- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Национальная академия педагогических наук Украины - Институт профессионально-технического образования , Украина
The essence of personal and reflective component of communicative culture of future specialists in services is revealed considering specifics of their profession.
Keywords: communicative culture, service professionals, reflection, communication, personal and reflective component.
Personal and professional development of future professionals, their ability to adapt to human and industrial community is determined by the level of formation of the ability to find constructive communication strategies, to penetrate consciously into interlocutor’s culture without losing own identity. The basis of this is the principle of self-responsibility, the ability to transform own livelihoods into the form of individual personal creative self-realization which is: a condition of personal and professional development; means of achieving success in their professional activity and self-affirmation in the process of interpersonal interaction.
However, lack of the existing system of vocational education to focus on the formation of personality’s subjective traits leads to certain difficulties in the development of the individual as a subject, prone to mental activity, able to take responsibility, to set own goals and find ways to achieve them, to adapt to life in modern complicated conditions and to professional activities in manufacturing [8, p. 3-5]. An individual’s subjectivity, in accordance with the level of individual properties and abilities development, is revealed in communication and fixed in the sense of understanding reflection of personal relationships and interactions with the world. As an individuals’ inner metaphysical ability, communication helps to understand feelings of another person, to organize joint activities on the basis of mutual understanding, and to establish emotional relations [11, p. 114]. According to I. Zyazyun, emotions, as a means of expressing individuality, serve as adaptive mechanisms that promote survival of the organism at all levels and are communicative by nature [4, p. 17]. Human search for emotional information from the relevant objects of his or her attention and usage of this information to reflect on own attitudes involves the development of self-awareness, empathy, self-perception, communication skills, self-confidence, and ability to resolve conflicts. It means the emotional and sensual sophistication of a personality and personality’s orientation to another person’s understanding, and therefore – self-development, own inner world enrichment, as well as acquisition and development of self-regulation skills and abilities to control emotions in different situations. Exchange of emotional states, which implies the importance of studying emotional connection, plays a significant role in direct people’s communication.
Human psychological state while communicating in interpersonal interactions depends on wheather his or her behavior meets social demands. The system of social relations, in which everyone is included throughout life, forms subjective treatment of all phenomena. Considering the specificity of service specialists’ activities, we note that their system of attitudes is expressed in perceptual ability to respond emotionally to another person's feelings demonstrating empathy and empathic intuitions; it is determined by the ability to recognize the thoughts and feelings of an interlocutor (clients, colleagues, etc.), to predict the direction of communication based on empathic observation and listening.
The mechanism of self-knowledge in the process of communication, which is based on a person's ability to imagine how she or heis perceived by a partner, iscalled a reflection due towhich doubled, mirroring each other, interreflextiontakes placeto reproducetheir peculiarities[1, p. 105]. Numerous complexities involved in the communication process arerelated to theimbalanceofself-esteemand evaluationsby others. It is shown that self-esteem is usually always higher thanassessmentof other people. Recognition of the value of each person is manifested in concrete actions, the general line of conduct, judgments, even mistakes. In psychological and educational research reflection is consideredas a human objective property, manifestation of human spiritual activity and it involves stimulatingpersonality’s innerefforts, hisor herinner self-development; it is also consideredas a form of understanding by the subject of how he or sheis actually perceived and evaluated by others. Phenomenaofself-knowledge, rethinkingand re-checkingofown thoughts about oneself, others and the fact how, inthe subject’sopinion, heorsheisassessedand treatedbeothersarereflexive. Without reflection wecannot establish correct relationships with others. In addition, reflection isnot only an introspection of own psyche, but it is also an understanding of ownvital programs, the ratio of goals, motives, values, attitudes, aspirations, social and moral requirements. The subject’sability to value- semantic self-determination and goal-setting depends onthelevel of reflection development.
