- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Алина Култанова , студент
Жансулу Муратова, студент
Актюбинский государственный университет им.К.Жубанова, Казахстан
In the view of modern ecological problems, such as pollution of the earth atmosphere and global warming, increasing consumption and cost of non-renewable natural resources, reaching sustained development is getting more important, which means more economic and effective use of natural energy resources to satisfy demands, both in present and future. One of the ways of reaching such sustainability is to use alternative or renewable energy resources (RER), like wind, solar and water energy, which our country is rich with as well. Sustainability in economic development can be reached by manufacturing mass products with high added value, through development and diversification of non-energy export industry potential.
Keywords: ecological problems, renewable energy resources, pollution, global warming, non-renewable natural resources.
Kazakhstan’s economic development has been marked by huge energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Now, it is working with external organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to develop strategies for cutting its consumption of fossil fuels, while continuing to build up economic output. This is essential for a country whose industrial sector accounts for about 62 per cent of total electricity consumption. The country has taken far-reaching steps, including 2011’s Energy Efficiency Act, which established funding for energy-saving measures, created a state energy register to control usage and imposed energy-conservation and efficiency regulations. For example, all enterprises – state and private – with an annual energy consumption in excess of 1,500 tons of hard coal units have to audit their energy usage and establish efficiency programs as well as energy-management systems.
Kazakhstan has launched a fund for loans to promote energy efficiency and investment in renewable sources – the Kazakhstan Sustainable Energy Financing Facility (KAZSEFF). This is aimed at private industrial companies that want to invest in energy-efficiency and renewable projects to reduce costs.
This is aimed at private industrial companies that want to invest in energy-efficiency and renewable projects to reduce costs. Since its 2008 rollout, KAZSEFF has organized a number of conferences across the country focusing on industrial modernization and energy efficiency and, as a result, 25 projects have been approved. These are expected to save approximately 320 GWh a year, the equivalent of 27 million kg of crude oil, or the energy consumption of 120,000 domestic households. Annual savings in greenhouse-gas emissions are equivalent to 120 flights around the world by a Boeing 737 airplane.
The government is committed to increasing Kazakhstan’s use of renewable power sources as part of a balanced, diversified approach to the country’s energy needs. The country produced six per cent more renewable power in 2012 than in 2011. This progress will have to continue if it is to meet the government’s target of a renewable energy capacity of 1.040 MW by 2020, detailed in its 2012-13 action plan on development of alternative and renewable energy sources. In addition, President Nursultan Nazarbayev has set a 2050 goal of a least 50 per cent of all the power consumed in Kazakhstan coming from renewable sources.
Wind is one of the most advanced types of renewable energy supply. The UNDP has drawn up a ‘wind atlas’ of Kazakhstan, and 10 construction sites for wind power plants (WPPs) have been earmarked for development. The nation’s solar energy generation capacity has also been investigated, and it is estimated that the southern regions of Kazakhstan could provide as much as 2,500 to 3,000 hours of sunshine each year.
The next step is for Kazakhstan to use its energy tariffs to cover the cost of replacing or modernizing its power plants. KAZSEFF says: “The gradual movement towards cost-covering energy tariffs is an economic requirement to generate funding for necessary investments in replacement and modernization of the existing power plants and infrastructure.
According to the World Nuclear Association, Kazakh nuclear power plans include proposals for a new nuclear power plant near Lake Balkhash in the south of the country, north of Almaty, and for a unit at Aktau in the west. In 2012, the government reviewed its draft master plan for developing Kazakhstan’s power generation. According to this plan, by 2030about 4.5 per cent of its electricity should be produced using nuclear reactors. 
In the view of modern ecological problems, such as pollution of the earth atmosphere and global warming, increasing consumption and cost of non-renewable natural resources, reaching sustained development is getting more important, which means more economic and effective use of natural energy resources to satisfy demands, both in present and future. One of the ways of reaching such sustainability is to use alternative or renewable energy resources (RER), like wind, solar and water energy, which our country is rich with as well. Sustainability in economic development can be reached by manufacturing mass products with high added value, through development and diversification of non-energy export industry potential. Production of renewable energy in RK fully delivers such goals. As it is known, south regions of Kazakhstan, due to disproportion in location of own fuel resources, are dependent on the import of electrical power, stone coal and natural gas from the north parts of the country and neighboring countries. Electrical power has to be supplied from the country north, where there are major power generating capacities of the country, to the distance of thousands kilometers, bearing significant losses during delivery, which are burdened on the consumers. Though operation of additional North-South electrical lines can significantly reduce the electrical power deficit in the country south, the deficit of electrical power in the south is anticipated until new generating capacities are put into operation.
