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Национальная академия педагогических наук Украины - Институт профессионально-технического образования , Украина
The article deals with the problems of forming the professional competence of teachers at vocational school and the development of pedagogical skills as an indicator of teacher’s highest qualification level.
Keywords: professional competence, teaching skills, teacher of vocational school, teacher’s professional activities
Under modern conditions of educational reforms the status of teachers and their educational functions are radically changed, thereafter, demands for their professional competence and skills are increased. European trend of educational development and integration processes occurring in the modern society and in education foreground the need in fully developed, socially active teaching staff with fundamental scientific training, rich internal culture, and high level of pedagogical proficiency. This is reflected in the universal requirements, educational services quality improvement, transparency of knowledge operation and methods of monitoring its development at the level of the educational process et al. The focus of the modernization of the education system in the country on a significant improvement of professional education and training of future specialists, high quality training of teachers is considered one of the most important national priorities. In this context, the new paradigm of education highlights the learner-centered approach to future teacher’s training, the essence of which is to focus on the personality of teacher, the formation of his or her professional competence by implementing his or her own system of values in professional activities.
Teachers’ professional competence influences in the development of modern society as it is able to guarantee the optimal solution of generations conflicts, and to contribute to young people adaptation to new social conditions. Recently, teachers’ professional competence is the focus of many home and foreign researchers: V. Adolph, I. Kolesnikova, N. Kuz’mina, L. Mitina, E. Rogov, Ye. Sakharchuk, V. Syerykov, V. Synenko, A. Shcherbakov, Yu. Vardanian, I. Ziaziun studied it as a pedagogical phenomenon. In their works V. Baydenko, A. Bulavenko, I. Chemeris, S. Honcharenko, I. Hushlievska, E. Klima, A. Khutors’kyi, N. Nychkalo, I. Zymnia, analyzed various aspects of the concept of competence; V. Anishchenko, A. Mykhaylychenko, E. Zeyer grounded particuliarities of competency approach to future professionals’ training; V. Barkasi, A. Chumakova, L. Dybkova, I. Hryshyna, T. Hrihorchuk, A. Karpova, H. Kopyl, N. Lisova, A. Markova, M. Mishchenko, V. Sayuk, T. Sorochan, S. Stepanenko, S. Sysoyeva, A. Tupchiy, L. Vasyl’chenko, M. Yarmystyi highlighted the problem of formation of specialists’ professional competence, including - future teachers’ one. Close to the abovementioned issues, in our opinion, there is the problem of pedagogical skills formation as one of the main indicators of teacher’s professional competence, as evidenced by the work of Ye. Barbina, N. Butenko, L. Kramushchenko, I. Kryvonos, S. Lavrinenko, H. Sahach, I. Ziaziun.
The article is aimed at studying the relationship of pedagogical skills and professional competence of teacher at vocational education institutions within competency approach in the light of teacher’s personality.
In pedagogical literature, professional competence is considered as a holistic property that appears in the professionalism and provides unity of teacher’s theoretical and practical commitment to professional activity. According to S. Honcharenko, the concept of “competence” means the integrity of knowledge and skills necessary for effective professional activity, the ability to analyze and predict professional activity effects, and to use information [9, p. 149]. Theoretical knowledge and practical skills, experience, professional and personal qualities are joined in professional competence. Its components include critical thinking, need for self-improvement, propensity for creativity, and love of profession. Professional competence may be described as a person’s ability to implement (solve) different tasks successfully within his or her competence. Similar to this interpretation is the professional competence definition made by V. Vesnin who defines professional competence as worker’s ability to perform their functions efficiently and accurately in normal and extreme conditions, to acquire new knowledge successfully and adapt quickly to changing conditions [2, p. 59]. L. Antsyferova, Ye. Rybalko, N. Yakovlieva, D. Zavalyshyna associate professional competence with individual properties and qualities [6, p. 6-7], and V. Krychevskyi characterizes its according to the set of attributes (availability of knowledge for successful activity, awareness of the importance of the tasks for future career, set of operational skills, possession of algorithms for professional problem solving, ability to be creative in their solution) [4, p. 67].