Professional activity plays a leading role in human life. It develops a personality, and according to it, the system of professional skills is improved; algorithms, methods and technologies of professional tasks solving are acquired; as well as new general and specific competencies are gained, outlook is expanded, individual business professionally significant qualities are strengthened; all that results in changes in the needs and values of the subject of work, his or her motivational sphere, bringing the latest on a new level. Motivation is an internal state that encourages activity and directs behavior to achieve the goal. In a broad sense motive is considered as a set of internal and external factors associated with meeting specific needs of the individual, which determine the extent and orientation of his or her activity [10, p. 34]. The motiveis seen as a combination of thoughts and feelings. Motivational and evaluative aspect of professional identity reflects his or her level of internal motivation to achieve better results in work and his or her desire for self-improvement and personal growth, personal development planning in the professional field, value attitude to life, etc. Spiritual values form the content of personal motivations and their hierarchical relationships create a situation of free choice between them.
A future specialist should understand what getting profession means to him or her; a future specialist should also understand wheather he or she seeks to use intellectual abilities or is more interested in human relationships; wheather he or she wants to achieve success. Therefore, a stable motivation for professional development should be taken considering the relationship between personality factors, value-semantic component of which is the source of an individual's activity, and stimulates the need for self-improvement, the pursuit of acquiring extremely high values which are signs of self-identity [3, p. 260]. Awareness of personal meaning of profession, its "interweaving" in the hierarchy of life's meanings contributes to maintaining high standards of quality, responsibility, and social utility.
Communication culture in this context is assessed on the basis of individual action in the communication process that depends on personal motivation, knowledge about effective communication and communication skills [2, p. 36] and implies the desire to get, provide and create information, to receive emotional support from a partner, interest in his or her personality, needs to experience the joy of communication. The interaction of motivational and value field adequately reflects the subject-subject nature of professional communication and is reflected in specialist’s communicative behavior while working, i.e., the deployment of communicative culture takes place in the internal background of motivation for professional communicative activities in the field of qualitative valuation.
Reflection is considered a psychological prerequisite for successful cooperation and mutual understanding, the guarantor of positive interpersonal contacts that are determined by such partnerships individual qualities as insight, sensitivity, absolute acceptance and understanding of another person, etc. (A. Karpov, S. Kondratievа, V. Kryvosheyev, B. Lomov, etc.). It provides immediate self-control of human behavior in the current situation, understanding of its elements, analyzing of what is happening, ability to correlate own actions with the situation and their coordination under changing environment and own state. Its behavioral manifestations are the following: terms of the subject’s thinking about of own current activities, frequency of analysis of what is happening, degree of unfolding of processes of decision making, and tendency to introspection in specific situations.
The formation of professional self-concept depends essentially on the level of development of human reflection and empathy, the adequacy of self-esteem, realistic professional ideal, and the level of for requirements specialist’s personal traits [9, p. 13]; such self-concept is built on the basis of industrial relations and considers perceptions of information about oneself as professional from all the members of professional interactions, and formed the personality’s self-concept and professional ideal, as well. Personal reflection develops in understanding own minds and own actions, as well as in self-knowledge and it serves as a self-identity. The development of personality and its personal growth takes place while understanding the meaning which is implemented in a particular segment of the life process. Thereby, self-knowledge (understanding of the self-concept) using reflection leads to the justification of personal rights to change the given model of behavior, activities, allowing for the situation. Personal reflection appears in a person's ability to build new images of oneself as aresult of communicating with others and active joint activity [5, p. 440] and covers both communication processes and processes of self-reflection and self-awareness.
Reflexive patterns of organizing communication processes are grounded by I. Berliand, A. Bodal’ov, V. Bibler, A. Karpov, H. Shchedrovytskyi. In their works communicative reflection is considered in the context of issues of social perception and empathy in communication. As a necessary component of communication and interpersonal perception, this type of reflection is «a complex system of reflexive relations that emerge and develop in the process of interpersonal interaction», in which personal and communicative reflection («Self» reflection); socially perceptive reflection (reflection of another «Self»), and situational reflection or interactional reflection are distinguished . The communicative aspect of reflection takes cognitive, developmental and regulatory functions, which are expressed in changing perceptions of another subject for more appropriate for a given situation. Actualization of these features lead to inconsistencies between subject’s views about another partner of communication and his or her individual psychological traits that again disclose.