As a part of the law on support to RER and the law on Investments, Kazakhstan provides for the corresponding tax preferences, including free transportation, priority of traffic control and purchase of electrical power produced by RER. Besides, Kazakhstan should develop non-carbon energy as a part of the UN KYOTO Protocol on Global Climate Change, which Kazakhstan joined in March, 2009. A full-scale and economically efficient development of non- traditional energy resources may provide a huge economic benefit resulting from savings and introduction of excess quotes for carbon monoxide emissions. Currently, Kazakhstan, playing an important role as a regional supplier of hydrocarbons thanks to its location and unique RER, has all chances not only to expand and keep its position in future, but also to create high-class manufactures ensuring high added value for decades.
Along with this, Kazakhstan has an issue getting more and more urgent that relates to further development of non-energy sector of economy, sustainability, ensuring own and regional energy security, as well as a more effective use of own geographic and traffic potential. Kazakhstan should use all its advantages and natural resources possessed in a more effective way in order to fully use opportunities provided by steady growth of economy of our eastern neighbor. According to Michael Porter, professor of Harvard University (USA) and a well-known researcher in a field of competitiveness, the availability of the following factors speak for the opportunities to establish a world class industry in Kazakhstan integrating all industrial stages from design research and experimental to manufacturing, construction and operation of electrical power generating capacities based on RER: conditions (wind potential of tens of thousands MW (about 10 MW/km2) or over 1 trillion kW-hours a year is one of the best in the world; water energy potential is thousands of MW; favorable solar climate; close to major large markets; far from big centers of electrical power consumption in the south of Kazakhstan using traditional energy resources), associated and supporting industries (development of RER will promote diversification of national economy; availability of production capacities and materials for manufacture, installation and construction; stimulating researches and innovations to create cheap and effective production technologies), market (high demand for energy on domestic and external neighbor markets, potential volume of the electrical power market is up to 50 billion kW-h a year, diversification of export potential thru non-energy RER, market of carbon oxide emissions quotes, transition from traditional energy sources to RER) and strategy, structure and competition (strategy: sustained and expanding development of generation based on the use of capable productive and cheap RER to decrease consumption and save non-renewable hydrocarbon energy resources; structure: efficient generation, accumulation and transportation of electrical and heating energy, seasonal synergy and mutual contribution of various types of RER. High modular projects and possibility to gradually introduce investments and capacities, competition nuclear energy based on natural resources are characterized with high expenses and relatively long putting into operation, environmental consequences, more technological complexity and remoteness of major centers of consumption, like south Kazakhstan.
