- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Сорокский Аграрно Технический Колледж, Молдова
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Молдова";
Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;
Rural development is unthinkable without national programs, which would allow the creation of institutional and logistic infrastructure of socio-cultural activities: vocational, educational, health and culture, diversity of local conditions and of moral, spiritual of the inhabitants of rural areas, in terms of revenue growth and quality of life. This paper has addressed the theme of the analysis of the management system and the role of managers in the agricultural education.
Keywords: agriculture, education, system, management, industry, infrastructure, management, human resources, strategy.
Introduction: the Moldovan economy Transition from the planned to the system management market relations has taken place against the background of a general crisis and the dismantling of economic and educational complex. The deterioration of traditional economic relations, liberalization of prices, the Dniester armed conflict, lack of civic and political consensus in society about the terms and methods of implementation of the reforms have led to a sharp decline in products, stop the activity of the majority of industrial enterprises, the remodeling of the educational system, etc. The privatization of the mass of the Earth and the reorganization of agricultural enterprises, without the simultaneous transformation of the system of collection of agricultural production; reorganization of the system of material and technical supply of the agricultural sector;the privatization of the main enterprises of the processing industry have caused a reduction in the volume of agricultural production and the volume of the finished product, obtained by processing and decrease in the number of professional staff, which occupies a decisive position in the formation of the GDP of the Republic of Moldova. As a result, has fallen sharply the level of living of the population and, in particular, of the rural population, a fact that has contributed to the reduction of agricultural specialists in rural areas .
Results and discussion: However, since 2000, the peak of the crisis has been overcome; in agriculture the Republic was established, which enables private sector. The main agricultural producers became farms and households, which are approximately 0% of gross agricultural output. At the same time, yield, productivity, workers involved in the agricultural sector, remains at a very low level, with consequences for the evolution of chronic poverty in rural areas. We note that if the structure of GDP, approaching more and more of the same indicator in countries with a developed market economy, then the population structure of the Republic of Moldova remains an agricultural country. At the same time, it creates a paradoxical situation: on the background of a supersaturates of employment in agriculture in many rural areas record a shortage of human resources, in particular, of workers with a high level of skill. These investigations have targeted both the purely economic aspects (productivity and efficiency use of resources), and social (employment, social development in rural areas and trends in evolution of the demographic situation). The lack of skilled labor may be made in the near future, one of the main factors that will delay the development of rural localities. On the one hand, agriculture is facing an increase in efficiency and, on the other hand, becomes a factor of growing social tension in the country. The only way to respond to this challenge is to achieve a special State policy with regard to socio-economic development of the village. To this end, the STRATEGY has been elaborated (strategy for economic growth and poverty reduction strategy, endorsed in Geneva in 2004, set up in 2006), with the participation of the author. For the implementation of that programmer were carried out systematic research concerning the level and efficiency of resource use in agriculture.Note that the orientation of the Republic of Moldova towards European Union integration can cause worsening of the socio-economic crisis in agriculture, if you will take the necessary measures on time. This acutization can be instigated in the first place, the need to reduce (at least 2-3 times) the number of population, occupied in agriculture. Delaying the implementation of the programmer of development of alternative sources of income in rural areas will lead to further increase of unemployment and poverty. With jumps and older will increase and migration in general, the most qualified person, young and middle-aged. Thus, the main objective of the research in the field of work is the development of recommendations, aimed at curbing the phenomena mentioned.
The interventions of the local government, but so far, I'm pretty shy, in large part, due to insufficient resources. In the years of reform, there has been a worsening of social infrastructure, new conditions have left social-economic infrastructure without proper administration and funding. For the Republic of Moldova is characteristic of the development of the agricultural sector in the form of "Chevron", a fact noted by the former leadership of the country [8, p. 16-19], but not proved. The development of rural communities, historic, stagnant compared to the urban environment, and socio-economic reforms of the past decade, expanded and more this discrepancy, causing additional difficulties in the social development of the rural environment. The deep economic crisis has placed the majority of rural communities in the face of the dilemma: How to survive? To understand how the community resolution of this problem, you must review the system of vital needs. The main components of this system are: households of population (GC) [3, p. 16], social infrastructure (IS), agricultural enterprises (IA) and public administration (LPA).
Social infrastructure includes all determinants of the living conditions of the population: housing-communal household, socio-cultural, and recreation services. As you develop them, enhances the potential of rural localities, which have importance both for the rural population and the urban, intensify the relationship between city and village, creating circumstances for balancing conditions of life and work. The physical basis of the development of social infrastructure in rural areas is the capital investments and material resources allocated for these purposes, and the use as rational.