The dominance of communicative reflection in the process of communication during interpersonal interaction can characterize it as a specific quality of understandingman by man (A. Bodal’ov). Communicative process is primarily an interaction with others, a required component of which is the perception of one person by another. The complexity of the communication process is in the fact that it involves at least two members, each of which has own inner world, «filters» of informationperception, ownopinions and values, external displays, which cannot match. The success of interaction with a communication partner depends on how accurately he or she is perceived as emotional evaluation, attempts to understand his or her actions and forming of own behavior. Important regulatory role is played by the impression of partner’s behevior.
Meanwhile, in the course of joint activity certain characteristics of each other are mutually valued and changed. From the psychological point of view, these are cycles of feedbacks that include two people at least. When one of them begins communicating, he or she receives reaction and reacts by own thoughts and feelings. His or her behavior is formed internally through reviews on what he or she sees and hears. Thereby, a person has ideas about what to say or to do just because of paying attention to the other one and so does the partner.
All this implies a conscious choice of individual behavior that requires creative thinking, understanding of goals, objectives, motivation, evaluation not only of the actions, but also of their consequences. Besides, while communicating a person is characterized primarily by own desires, goals, and interests, creating own beliefs. In the process of communication one should also be careful with treating of the partner’s self-concept, as it is associated with strong feelings and states [6, p. 203]. Due to it a specialist is able to build effective relationships with others, set goals, define and redefine them basing on the situation, choose appropriate methods to achieve goals, defend own position by constructive ways, make choices and decisions, analyze the situation, motives, interests, feelings, and actions of others, as well as, be ready to take responsibility for own actions, and be independent. In addition, he or she is able to understand oneself and treat oneself and the environment with the proper respect. Personality-reflexive communicative qualities ensure his or her faith in oneself, own abilities and own possibility to be effective in the profession as well as understanding of the necessety to be an active subject of social life.
Hence, reflection as a personal quality influences the development of human needs in self-education, self-improvement and is closely connected with the creative work in the professional field, understanding of self in this position and with the estimation of own efficiency, with its reflection not only «for oneself”, but also for «others». Reflection, in our opinion, provides human adaptability to the new conditions of work, shows that reflexive function appears and implements in any activity where there is some difficulty. It pulls out a man from a continuous stream of life and forces him or her to accept external position.
In personal and reflexive aspect the human communicative culture is characterized by the ability to coordinate and correlate own actions with others, to accept and perceive a partner, to select arguments, to understand and respect the opinions of others, which provides regulation of relations in the achievement of a common goal, as well as readiness for tactful communicative interaction and reflection in communicative activities. However, the need for another person, the ability to take the position of a partner, extension of the of communicative activity boundaries are revealed in it; and the principles of semantic understanding of people in the society, the extent and patterns of their forms of communication and behavior are exposed.
Considering the above mentioned, personal and reflexive component of communicative culture characterizes the general culture and the specialist’s inner world, environmental perception and attitude, the ability to evaluate own feelings and states, the capacity for self-regulation and empathy. It is provided by the following personal factors: motivational and value one as a set of value orientations, communicative behavior motives, communication settings, professional and communicative values; mental one reflecting the humanistic aims of intellectual activity, openness, thought flexibility, some non-standard of associations and internal plan of actions; reflexive one as the individual’s ability for evaluation and self-evaluation, self-reflection and self-development, self-control and emotional and psychological self-regulation, self-adjusting to communication, empathy, personal attractions, etc.; personal and communicative factor determined by tact, endurance, tolerance, reflection of communicative activities et al.
In the professional context, this component makes a huge impact on character formation, self-identity, development of motivation to improve own communication culture, self-education and self-improvement and it involves future service professionals’ formation of sustained commitment to human contact, as well as the speed of its adjustment, communication skills, altruistic tendencies, desire to stay in the society, ability to enjoy the process of communication and capacity to engage in psychological contact, to form trusting relationships in the area of professional interaction on the principles of coherence and interperception.