- О проекте
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Таврический государственный агротехнологический университет, Украина
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Украина";
Abstract. This article concerns the application of psychology in agricultural sector as an example of farming in Ukraine.
Keywords: Labor psychology, agricultural sector, farming.
Labor Psychology (in the narrow sense of the word) studies primarily the laws of human activities as a subject and an individual as well as patterns of development and the formation of human as labor subject.
The competence of labor psychology includes the development of a methodology and conceptual framework, the analysis of the relationship, the parameters and dynamics of basic phenomena being generated in the course of work of human as a subject (occupation, position, workplace, etc.). Traditionally and long enough labor psychology has focused on the human activity as a separate subject studying him from the perspective of assessing his success as a professional in general and the effectiveness of his professional activities in particular.
In many ways this paradigm of science was determined not only by the level of its production technical equipment, transport, physical and mechanized labor share, educational level of its performers, but the dominant ideology of human models as well (e.g.: McGregor’s «X» model), the dominant management stereotypes ("a man as a part of a mechanism", "there is no person that couldn’t be changed by another one", etc.).
Therefore, the scientists attention has been attracted by anthropometry, physical, physiological and psycho-physiological functions, mental and – consequently - functional states, trained level, professionally meaningful qualities in a broad sense, professional suitability of the individual regarding to hard-coded parameters of "technique", functional requirements to the subject of labor. This was the need of social demand. It was necessary to solve the problems resulting from it. It was only in 1950s when psychology directly declared the formation of a new approach, its new state - the state of maturity called "humanistic psychology."
If describing and defining briefly one of the smallest "scales" of the discipline, the labor psychology (in the narrow sense) is the science that studies the initial processes generated by "subject-object" system as well as major characteristics of both components of this system. Labor system including "person-person" profession will be further considered as a particular case of the "subject-object" system. The principal differences in the many processes of subject-object and subject-subject relations are the subject matter of other disciplines and being thoroughly studied by social psychology, psychology of management and others [1, p. 62-64].
In the scientific literature, one can distinguish a variety of approaches to psychological analysis of professional activity. The concepts of domestic scientists seem to us more methodically consistent, deployed and coordinated. With a variety of concepts of different authors an overall methodological approach has been maintained as three levels of the organization, the three "units" of analysis: individual (or especially) activity, action, operation have been identified .
According to one of the approaches proposed by B.F. Lomov  the activity is regarded as "a system of psychological component." In his conclusions he came from a critical analysis of A. Leontief theory , Rubinstein’s integrating action-procedure approach  and P.K. Anokhin theory of functional systems and focusing on the functions of the human operator. Activity is considered by B.F. Lomov as a system focused on the target, which has a hierarchical structure, relatively independent subsystems and various options for communication components. Target is being considered as system-forming factor ("image-goal", "recipient of the activity"). A vector 'motive-goal plays a regulatory role in the process of its arrangement".
In general, the activity consists of the following "psychological components": the image of the target, the anticipation of the result; planning, decision-making, performing solutions, monitoring the implementation.
The progress of the work is organized as a cyclic approximation to the target set .
Domestic scientists ideas on professional activity in the last quarter of the XX century evolved, as a rule, on the basis of P.K. Anokhin’s theory of functional systems. O.A. Konopkin in the psychic self-regulation concept of human activity distinguished its main links such as: adopted by the subject the goal of activity, a subjective model of significant conditions, performing a program of action, the system of subjective criteria for achievement, monitoring and evaluation of the actual results, the decision on compensation.
Another approach to the problem had been proposed by V.D. Shadrikov , who considered a career as a typical functional system. The activity serves as the unity of three aspects: the subject-effective, physiological (as a function of the human body), psychological (as achieving the goal set consciously combined with the display of all psychic functions, moral and volitional personality sphere, intelligence, etc.). The main functional blocks of the psychological system of activity are: the motives of activity; the purposes of the activity, activity program, activities information basis; decision making; subsystem of activity important qualities.
Allocated blocks are not ontologically autonomous, they are closely related, included one into another and permeate the whole human activities [6, p. 12].
A third approach to the problem, "functional" is characterized by the release of "structural components" of employment in accordance with which the key functional components of professional activity have been distinguished. These are steady basic connections of the main structural components resulting in the normal course of business entities functioning being responsible for the development and improvement of the professional system, its stability and viability.. N.V. Kuzmina, AA Derkach [7, 8] distinguish the following components as: gnostic, projecting, constructive, communicative and organizational.
Each activity is finite. In achieving its objectives the carriers of structural components of the system are the people in whose activity these structural components enter into complex interactions thereby forming a functional components - strong links of basic structural components. In the course of dominant structural components implementation acting as functional ones, they enter into new relationships with others subordinating them.
For example, the activity of the teacher and the student as constituent parts of the educational system depending on its performance can be attributed to one of the hierarchical levels.
1. Reproductive (minimal) - one can retell the other what he knows and can do himself.
2. Adaptive (low) - one is able to adapt his message to the age and individual needs of those with whom he works.
3. Local modeling (average) - the man knows how to form firm knowledge, skills, sub-skills to others in separate parts of the course or the subject themes.