So, the agro-food sector becomes the cause and development of rural space. Status of education in rural areas, was not exactly enviable. Budget appropriations covering only 30-40 percent of needs, and technical-material base of educational institutions was depreciated and is no longer in line with the new requirements. Schools in rural areas, they lack the basic technical-material, equipment and teaching equipment, computers and internet access. Some of the schools needed major repairs, particularly: roofs, heating systems, aqueducts, sewage systems, sports halls, workshops for technological education, etc. The share of teachers with higher education and those with retirement age was very high. Low wages does not create conditions for attracting young specialists in rural areas. Development of social infrastructure in reacting negatively to the agricultural sector, as the core of the activity of the rural population.
Of particular interest to prelaunch agro-industrial complex of national economy presents the dynamics and structure of the population, occupied in agriculture. In the scientific literature and periodicals in recent years have emerged allegations, such as that in rural areas, especially in the branches of agriculture, there is a compartment of human resources. We stand in solidarity with the authors of these statements, since the economic reforms and structural change of ownership led to changes in lab our relations and employment. It is a contradictory phenomenon because, since 1990, there is a lack of employment in the economy, in general, due to the enlargement process during this period of agricultural activities in individual households, especially in the urban environment. And with the end of the program of privatization, a new form of management – peasant farms, which formed the main base of CAI.
The data recorded in 2005, indicating a further reduction in the number of employees, including workers unpaid. These were offset by restructuring increase of population migration . Please note that a slow growth in the number of population in the rural sector, including individual farms and a decrease from 1992 to 1998, the number of employees in the agricultural enterprises. This trend was maintained until 2000-2001, when it reached a balance between these two types of households. Earth's mass privatization has accelerated growth of employment in the sector and the peasant (farmers '). As a result, there has been an influx of human resources from corporations to the individual caused by the crisis situation, the agriculture and the economy, in general, being evident and a diversification of employment in this sector. In other cases, it would be fair to point out there is a flood of employment in rural areas, but about a shortage of human resources, since roughly half of the population (46,1%) rural employment, in 2002, the quota without pay.
The results of investigations carried out, it may be noted that for the practice of agriculture in the Republic of Moldova is in need of about 250,000 people, including the plant-195,9. The latest figure to emerge in the following calculations: a worker, trained in plant production, working eight months (in one month this person is 180 man/hours (25 days × 7.2 man/hours), which is 1440 man/hours annually. Analyzing table 1, it may be noted that, for obtaining of vegetal production, agricultural enterprises in need of 282 thousand man/hours or 195,9. In addition, they are engaged in stock raising and administrative personnel. Their share in the total number of employees in agriculture constitutes approximately 25.0% or 65 thousands.
Human resource requirements in the Agriculture of the Republic of Moldova
Agricultural land area, hectares
Costs per 1 ha, man/hours
Total, thousand man/hours
Total processed agricultural areas
Source: author's Calculations (without districts) .
Thus, in the Agriculture of the Republic of Moldova should be filled up 260,0-280,0 thousands or 46.7% of the employed population, at present, in agriculture. Currently in agriculture are occupied approximately 600 thousand people, what is needed, basically, just in the period august-October, as the most tense period of agricultural works, when human resources are used in the production process up to 40,0% for plant production.
As new intensive technologies, based on an advanced degree of mechanization, the number of employees in agriculture will be reduced significantly. Also, the decrease of employment in agriculture is a primary condition of integration in the European Union member countries the share of the population occupied in agricultural activities, which constitute only 4-8%. In these circumstances, the question arises, is it ready for the lab our market, an influx of investments? Unfortunately, there is not a clear answer. At present, there is already such a phenomenon: unemployment sustainably coexist with a scarcity of human resources, there is a surplus of farm managers, at the same time, there is also a demand from the other specialties of the lavish (machine operators, welders, etc.).Obviously, you need not just the arms, but some professions, workers with skills and high qualifications, and the current lab our market does not meet the demands of the economy. Demographic forecasts, likewise, are not encouraging: the year 2003 was the last year in which the population of employable age has grown; still, however, the absolute number of persons fit for work will record a decline continues, and towards the year 2015 they expect a negative growth of about 20 thousand people.
Thus, the lab our market is not ready for the influx of investments, moreover, to some extent, this is a slowdown for the revival of investment processes, and if the market is not prepared for these investments, then they will not provide the expected result. To improve this situation must undertake, first of all, by a State complex program of actions in the social sector, on the basis of the STRATEGY and concept of the lab our market, as well as measures for their realization, i.e. to establish a civilized lab our market and effective operative Insurance employer with qualified, and the worker respectively, with decent wages. At the same time solving the employment problem will be resolved both sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction issue.
