating enterprises and to start new productions. They are provided for with the following measures: starting with support in modernization plan development, implementation of modern managerial technologies, ending with long-term leasing for up-to-date equipment supply, reimbursement of expenses on the high qualified personnel and innovative grants required. [2]

Since the speech, Kazakhstan has made significant progress in the areas of innovation and technology. In January 2013, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan announced plans to establish an intergovernmental group called Venture Company - Innovation Technology center of the Eurasian Economic Community (also known as the Innovation Technology Center). The center aims to incentivize innovation, develop intellectual property protection mechanisms, and stimulate technology transfers and commercialization. It will also screen innovation project in member states and invest in project that develop and commercialize innovation. Other regional initiatives designed to promote innovation include the Kazakhstan -Russian forum, which focused on developing cooperation between Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. A number of deals were struck at the forum, which was held in the north-eastern city of  Pavlodar in September  2012 organized by the Development Bank of Kazakhstan  with the support of the ministry of  Industry and New Technologies. This includes an agreement to establish a Center of Information Technologies Park Special Economic Zone, which was signed between the National Agency for Technological Development JSC (Kazakhstan) and KE Group (Russia). An estimated $20 million is expect to be invested in establishing the center, which will house more than 60 IT specialists from around the world. [3]

 

References:

  • 1. Against the global tide, economic and industrial growth persist // International Herald Tribune. -  May 20, 2013. 
  • 2.Tastenov A. Industrialization through innovations: fist achievements // KAZENERGY. Special edition, 2012.
  • 3.  Innovation: an economic driving force // Astana Economic Forum 2013.
Комментарии: 4

Расулова Саодат

Материал представленный в данной работе по инновационной политике и экономическому развитию в Казахстане представляют научно-практический интерес. Работа очень интересна и актуальна и заслуживает достойной оценки.

Алване Хассан

Интересная работа. Четко виден личный творческий вклад автора в исследуемые проблемы. Успехов в дальнейших исследованиях!

Кристина Викторовна Терехина

Проблемы, затронутые в представленной работе, являются высоко актуальными. Выводу, сделанные автором, представляют научный интерес, и могут использоваться для дальнейших научных исследований.Работа заслуживает высокой положительной оценки.

Зульфугарзаде Теймур Эльдарович

В работе рассмотрены важнейшие и актуальнейшие проблемы развития инноваций, направленные на поддержание и продвижение социально-экономической сферы: стабилизация - совершенствование - дальнейшее развитие. Выводы, сделанные автором, представляют интерес для современной науки и практики. Работа заслуживает высокой положительной оценки.
Комментарии: 4

Расулова Саодат

Материал представленный в данной работе по инновационной политике и экономическому развитию в Казахстане представляют научно-практический интерес. Работа очень интересна и актуальна и заслуживает достойной оценки.

Алване Хассан

Интересная работа. Четко виден личный творческий вклад автора в исследуемые проблемы. Успехов в дальнейших исследованиях!

Кристина Викторовна Терехина

Проблемы, затронутые в представленной работе, являются высоко актуальными. Выводу, сделанные автором, представляют научный интерес, и могут использоваться для дальнейших научных исследований.Работа заслуживает высокой положительной оценки.

Зульфугарзаде Теймур Эльдарович

В работе рассмотрены важнейшие и актуальнейшие проблемы развития инноваций, направленные на поддержание и продвижение социально-экономической сферы: стабилизация - совершенствование - дальнейшее развитие. Выводы, сделанные автором, представляют интерес для современной науки и практики. Работа заслуживает высокой положительной оценки.
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