To start mass production of RER in Kazakhstan, wind energy should be able to compete, in terms of coast and productivity, with traditional energy resources. Wind power in Kazakhstan has great interest due to its ability to generate into industrial volumes of electrical power transportable to remote consumers by electrical lines, as well as to use for generation of heating energy in a form of hot water. This is possible to achieve with the help of such special and constructional and technical solutions, which would fully consider and therefore use the peculiarities and the most capable potential of the best wind regions of Kazakhstan, like the Dzungarian Gates and Shelek Corridor, as well as a range of others. Development of these resources will ensure the highest economic effect resulting from technological disruptive innovations aimed at sustained and long term competitiveness by the following indicators: reduction of adjusted base cost per MW of generating capacity($/MW). Increase of productiveness as effective performance at full loading (hour/year). Improvement of location density of generating capacities per earth unit (Mw/km2). Adaptation to local natural, climatic and seismic conditions. Such innovative approach will allow improving competitive advantages of the technology compared to the existing one, and will also lead to synergy of natural, manufacturing, transporting advantages. According to Michael Porter, such beneficial application of the above exclusively favorable natural, geographic and market factors can be achieved subject to creation of own production of alternative energy technologies supported by national industry. Disadvantages of operation of tower wind turbines in the Dzungarian Gates. Industrial-scale production of wind power in the Dzungarian Gates based on cross functional tower wind turbines may be complicated by extreme wind and temperature fluctuations. Among disadvantages of such units, a major place is taken by their big mass and significant height that make them sensitive to earthquakes and often hurricanes and strong winds of over 20 m/sec (absolute maximum is 50-60 m/sec), presence of useless systems of one-direction winds, shortness of propellers at high wind speeds, high cost of the unit and maintenance, and their low location density. Besides, construction of foreign manufactured wind power stations in Kazakhstan based on cross functional tower wind turbines is expensive and, as a consequence, high or artificially backed for their tariffs pay-back. Their high cost, vulnerability conditioned on a heavy continental climate and seismicity of south eastern Kazakhstan, and low electricity tariffs may become unattractive for investors, and their erection will be extremely expensive and complex, especially, due to a lack of infrastructure and extreme weather and climatic conditions. Besides technical problems, many specialists note low capacity of tower turbines, non-reliability and high cost of maintenance, as well as low location density. For the purpose of more effective development of the best wind area of Kazakhstan, it is not enough to use imported technologies, but required to develop and apply such technical solutions, which will take into account their peculiarities at maximum and be free of the above disadvantages. Such turbines shall have low prime cost, high capacity and performance, simple construction and installation, as well as accessibility for Kazakh manufactures.
Potentials for the creating of the world class RER in our country are much higher supported with Porter’s favorable competitive factors. With this, the biggest benefit from RER development will be obtained as a result of creation and production of own wind innovative turbines in RK, providing additional cost and production advantages. Besides, it will result in further supporting and associated industries, such as construction, manufacture of associated synthetic materials, electrical and technical equipment already available in Kazakhstan. Therefore in this sphere Kazakhstan is better not to import ready products, as offered by Germany, PRC and South Korea, which will strengthen its position as an import consumer of inadequate and expensive technologies, which does not promote use of RER, but instead present a barrier for their use.
Therefore it requires maximum efforts to establish own industry based on the existing technological base. Of course, it is important to consider experience of advance technologically developed countries.
RER innovative technologies shall be directed on creation of a new performing way to generate industry-scale high competitive and environmentally friendly energy, which does not require use of natural resources, high capacity network wind turbines of 100 kW to 1-5 MW, with high performance, low prime cost, higher density of location and less sensitivity to seismicity, which will positively influence the cost of a ready product, electrical power, and potential for more optimal development of available natural and market factors. It is expected that chances are good that wind energy potential will be successfully developed.
Thus, development and introduction of RER technologies in domestic enterprises will in its best way promote development of electrical and heating power production from ecologically pure and inexhaustible resources of energy, increase of non-energy potential, which means it will meet important initiative of the SPIIAD of Kazakhstan and development of “green” industry to serve as a basis for “green” energy export bridge joining Central and South East Asia and PRC.
The SPIIAD of Kazakhstan shall aim at the country industrialization purposed at deep development of such comparative advantages as rich sources of RER. 
Kazakhstan is only starting its journey of transitioning to alternative or renewable energy sources, of which it has an abundance, such as: solar, wind and hydro power; soil, surface water, river and water reservoir geothermal energy; biomass, biogas and other organic fuels used to generate electricity and heat.
Kazakhstan has drafted a Concept for the Transition to Sustainable Growth 2007-24 that is designed to develop the country’s economy by supporting ecologically friendly forms of energy generation, such as renewable sources and secondary raw materials. As part of the Concept, the government has set and monitors production targets for electricity generation using renewable energy sources.
It goes without saying that the development and use of alternative energy sources is a costly exercise, which is why the government offers investment concessions to investors planning, building and operating renewable energy sources, and also the right to reserve and acquire land for the construction of their facilities. In addition, guarantees have been made that any energy produced using renewable sources will find a buyer.
Thus, by implementing these measures Kazakhstan has taken an important step in protecting the global environment harmful emissions and by working to actively support renewable energy sources.