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Одесский национальный университет им. И.И. Мечникова , Украина
The article received the further development of the author's theory of social communication in the direction of the management emotions and studying the peculiarities of ethics in communication terms. Details the main psychological personality types of employees and managers in terms of the dynamics of social communication.
Keywords communication, culture emotions, etiquette, dependence, manager. officer, organization, social, , study factor
Social communication is a relatively new trend in Ukrainian science, but the direction is very important, because the aims of scientists insight into the processes and phenomena of social life in the relationship and in the relationship.
If you operate the encyclopedic concepts, socialization is intended effect on the personality with the purpose of its formation, communication - relationship of individual factors, as well as communication and information transfer.
Communication process in the culture of the organization ensures the operation of all social subsystems that gives culture subsequent transfer. This social mechanism helps culture in the society to spread and deepen due to the fact that the conditions for regulation of social behavior.
The study of the social communications media cultures will allow to solve the following interrelated tasks:
Source of social disruption enterprise (organization, company) and is reflected in the culture, there is individuality ordinary employees, particularly where their educational and qualification level of a narrow, that, for example, takes place in the newly established media. Even in the media, where for many years there is an established team, minor changes in society, leading to changes in interpersonal relationships, corrects the work of the whole team and its impact on the audience.
In turn, this leads to organizational and social dynamics within the enterprise.
Formation of the concept of organizational and social dynamics is based on the detailed study of social communication, interpersonal relations in the production process and the impact on the community the results of the work. This was possible on the basis of logical laws define truth, backed by mathematical laws, because the internal processes occur under the influence of many factors, some of which absorb (to some extent) one another.
The study of organizational and social dynamics of the communications is a logical system of techniques to get new data on the main components of production and new ways to improve performance.
Method of organization and social dynamics (organizational and dynamic method) has a number of advantages compared with the used methods, including the following:
There are other sociological theories to resolve the research work imbalance between qualitative and quantitative characteristics. It should also be kept in mind that quantitative methods consider a bunch of patterns. Qualitative methods take into account the situation and the role of minor factors.
The position of the organization. She declares as the basis of communicative interaction in organizations necessity of formation of achievable goals. In other words, to the vision was not a prerogative of only the head, and was divided and accompanied by all other proposed goals for the future should be achievable. With the clear should be the position of
Manager, especially in 2 aspects:
Psychohygiene,in other words, psychoprophylaxis and mental health, Manager are closely linked. The main direction of the same mental hygiene in relation to the management of work, should be considered based on the influence of adverse conditions, including, physiological stress and overwork, that, in the future, can lead to nervous disorders.
Emotional stress, fatigue, industrial disputes, technical equipment malfunction can lead Manager to the nervous instability. Usually this manifests itself in the complaints about unsatisfactory attitude to the Manager of its manufacturing partners and managers of all levels. The results will be as complex fatigue, boredom, lethargy, irritability. All this causes memory loss, vision, narrowing of the intellectual Outlook. In the perspective of a possible depression.
Mentally disturbed man behind the wheel of a production management, without doubt, is a social danger. To avoid such phenomena, need the same pscho higiene, as an integral element of the management culture. In other words, each Manager should be clear about the limits of his emotional stress and mental fatigue in different work situations. As a result, everyone should know how much time he can manage.
There are psychofarmacolodgicpreparations for correction of the General condition, but use them in the process of staff management and production to be very careful.
The most convincing indicator of the complexity of the conditions for the movement of production is the statistics of economic achievements. Much has been done to study the psychophysiological features of managers, to ensure safety of the plan. It is known, the effect of the tension on the intensity of production. In the literature there are data on the emotional stress managers.
Meanwhile, emotional stress occurs under the influence of the management of anti-culture. In other words, culture managers and their staff can be a serious factor influencing the occurrence of emotions, both positive and negative. Negative factors - the fear of being trapped, anger, resentment - inhibit the Manager and he was on time, you may lose control of workers. Joy, laughter, sense of elation create a feeling Manager uck; there permissiveness and the Manager goes on violation of the Rules. This is especially critical at the end of the reporting period.
Leaders know very well that many managers do not notice the difficulties in this regard are to be punished. Head responds to the fact, if the Manager is healthy and is not in a state of alcoholic or narcotic intoxication. But as for the Manager, his carelessness he explains himself any real reasons that changed his emotional state. Among these reasons is real and mystical. But only the first can speak freely and calmly, though the reaction Manager has a place in all cases.