The strategy of development of the rural economy, in our conception, underlie the rational use of natural resources and human potential, at national, regional and local levels, basically disregarded previously because of inadequate facilities in the material-technical and confusing organization of various agricultural and non-agricultural activities in rural areas Further, we will reflect the conceptual objectives of management. The evolution of agricultural management in the Republic of Moldova is the result of complex factors of historical, political, economic, social, economic, and international. With the expansion of economic relations, the European framework with the participation of the Republic of Moldova, including in the rural sector, have made extensive processes of reform and restructuring, including the managerial system. Development and implementation of strategies relating to restructuring and rural development in the Republic of Moldova requires application-specific attributes of agricultural management. The conceptual and methodological management of the rural management system involves socio-economic and natural-geographical, economic resources, natural and human, objectives and indicators for assessment of the strategy for the development of the rural economy.
In this approach, the priorities of human progress are based on agricultural activities, because we have the existence of abundant natural and human resources, at least quantitatively. Their effective use requires the harmonization of government programs with initiatives for agricultural entrepreneurs, regardless of their form of ownership, in order to achieve sustainable agriculture. The economic profile of the rural localities integrates a broad and complex development of rural industry, complete with new industries, located in urban and rural localities, with public and private services for the social and economic process of the countryside.
In this context, it is appropriate to reflect the main aspects for rural development (see Figure 1) and rural development policies impact on the rural population (see Figure 2).
Fig. 1. The main issues for rural development and agricultural productivity growth and competitiveness in the Republic of Moldova
Source: elaborated by the author on the basis of the national strategy for sustainable development of agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Moldova (2008-2015).
Fig..2. Rural development policies Impact on the rural population
Source: elaborated by the author
Rural development strategy, in our view, must be based on an integrative concept. Thus, rural, integrated into the development of local, national and European, requires an application of principles of management concept of a new type of agriculture, which enforces human and natural resources through the development of the technical-material basis, through the amplification of human contribution to the integration of the natural space, economic, technological and human resources in rural areas, through ecological fitting in the architectural and functional integration of the objectives of development. In this context, we consider that the main objectives of the management of rural can be defined taking into account the needs of the development of the rural economy in the period of transition to a market economy (see Figure 3).
Rural management objectives can be achieved in conditions in which there are various forms of ownership of land and production factors, organization of the typology of agricultural holdings, access different populations to education, culture and vocational training. Rural management, according to our investigations, to be exercised at all levels of the organizational structure of the national economy:
Fig. 3. The main objectives of the management of rural
Source: adapted by author.
These are moral qualities which make the Romanian grower to gloss over some of the difficulties and to rise from some calamities [2 p. 162]. With the vision of economic and social development of the countryside, the man-nature relationship and interpersonal communication, report generating socio-economic systems, and spiritual, it is necessary to take into account the views of the scholars of the people related to the development of rural areas as a historical phenomenon. Romanian academician v. Mugrescu, stated that in order to be understood in its substance, the evolution of economic life of the Romanian people should be researched through the evolution of agrarian relations and on the basis of their periodization [4, p. 63], and the 1848 revolutions: USMC force I. Ionescu de la Brad urges us to observe the rural population, which identifies with the people here, "The inhabitants of the villages we find most notable virtues the moral qualities most essential to agricultural success: hard work, justice, honesty, family, property and authority.
Another specialist, Minister of education, Spiru Haret country appreciates "the surroundings they put me in a position to know closely the important complex of issues, some more serious and more threatening than others, which constitute ' management '". I managed to convince me of how great is she to take first place in the concerns of the people of our State, which would take her resolution in its entirety, and not only in part by measures anodyne ". Academician v. P says: "peasant Traditionalism corresponds to an extraordinary curiosity, even for things totally foreign to his experience. Distrust towards any new corresponds to a desire to find out the mystery of that news to a subject – where a spirit of observation and exceptionally sharp criticism, often with much beating the man cultured, learned with the formula taken from ready-made in books ".Emphasizing the need for the Organization of agriculture under new forms, Professor h. Kingsley – founder of agricultural higher education in Moldova, in 1931, he wrote: "it's safer to get improve the situation of the farmer is to preserve the autonomy of the individual, but to join in agricultural organizations to work the land and to harness the products effectively. Small farmers and many do not-and can improve the way management sitting isolated: they lack guidance, means of operation, was to harness effectively the production and encounter a lot of obstacles. Organize, but they manage to do so "[9, p. 88].
Thus, the definition of the motherland and the strategy of its development is closely related to the way of life "in time" of the people. Rural population has moral and professional qualities, which enhances the value of the action and efficiency of rural development. Harmonize with the General State of the motherland and is part of the general strategy of development of the country, as well as rural development. Educational management for agriculture may not take into account those aspects specific to the rural population. The complexity of the rural world requires finding those solutions, which can approach people and make possible better management of agricultural resources by Nations, regional and world bodies. An agronomic education opportunity to integrate into European education requires restructuring, in the national plan, in the following main directions:
In most countries, the processes of reform of agriculture is accompanied by an educational and professional management. The experience of the French and German Agriculture has numerous links to Republic of Moldova .