4. System-modeling (high) - a professional is able to form firm knowledge, skills, sub-skills to others on all the major parts of the course and program.
5. System-modeling activity and behavior (higher) - a professional knows how to make the subject of labor as the means for shaping the identity of another person, intentionally generate creative thinking, the ability to acquire independently necessary knowledge, synthesize, transfer them into new conditions of [8, p. 39].
Similarly, the idea of labor activity, as a rule, is characteristic feature of approaches for executive management analysis in which the “managerial functions” have been distinguished as its major elements [9, 123].
The approach of G.V. Sukhodolskiy is based on the criterion of the components relevance in the subject of labor psyche.. Its conceptual reflection involves algorithm flexibility and structure clarity, conceptual and practical analysis as well as activities synthesis. According to the concept the following key notions are being distinguished: subject, morphology, motivation, functions, dynamics, a variety of activities.
Sukhodolskiy’s monograph (Foundations of the psychological theory of activity, 1988) highlights the lack of scrutiny of the joint (group) activities, the existence of gaps between the conceptual representations and descriptions of specific labor cycles. According to G.V. Sukhodolskiy the generalizing concepts should be based on the postulates of interaction, activity, keeping regulations and variability.
B.F. Lomov also noted the lack of scrutiny of co-activities compared with the individual. He emphasized that "in many individual activities, it remains unclear if it is considered in itself, regardless to the joint activities" [3, p. 231]. Moreover, the starting point of the analysis is to determine the individual's place in the joint venture entities and their functions.
A.L. Zhuravlev, also noted a relatively little-studied joint ventures, as its main features he highlighted the following: a real union of individual activities and subjects, the division of a single process to separate functionally related operations with their distribution among the participants, the coordination of activities of individual entities, the management of individual activities, the availability of a single ultimate result (of aggregate product), the availability of a single space and the simultaneous execution of individual activities by different people [1, p. 140-144].
In F.A. Brockhaus and I.A. Ephron encyclopedia the term "farm" is considered as follows: farming (farming) in English means in general farming on the owned or rented land, in other languages the term referred to the farm of the latter kind (French fermier, Russian Farmer). Farm may be small - peasant type, and big – of capitalist type. Both types differ in goals and means. Small economic rent is an organization aimed primarily if not exclusively to the needs of the farmer and his family, and being based on using the labor power of the consumers themselves at relatively small investment of capital and limited in hired labor using, as an exception. Small farmer - villager tilling the land to meet his food needs and relatively little dependent on the market; he is not an entrepreneur who seeks to maximize profit, he is the working-farmer who apply his labor to land to feed himself. Capitalist type farm is based on the principles of large-scale production, the farmer is an entrepreneur-capitalist, he expects to receive the highest possible profit from the production of products for sale; basing his economic activities on more or less significant capital and wage labor. Such an economy is entirely dependent on the market and thus is being led according to the system being defined in each case by the existing prices for agricultural products. A typical country of farm peasant type is Ireland and of capitalist farming - England. Farming represents peculiarities being presupposed by the fact that the land serving as the object of economic activity of the farmer is only being at his in the temporary possession .
The study having been conducted by us confirms that almost all farmers do not realize the importance of their professional and personal qualities and thus they are not provided with required values for their development.
They are also more concerned about the problems associated with their farms economic problems than those directly affecting their psychic state and the ability to evaluate objectively social problems.
Great emotional and psychological overloads are characteristic to farmer work preventing them to do not only their work but making also harm to their health as well. Many of them are not able to cope with this load and they have to change their activities or just change for another job
The work connected with this specialty also requires such certain personal traits needed to just effective performance as: high level of training, the general theoretical knowledge, and so on.
Thus, many young people face the problem of inconsistency of their personal qualities and requirements imposed to them. To avoid this situation, it is necessary to develop a program of training future professionals in the branch of agriculture.
Within three months of conducting socio-psychological experiment and after the data statistical processing (I and II stages) we came to the conclusion that the embedded training seminar "Development of professionally significant qualities of the farmer" is valid, efficient and effective for the correction of selected by us meaningful professional qualities such as management, autonomy and the stability of residence, service, challenge, entrepreneurship, management capacity, communication and organizational tendencies. In all these cases, the calculation of the statistical significance of the coefficient before and after the training having been obtained by us turned to be the competing hypothesis H1 (p <= 0,05, p <= 0.01, p <= 0.001).
The exercises having been chosen by us for the correction of professional competence and integration lifestyles turned to be ineffective.. There we received H0 - null hypothesis which shows that between starting and completing the experiment in the above mentioned units statistically significant differences have not been received.
We recommend to conduct further research in this area as well as the introduce a new discipline at higher educational institutions such as "agro-psychology" in order to improve the perception of future farmers their professional niche, a faithful representation of their work specifics - its intricacies and difficulties. We also consider it obligatory to introduce at Universities for students and school leavers the studying of job descriptions and profession-grams of chosen by them profession.