Thus, the management anticulture leads to nervous excitement that can be strong and weak, can be instantly but may have a certain incubation period, can spread quickly or slowly, may be accompanied by a rise in blood pressure, change of the composition of the blood and lymph due to the adrenaline rush. That's why a lot of conflict situations occurring on a completely safe productions, and often when there is no more work. That means that the reasons and the distraction of the managers, that is, in the psychological perception of the obstacles of control, which can be set. This and technological difficulties and name-calling between managers and tenacity of the owner of the company» in any way "way ahead» and risky overtaking competitors to first get big money .
People have different psychological and physiological traits. Choleric need speed, they don't like a long wait, they always worry more than all, of their mouth is easier to break swearing at other managers, business partners , state, native workers . From his own emotions they quickly get tired, sometimes repent in their behavior. But little temper for others, especially for vulnerable managers, may result in disaster - violation of Rules and guidelines, especially when two people meet ,both choleric, and between them there is a conflict, then splashed a lot of emotions, mutual accusations, insults, threats. The head of the service has nothing to do here: these people are punished themselves. His interference in the conflict can only worsen the situation, because it is very difficult to one of the managers convince wrong.
Less dramatic situation when the two managers parties to the conflict, is sanguine. Review is a more "business-like" and is not as aggressive nature. Threats and accusations, but their tone lower. They occasionally need for peaceful resolution of the conflict.
Even easier emotional situation in the conflict of two phlegmatic. They are more cautious and more stubborn. Their reasoning is more rational than the emotional character. In this case, is very effective intervention of the head of the enterprise , which can be confident that do not have to listen to the threat.
We think about the melancholic, because we believe that they are very rare, as the managers .
Choleric-phlegmatic, sanguine-phlegmatic. Choleric leads production sharply, loves dashing acceleration and evil braking. Production technologists and management intoxicated him, the hum of equipment and monotonous activities of the personnel allow to forget about the danger of that same competitors, which strongly racing ahead for managed by the same choleric - on our streets, we see sometimes competition competitors. Who is ahead in the prices or the amount of sales, who "lost" in the competitive thread .
The reason is an underestimate of its managerial culture, and revaluation of the managerial culture movement partners. Manager of normal managerial culture, first of all, respects the available characters production movement, because they were delivered by specialists on the basis of experience and analysis. Uncivilized create in the production or sale of a risky situation that may cause death of people or equipment .
Sanguine run more quietly, think more about the attitude to them of top managers , and on their technology, but they are often infects someone else's prowess.
They are less likely to be offended by another Manager, which is not inferior to them the way, presses to risky situations, is so close that it makes you think about the relevance of the price policy .Sanguinemore than choleric can control his emotion. Therefore, rarely loses his temper. So it seldom gets in emergencies, with the least damage.
Phlegmatic did not favor the rapid course of production, is not interested in competing in the financial circulation, more often than other psychophysiological types, gives preference to the old technology with a low-powered equipment and low level of comfort. Conducts control its production very carefully. The indifferent and the managers, and to the enterprises good. get tripped All the events on the production explains haste and carelessness.
We reviewed temperament, as the basis of the speed of mental processes control Manager lowest . Hence we can conclude that the temperamental control even at low engine speeds results in carelessness. Thistemperamental personnel management and technology is manifested in the fact that the Manager nervously and often change their decisions and commands . As soon as there appears a possibility to increase the rate of production of goods - hurry with pleasure, then comes the feeling of great satisfaction from this force, from the results of their management .likefragments, from the appearance of a competitive environment is a feeling of pride in themselves and their capabilities. In the result, the weakening of attention.
Managerial culture is largely control their emotions, which in any case should not move in the direction of the psyche. Should not be intoxication neither from nor from members nor from myself in production .
Psyche Manager should be such that he could objectively and quickly perceive the situation of production, respond to changes and in accordance with this correct movement of his business.
Most of the information comes sight by sequentially through the stages of detection, distinguishing, identification and reasoning. Imagine a typical situation, the Manager of laughs, and shuts his eyes to the technological situation is Not much detail sign the situation, he will have time to see and comprehend. Of course, we can talk about the visual acuity of his sensitivity (for example, blinding). However, we must bear in mind that the inner state of a person, his blood and intracranial pressure, also has an impact. Phlegmatic slower perceive form, contrast, but longer able to analyze a situation, in which process they reduce speed and rarely get into njt not neededcases.
