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Новгородский государственный университет им. Ярослава Мудрого, Россия
Consider the role of some contemporary trends in art in the establishment and development of computer technology in a modern design.
Keywords: vanguard, modernism, design, computer, technology.
Рассмотрена роль некоторых модернистских течений в искусстве на становление и развитие компьютерных технологий в современном дизайне.
Ключевые слова: авангард, модернизм, дизайн, компьютерные технологии.
Rather fast and frictionless development by design of digital and multimedia technologies in the second half of the XX century is substantially caused by the saved-up art experience of vanguard. It is possible to claim that the computer and art thinking of modern designers is a direct consequence of vanguard and modernist currents in different types of arts of the XX-th century.
Let's consider specifically influence of some currents of vanguard on a design space computerization.
Constructivism – the Soviet vanguard style which has developed in 1920-1930 of the last century. It is characterized by a geometrizm, concise of forms, severity of outlines and solidity of appearance. Constructivists were developers of a so-called functional method of design of architectural objects and became the powerful generator of stile forming processes in the vanguard.
The rational and logical method of shaping developed by constructivists, most widely in spatial arts and design. Ideologues and followers of constructivism in Russia were A.Rodchenko, Vesnin brother. Abroad constructivism developed Le Corbusier, Marseille Broyer, Alvar Aolto, etc.
As O. Yatsyuk  notes, the principle of constructivism is organically inherent in computer technologies of visualization. In graphic design of idea of constructivism are embodied most brightly. Really, work in the graphic editor is an algorithmic step-by-step creation of the image by means of basic teams of applied programs. Most fully the principles of constructivism found an embodiment in vector graphics, in computer combination theory, in computer color reproduction.
In the second half of the 30th years interest in constructivism is weaker. However at the beginning of the XXI-st century constructivism "Renaissance" is observed. It comes back, first of all, to architecture (the Scandinavian style) and to industrial design.
Cubism – the direction in art in the first quarter of the XX-th century and connected, first of all with Pablo Picasso and George Braque's names. Cubists represented the subject world in the form of combinations of geometrical volumes: sphere, cube, cylinder, cone, etc. Most the general and for cubists the analitiko-synthetic method of creation of the works was characteristic. They as though mentally decomposed subjects to their visual and aesthetic significant elements, and then on a canvas brought together them in the transformed look. It is possible to conclude that cubists to some extent anticipated three-dimensional computer modeling on the plane. Indeen, Brak in the picture "The Reading Woman" (1911) and Picasso in "Man with a Mandoline" (1911) was developed on the plane by three-dimensional figures in such a way that it was possible to see them from different points of view.
The aesthetics of a cubism consisted in creation of new art ensembles of spaces, anything the general not having with reality. They created the works on the basis of intuitive creativity, imagination, i.e. reflected "internal reality". Using modern terminology, it is possible to consider that cubists the first began to create works of virtual reality. Relay was picked up by graphic designers at the end of the XX-th century.
As the modernist art which bright representative is the cubism, refused figurative reflection of reality, it becomes sign or symbolical irrespective of, the artist wants it or not. And from sign and symbolical art one step to the digital art and to computer design.
Abstractionism which has arisen in Russia and in Europe almost at the same time, assumed full derivation from a form of visible external subjects. The abstractionism breaks up to a set of styles and the directions: geometrical abstractions, lyrical, analytical and fractal abstractions. Private currents are the suprematism, a tashizm, etc. Founders of abstractionism in Russia were V.Kandinsky and K.Malevich, in Europe – P.Mandrian.
In abstractionism attempt to exempt lines, colors and their combinations from compliance to subjects of the real world and thus to express spirituality in a "pure" form.
Experiments of abstract artists with abstract forms are similar to modern standards of computer programs of drawing. In these programs the principle of structuring the image from a set of simple geometrical objects dominates: correct figures, lines, points. A.Lavrentyev wrote: "Many works in the field of a structural formation already are based on algorithms and the programs to translate them to computer graphics. Amenable to programming drawing graphic compositions Rodchenko. In Malevich's pictorial works and him arhitetectons there is a number of mathematical regularities of formation of forms" .
K.Malevich saw symbolical sense in the suprematism based by it. "The suprematism – the beginning of new culture" - was written by him in one of the works. Time confirmed correctness of his words. The computer virtual reality which base is the digital graphics, began the penetration into the art and design sphere with extremely concise, formal tools, similar to the concept of suprematism.
Let's come out with one more assumption concerning creativity of K.Malevich. It introduces the concept "fifth measurement" which he called "economist" into circulation. Behind the unsuccessful term the prophetical understanding of a role of information in art of new time is covered. Malevich declared that each step in art "is expressed in new economic culture of signs". And essence of an information and communicative stream also is, according to modern concepts, movement of signs, symbols, codes. The advertizing design, for example, is not that other as visualization of verbal information through system of graphic signs and symbols .
P.Mondrian who has passed a way from a cubism to a pure geometrizm and a plastitsizm, developed the style in abstractionism. Style is based on a combination of rectangles with use of three primary colors for formation of contrasts between them. Mondrian proved that ascetic means of expression it is possible to convey deep meaning and experiences. Mondrian's position found the reflection in modern computer graphics at color reproduction. One of the main color computer models uses three chromatic colors (blue, purple, yellow). The researcher of creativity Mondrian Papanek noted that Mondrian "wrote pictures as though itself I was the computer, did this work with sense of humour and passion" .
Second "flash" of popularity of abstractionism happened in the USA after World War II. The fashion included the concepts underlining interest to process of creativity both reducing a role and the importance of the contents. Using an aesthetics of abstract artists of the first third of the XX century, renewed vanguard defiantly separated from metaphysics, symbolics, significance . The new geometrical abstraction minimized painting means of expression – color, form, surface (of Newman, Martin, Raymond, etc.). Between form and content the equal-sign is put. According to Rayman, there is no question what to represent. There is only a question as.
Twenty years later the computer solved a problem as. Computer interpretation of the ideas renewed vanguard was parametric programming image. The developer of the computer program can not think of an image. The program written to them will create "picture" from a set of graphic elements, and then, depending on the entered parameters, the computer generates various versions of the image. The first that young artists and designers in the last decade of the XX century began to do are formal compositions. For this purpose they had to break a psychological barrier and to master computer graphics .
Influence on a computerization of design of other important currents of vanguard, such as surrealism, futurism, a kinetizm, an op-art has to be a subject of separate research.
Conclusion. Historically early currents of vanguard (constructivism, cubism, abstractionism) created aesthetic, methodological and psychological preconditions for emergence and formation of computer technologies in modern design.