- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Basshieva Zhangul, senior teacher, acting head of the department, ph.d. экономических наук
Актюбинский государственный университет им.К.Жубанова, Казахстан
The recycling system, the selections of the form on their sales are the most important factors for the introduction of petroleum industry and marketing. It is necessary to identify the peculiarities of the category in the making and use of the management activities for rational use in the present conditions of the policy in the formations of the available techniques and methods of management.
Any type of marketing system shows the complex of processing channels. Sales of effective channels of the system require a necessary analogy for their depth study. The main purpose of marketing is the rise of economic growth in oil production and the satisfaction of consumers' ability to pay. The organization of marketing activity and well coordinated control of structural enterprise system contributes to competitiveness. The system of control in conditions of competitiveness has the main goal to ensure the safety and market organization in conditions of competitiveness. Production distribution in modern conditions depends on the demand and must comply with the recommendations.
In one word, in market conditions domestic enterprises do not have to sell raising, but must process all that is in demand. Certainly, we must take into consideration a new content of distribution.
The organization of the market system of economy in the market conditions implies (organization) for selling the finished products to the market and the procedures of recommendation (forming applications, obtaining and carrying out task, preparation, collection and shipping products, transportation and delivery to their destination, organization of calculation (approval of the contract with the buyer of sent products , the performance of all procedures).
Analyzing service marketing, the content of marketing activity should be outlined. The main aim of channels activity is aggregate sales. Distribution channel serves to provide a process of supplying goods to the consumer and to carry out activities concerning legal and private persons. Success in generating income depends on the available and the favorable sales channels and the activity of economic entities. It must be concluded that the sales service is characterized by a course of sales channels’ activity.
In the enterprise sales channels are carried out in two main forms:
· over-the-counter sale;
· approximate sale;
Investigation of the abovementioned forms makes it possible to organize positive and insufficient support to the work. Other enterprises can use a over-the-counter sale and approximate sale with the marketing of mixed form.
In over-the-counter sale the obtainer sends the goods to the end-user or the manufacturer. The form of this distribution provides a close relationship with customers, and is intended for the market with unlimited purposes if the sales program in the inventory of the enterprises is controlled.
With an approximate sale the obtainer sends his goods to an independent buyer, the latter to the end-user or to the manufacturer.
This form of sales helps to expand the size of its market and to use sales company which deviates from its share in the control of sales channels and maintain ties with customers in accordance with their functions and expenses.
The enterprise can consider approximate ways of marketing its product. The industrial organization must take into account the different types of marketing systems to make managerial decisions for the purpose of the formation of the administration.
Sales channels aiming the implementation of change realize the known types of activity:
- for the purpose of distributing products conducts research in gathering the necessary information;
- encourage the collection of information and its dissemination;
- maintain ties with potential customers;
- consider promising ways to deliver products that meet customers’ demands;
- organize the work in receiving, storing, sorting and loading;
- provide funding for the process flows in the tideway of sales channel.
Due to the identified referral systems of sales channels favourable opportunities of the enterprises are carried out:
- promotion of financial savings in distribution of products;
- raising of the possibility of a new consumption production using the saved financial means;
- selling products with the help of productively - expedient method;
- promotion of the expediency achievement of products in the target market.
The smaller traders between obtainer and the consumer, the stronger the control of the sale channel, but expenses of the company also increase, which create the necessary fund of products, ensure the safety and processing, and create opportunities to increase prices on sale of products. Summing up the following should be noted: it is necessary to select the best combinations with the most positive way, and not to take into account emerging problems on some questions in the great number of enterprises.
In the selection of sale channels the following factors are taken into account by oil companies:
1. the character of the manufacturing firms, main tasks, the ability to control sales, sources of revenue and reserve sale; sizes and stages of the industry, the frequency of sending the goods, experience, methods, marketing system.
2. consumers, their number, the geographical location, the average purchase amount, the level of demand, the character of customers, fractions of market, capacity to pay debt (cash, loans, debt), sources of purchase.
3. character of the goods, the range and quality. Qualitative properties of the commodities, cost and other parameters are taken into account.