Knowledge and scientific research plays an important role in redirecting the rural sector, in order to support family farms. The majority of West European agricultural policy is based on the promotion of knowledge, scientific and technical progress on structural policy, which creates conditions for increasing the viability of the farm family. The variety of agricultural strategies is great, which contain common elements, as the competitiveness of the market, and income parity, protection of the environment.
Natural factors and historical conditions affect agricultural policies, but their impact can be corrected and adjusted only for long periods. As a result of the impact of technological and scientific progress, which constitute an important element in the agricultural development strategies, linking industrialization and urbanization. To this end, it aims to increase the income of farmers and of the entire rural populations through the modernization of infrastructure, social services and the countryside. Such measures speeds up internal migration, in particular young people, through the creation of non-agricultural employment in agricultural areas and agricultural work by merging with other economic activities, improving productivity and farm income. Success depends, in the end, of the vocational training of the rural population and the overall level of education.
Problems changing phenomena in agronomic education have always been in the eye of the educational management of the agriculture, but, until recently, they were settled in a rather slow pace, more like a routine activity, in accordance with organizational practices. At present, the changes appear on the management scene in various forms and in different directions, so that, over time, once we got used to one, the need for another. Both Government and Enterprise engineer’s offers innovations and scientific world manifested interest in the business. Social science, interested in the managerial situation, presents its concepts to the more important good work organization – the human element.
The Manager is in a difficult position, because the change has become one of the most important processes of management – at a par with the traditional ones, several processes of planning, organization, operation and control. So far, however, is of too little realized a change of management. It is assumed, that the Executive operates automatically changes, operating procedures and programs. But when change is a process in itself, and the need to plan organizational procedures or planning to organize or operate in terms of organization and control processes.
The change can only be achieved with the full cooperation of all parties of an organization: any procedure of change must have the active support of all enterprises, through its policy and objectives, and of individual employees through performance and individual effort. Everything must be done by the people and for the people, and it involves problems in communication, motivation, and the simple act of delegation is no longer enough. In many cases, a simple effort to trigger a process of change has led to resentment and insecurity, particularly where the people involved are characterized as being unstable and nervous.
The Manager cannot be faulted for wanting to avoid such reactions possible, but often do not properly when believes that resentment is a necessary price of testing changes and improvements. In certain circumstances, people do not react negatively to the idea of a change. In these cases, the groups are notable, a pleasure in making a change and in creating improvements, being United in their use, as if it would be the most natural and the most enjoyable activity. Both individuals and groups have proved, that, being put through the ability of the Manager in an atmosphere and an adequate situation, the change is not a breathtaking and difficult issue. People don't change, and resisted it loathes criticism, but resisted being changed and loathe to be criticized.
The Manager should initiate and sustain a strong and sensitive to climate and opportunities because of the constant quest to improve are the essence of the management of change. This is exemplified by the difference between mobility and immobility, in the sense that it is easier to push, rather than directing. It is acknowledged that absolute perfection is reached not ever, just searched. Persistence is power that supports the objectives of change management.
As part of their basic forms, people have not only the power but also the desire to be creative. The philosophy of change accepts this truth and, more importantly, releasing the latent creativity in people, both as individuals and as groups. This should involve the establishment by the manager of a climate and an atmosphere based on mutual trust and respect, so that the creative potential of mankind to be developed and supported.
Taking into account the conditions of the agricultural sector of the Republic of Moldova, we propose the inclusion of the three areas of implementation of changes: changes in the form of ownership; changes in the dimensions of agricultural enterprises; changes in the mentality of people driving .
The change can be accomplished in a long time and considerable expense. In the agricultural sector of the Republic of Moldova, the changes, in our opinion, may be completed within 3-5 years. Thus, the management of the process of changes in the agricultural sector may be called change management. If as a result of these changes to obtain positive results, then it can be called qualitative change management. Management of quality, in our vision, can be set up as a system of complex reorganization and correlation of activities with a view to obtaining high economic efficiency.
Thus, the process of reorganization, as a broad notion is changing shape, exterior, the standard of living conditions in society, the primary components of production under market conditions, socio-economic, internal and external. Change can be considered qualitative, if obtained and complied with the following conditions:
Making the rules, we can affirm that the management of rural, agricultural, mainly at becomes a phenomenon in all fields, including education and business, is our ability to lead, closely linked to the ability to recognize and work with any aspect of change.