Distinguish cone sharp vision (a small circle with angular size of and peripheral vision angle 120-1600, which decreases the speed increases, the intensity of management and sow production point. The most valuable information is perceived cone sharp vision . When there are high levels of technological process Manager focuses where they can receive the negatives . In these conditions it is difficult perceived recommendations employees
Concentrateattention to the associated phenomena, and at random situations - critical situations to understand the concepts of managerial culture it is necessary to emphasize one fact: the Manager should know themselves, their abilities and skills. He should be able to clearly and simply answer the question of what it is most annoying in the organizational and technological process at which the principles he builds its relations with partners on business, to release resources, even if he is in a hurry, and what factors it emotionally stabilized.
Unfortunately, the existing system of training, including in business schools . does not aim managers to know ourselves. While everyone should know the speed of reaction to physical and moral stimuli. Have a look how he reacts to envy, anger, indignation, as relates to riches, to the luxurious life of its competitors . Perhaps instead of a medical Commission with its primitive survey, a Manager must be periodically psychophysiological testing. Then there will be incentives for self-education, including through improving the managerial culture that reflects the needs of our mechanized society, and on the other hand increases the culture of the nation, because the work as a Manager is an important motivating factor in the cultural construction.
Psychology of overwork. Increase of the number of critical situations .particularlyin the dark . is the result of overwork, desire to sleep. In this case, in addition to encouraging tools, such as coffee, you can recommend autogenic training, the program of which every culture Manager can make himself. As an example, here is the text of the following training: "I never get tired, I never want to sleep at work; I'm smart, I'm strong, I will not give me fall asleep. I can fall asleep in his bed. But sitting sleep only fools ".
If such a program Manager will read aloud several times, with different voice modulations, then sleep for a while it will leave.
Psychology struggle with sleep at work should be familiar to each Manager, because monotonous technological process under the soothing even the roar of equipment for some, can serve as a lullaby.
Especially important psycho-physiological reaction of managers depends on timely change, and efficient manoeuvring. It is known that the reaction of the better choleric, slow the phlegmatic. To date, there is no way to alter phlegmatic in the choleric, or Vice versa. The case is different: each Manager, with good managerial culture, is well aware of themselves and their shortcomings, and from these positions skillfully affects the organizational and technological situation.
Many here may declare that knows itself. So I would argue that any person in certain psycho-physiological conditions, acts according to the data of their vital functions, primarily blood pressure. In addition, the management of modern production .хоч it is small business . associated with the chaotic effect on our psyche of many positive and negative factors, which, in aggregate, affect n
Etiquettehead. Several unusual combination of words. On the one hand, the Manager must be severe and exacting, and friendly. He should appreciate the time working and is not interested in their problems. If the Manager builds its work on the basis of ethical norms, it is possible to obtain considerable savings for both parties.
The work of the Manager is in constant communication with employees in the framework of norms and Regulations and job descriptions. So, much depends on the behavior of the parties. Here, neither the Manager nor the employee does not have a possibility to choose a partner. That is the dialogue is forced, which may arise sympathy, antipathy. The former may lead to a situation, oriented on personal relationships, which could result in an attempt «to bribe», as a way to avoid material, and possibly criminal liability. Dislikes same can lead to conflict. In this regard, etiquette requires respect the principle of emotional neutrality.
The Manager should not overstate the importance of his activity, authorities, private office. In any case, should not be hostility towards the employee.
Each Manager should be aware that the impact on the employee by not only through legislation and the methods of administrative influence, but also personal qualities, providing him the confidence and respect of the person. It is also important to his intellect, mentality, skills, knowledge governance mechanisms.
Another point to keep in mind Manager: follow the boundaries of good relations. This is necessary so that at the right moment to show impartiality to the interests of the case are not in conflict with the personal interests of employees.
The ability to efficiently communicate important professional quality Manager, a necessary element of its culture. Because the Manager is sometimes difficult to be polite and considerate when in front of you passes a number of people, especially if among them there are people nervous, excited, who is hearing impaired, poorly thinkers, slow in his movements.
Any interaction of the employees begins with establishing contact. If this leader You see for the first time, the special importance is the first emotional reaction, it should certainly be positive, that is, words, gestures, attention needs to be expressed if no joy, then, in any case, cordiality and it is desirable to smile.
Ability to professionally get in touch creates the basis for the success of the conversation and is an important characteristic. Contact not so much depends on what is said by one, how he keeps.
Heterogeneous mass of people consists of interesting and real violators of labor and technological discipline. Here we must be able to distinguish one from the other. We must remember that one appreciates the specificity and efficiency, direct Frank discussion that should take place only on the background of positive emotions (joy, warmth, understanding humor, smiles and perhaps even laughter). If the conversation goes on the background of negative emotions (the amount of sadness, envy, resentment, tension), - it is likely to be prolonged.