Participants and consumers of delivering sales of Kazakhstan's oil and gas industry are: service banks, insurance companies, customs management, agencies of forwarding services, information agents, traders, freight companies "KazTransOil", oil-loading terminals, a center of overseas transport "Aktau fort", railway transportations, "Railways of Kazakhstan" railway company, enterprises of trucking.
Strong rhythm and advisability of work under the market conditions, compliance with the order and schedule for shipping production, means of transportation (barrels of oil to fill, oil racks, oil-loading trucks, the diameters of oil wells, power of oil supply), the quality, definition of fullness, the work system according to mutual agreement all these factors may have a positive effect.
The obligatory activity of oil producing companies on sales of oil is systematized: render assistance in the evaluation of the information received to make the control evaluation of oil companies on sale of oil on the world oil market; conduct agreements with the countries of oil purchasers, have talks on registration of contract documents and carry out banking operations, operations of services customs enterprises and preparation of an agreement.
In modern time, in cooperation with the authorities direct sales channels of oil are improved by oil companies and strategic projects are implemented. The commissioning of oil-pipe line Atasu – Alashankou is the confirmation of abovementioned. This has made it possible to use the direct sales channel. The use of direct channels and its efficiency is very high: it saves time, helps to raise the market price of oil, along with the world standards increases cost of oil. Many companies organize system of sales, they require significant costs but in spite of it some companies have efficiency in its usage.
Some aspects of the structure of the distribution system:
1. The need for major buyers, offers and recommendations under the market conditions, the competitive activity identify the possible information about the assessment of competitive products. The last delivery of the products to the consumer is organized. Thus, the direct contacts are promoted information of the final result in the formation of market strategies for improving the discovery of "sensual" ways to market demand.
2. The system of personal marketing is directed only to marketing companies, the strength, the ability of managers and agents have aim of marketing and strategic sale in the enterprises. In the companies presented here CNPC – “Aktobemunaigas" activity is controlled by the management of the sale of oil and oil companies.
Consequently, this department works on the instructions of the companies, independent ways forward are not clearly worked out, make contracts with other companies, marketing department of "KazakhOil - Aktobe" company, a private managing association, performs activity in the structure of company.
According to the latest information, the oil companies of the USA have reproduced the sale of oil, based on private sales offices and this promotes competitiveness, supports a close relationship with the consumers and allows mastering the financial power under the market conditions at the structure of the private sales.
Practice of foreign industrial companies shows that systems based on private sales combine the options in the use of the dependent and independent traders. The purpose of industrial firms is the organization of independent distribution system on the basis of buying up shares of independent traders stand in the market trying to create a private system. As a final result of it a rational scheme of sale for the business marketing is made.
The state creates favorable conditions for oil companies in Kazakhstan, because first of all, oil is Kazakhstan's national wealth, secondly income from the sale of oil has a direct impact on raising the country's economy. Preparation of transportation projects in the distribution channels plays an important state role.
Foreign oil companies succeed in the use of rational types of distribution systems in the form of integration. Its advantages consist in the following: the delivery terms of productions to the consumer where channel way of delivery isn’t used is favorable for getting tangible income. The integration system of sales in the countries of Europe, the United States, Japan, allowed reducing expenditures in the marketing, 70 - 80% of consumer goods under the market conditions in the USA account for part of integration systems of sale.
At the present stage direct integration systems such as corporative, managerial and negotiated are successfully developed. The corporate system is successful in producing and marketing and is a part of homogeneous possession, and these stages are performed in management by large compounders and realize in a certain order.
Franchisingis considered to be the most important type in compounding marketing system; it provides well-known companies the right of franchising recipient, because he on his behalf according to the approved agreement fulfills the marketing system at a certain territory. The fourth parts of trading companies work following this scheme, Kazakh company «PRG Bottlers» renders service on this system.