Based on the analysis of scientific literature we can state that general phenomenology of teachers’ professional competence is reflected in a large number of psychological and educational researches, but in modern psycho- pedagogical science the problem of teacher’s professional competence has no clear solution. Indeed, V. Slast’onin, I. Isayev, A. Mishchenko, and Ye. Shyianov consider teacher’s professional competence as “the unity of theoretical and practical commitment to the implementation of educational activities and describes teacher’s professionalism” , while the base structure of teacher’s competencies are numerous pedagogical skills that characterize it.
N. Kuz’mina suggests considering teacher’s professional competence as his or her awareness, personal property, which allows a teacher to solve teaching and educational tasks aimed at another person’s identity formation efficiently . Other researchers interpret teacher’s professional competence as an integral characteristic ability to solve professional tasks using knowledge of professional and life experiences, values and inclinations .A. Markova singled out special, social, personal and individual kinds of professional competence [7, p. 34]. A. Khutors’kyi defines teacher’s professional competence as a set of key, core and specific competences related to the success of the individual. Core competencies reflect the educational activities within the requirements of the education system . Special competences, in his opinion, reflect the particular subject and over-subject areas of professional activity. The structure, due to their common functions and role in education, is necessary to determine the content of each of the competencies.
The concept of “pedagogical competence” refers to the categories of pedagogy and is characterized by presence of knowledge for success, understanding of its implications for practice, set of operational skills, possession of algorithms for professional problems solving, ability to act creatively. Sometimes pedagogical competence is identified with teacher’s professionalism, meaning that this concept contains some aggregate characteristics that reflect physiological, mental and personality changes which occur in educational activities. We adhere to the idea that it synthesizes cognitive, visual-practical and personal experience, i.e. a complex entity which contains a set of knowledge, skills, characteristics and personality traits and provides variation, optimality and efficiency of the educational process construction [1, p. 118]. It is worth to consider pedagogical competence not only as the result of training, but as the result of individual self-development, synthesis of his or her personal experience as well.
The analysis of above stated definitions proves that pedagogical competence is the system of scientific knowledge, intellectual and practical skills, personal qualities and entities that with sufficient motivation and high level of professionalism of mental processes provides self-realization, self-preservation and self-identity in the teacher profession. Thereby, teacher’s professional competence is, primarily, multi-level structure of a personality. Pedagogical skills indicate the originality and uniqueness of teacher’s personal contribution to the development of education. If competence is specialist’s normative feature, the concept of pedagogical skills is determined by the level of integrity and personal fulfillment in the teaching profession. Due to pedagogical skills, teachers are aware of mechanisms of success of their work, and of themselves as specific “tools” of work with people.
According to I. Ziaziun, the question of pedagogical skills is the question of the quality of this “tool”, i.e., the human quality of teacher and the quality of his or her life, proclaimed compliance with human ideals. At the level of skills achievement there is a particular feature of professional activity, expressed by the ability to integrate with any scientific and practical context, experience, information, making it a source, means of professional problems solving and teacher’s own professional growth . The high level of pedagogical skills determines the success of professional activity, allows teachers to realize their personal potential in creative work, and gets natural pleasure of communicating with talented youth. Writing team under the direction of I. Ziaziun developed pedagogical skills structure, which covers all the areas of teacher’s professional activities, including not only the process of education, professional knowledge and skills, but teacher’s values and his or her personal qualities as well. Pedagogical skills specificity is that teacher’s personal qualities are of paramount importance for the successful professional activity in relation to his or her level of professional competence, which can be formed only on the basis of a sufficient level of these qualities development.