The first of the miners and investors, which has the right of franchising it's an American company «Pepsi - Cola International». In Aktobe region a liquor company "Wimpeks" and German company "Geo" who have the right of franchising works following this scheme. Providing oil companies with advanced equipment under technological conditions requires professionals who can manage these equipments. The role of investment in the improvement of economic factors in continued fulfillment of oil production work, marketing and transportation of oil is great. Oil companies under the market conditions are national and local legitimacy and politically legal factors characterize the tax system.
The presence of raw material sources requires the preservation and implementation of environmental standards, as it becomes obvious. As mentioned above, according to the set of features of the oil market, technological, economic, political, legal, environmental factors focused on changing the activity are taken into account and contribute to the stabilization of the market system of sale.
The change in the system of market sales and the positive ability of companies take into account the individual characteristics and achieve the final result in the assessment of the internal and external potential of companies. The positions of sales of production are provided; financial situation of international and territorial situation of the market is shown.
Summing up the results of these researches in marketing activity it may be concluded that marketing activity in the petroleum industry defines the complex of services, such as the information on the production of products and delivery of the last customer, quality, value appraisal, equipment, services, transportation and other services.
Various marketing methods in Kazakhstan are dominated and it’s necessary to take into account the particular distribution of western classical models because sale during the transition to a market economy is determined by the dependence of unusual economic climate.
The sale of Kazakhstan's industry is multi-industrial or mixed-system and has its peculiarities because the market competitiveness is a condition in the development of competitiveness and the selection of the most effective ways to use different channels for their use influence on it. The most important advantage is that the report of sale with clear economic sale efficiency of markets must be prepared to choose the effective ways of marketing enterprises.
The source of competitive abilities is innovation. Scientific and technological complex of oil companies should be directed to the solution of problems in the future related to the need of technological development. The main condition of it is the improvement the innovative strategies and their realization. At the present stage special innovative strategies for marketing together with corporate strategies are realized by major foreign oil companies. In connection with this Kazakhstan companies on the basis of foreign experience prepare strategies which will develop the ways of implementation and use. To do this, companies need to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the independent branches of scientific and technological organizations to develop the scientific and technological potential of competitors.
The following points should be appreciated:
- Long-term trends of the development of the branch (forecasts on the implementation of the world economic system taking into account the development of the oil business).
- Analysis of the technologic aspects of competitiveness (processing, research, technology of a patent).
Together with the estimation of the market distribution of the future the important means is the research of its state of business. The sale of oil industry is characterized by the use of the effective means of transport like trucking, rail traffic, overseas transport, pipe line and others.
Oil pipelines are direct sales channel of oil can be distinguished of the means of transmission of oil in the oil companies. Therefore, on the basis of it may be concluded that the complex of marketing services focused on raw materials oil transportation, which are due to special projects and directions of export. In oil and gas markets the following peculiarities are dominated:
- Firstly, a significant influence on the fast growth rate and decline in the assessed value of short term on sales of oil in the world market and the impact on the economy of companies;
- Secondly, the use of petroleum refining technologies;
- Thirdly, 90% of the export of oil production is made by international marketing of the world market;
The state of Kazakh oil companies today can be called at a stable level; there are obstacles to the implementation of the strategic program in the preparation of sales of oil products. It depends on the necessity to provide the protection of the internal and external conditions of world and domestic companies and requires preparation and support of complex massive.
The opportunities to identify prerequisites for the future of the company focused on the changes in the world oil market, which increase the motivation of competitiveness in the sale market and achieve superiority in the market competition, will appear during the marketing policy of oil companies upon conditions of preparation of new projects.
Consequently, having studied all the complex components of the sales companies and distribution policy of the Kazakhstan oil refining, based on changes in the world oil market, provide an opportunity in the competition on oil marketing to achieve competitive advantages.
Kazakh oil-refining companies in the distribution of all the complex components consider one of the most important trends of industry sale the development of integrations on quality control of oil. The effectiveness of marketing as one of the main conditions considers always being at the proper monitoring and ongoing analysis and it must be a rule.
It must be concluded that using the sales of the oil market channels and methods of marketing strategies must be taken into account, and they are predetermined on the basis of the abovementioned characteristics and provide an opportunity to achieve the sales effectiveness.