Let us consider teacher’s professional competence in the context of vocational education. A high level of teacher’s general professional competence provides the opportunity to major advances in professional activities (self-regulation, personal improvement) and allows them to achieve a certain level of professionalism and teaching skills in the process of professional development. In our opinion, key indicators of professional competence of teachers at vocational schools are the following: personal qualities, especially converting and psychological ones; awareness of teacher’s role in the education of citizens, patriots; continuous improvement of general and professional culture; search activity; possession of pedagogical research methods; own teaching experience design; the effectiveness of the educational process; active teaching activities aimed at transforming the individual.
According to this, professional competence of teachers at vocational schools provides teaching activities, whereby based on knowledge, skills and understanding of their role in society, continuous self-improvement and self-development, a teacher provides the optimal organization of the educational process in order to develop specialist’s individual creativity. In the most general form the professional competence of teachers at vocational schools is considered as a combination of three components – subject and technological, psychological and pedagogical, and general cultural ones. Summary list of competencies required by teachers of special subjects was formulated by D. Tkhorzhevskyi . It includes legal, managerial, career-oriented, methodical, didactic, upbringing, social and pedagogical, social and psychological, creative, innovative competences. In our opinion, forming these professional qualities of special subject teachers using appropriate pedagogical and psychological principles in educational process will contribute to future specialists’ vocational training.
Research on the development of professional competence of special subject teachers at vocational schools can prove that this concept refers to the knowledge, skills, norms and values of the individual.
Formation of professional competence of special subjects’ teachers at vocational schools should be based on the general provisions of systematic approach and the use of cross-cultural, active, acmeological, personality-developmental approaches to learning. In addition to the approaches outlined, the implementation of the formation of professional competence of special subjects’ teachers is based on the respect of fundamental pedagogical principles (logic, science, sequence, humanism, accessibility, personalization, theory and practice integration, performance, reflection of personal development, etc.). Professional competence development is possible only due to productive and reproductive relationships, including not only directly productive activities but also motivation, attitude, views, emotions, and consciousness. That motivation is an important stimulus in the preparation of professional school teacher.
Experience shows that education focused on the formation and development of teacher’s professional competence is effective only if there is creation of a collective positive psychological climate, equal partnership, joint developmental activities of school teachers and students. That is why the concept of pedagogical interaction, identifying the importance of emotional and spiritual in a man, morally and ethically perfect relationships between people in the category of communication is so important.
It is important to consider professional skills through the lens of professional competence, which is also the foundation of educational excellence. Teacher’s knowledge directed, on the one hand, at the subject he or she teaches, and, on the other hand, - at students whose psychology should be familiar to him or her [8, p. 27]. Thus, the content of professional competence consists of the knowledge of the subject, methods of teaching, pedagogy and psychology. An important feature of professional pedagogical knowledge is their complexity, which requires teacher’s ability to synthesize material for the successful solution of educational problems, to analyze teaching situations that necessitate understanding of the nature of psychological phenomena, and the choice of the interaction.
The formation and development of professional competence of vocational training teachers should be considered as a holistic process of their personal and professional growth that provides the conditions for the realization of this task in education, acquisition and further development of professionalism that contributes to success in the profession of teacher. The level of teacher’s professional competence affects not only his profession, but the very course of his or her life, self-expression as a means of self-determination through self-development.
The question of determining the content, forms, levels, mechanisms and structures of professional competence of teachers at vocational institutions requires further development, systematization, analysis and synthesis. In our opinion, the current professional competence as a complex interaction of professional and personal characteristics should be considered a criterion for the effectiveness of training teachers at vocational schools.
Continuous growth of teachers’ professional skills at vocational schools in today’s educational reforms should be aimed not only at improving teachers’ professional competence, systematic improvement in performance of their professional activities in order to improve the efficiency and quality of the educational process through the introduction of new educational technologies, development of motivation to self-conscious activities of professional and personal growth, but also at the development of pedagogical skills as an indicator of the highest qualification of teachers at vocational schools .