- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Николаевский национальный университет им. В.А. Сухомлинского, Украина
The UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education and other international human rights treaties prohibit any exclusion from or limitation to educational opportunities on the bases of socially ascribed or perceived differences, such as sex, ethnic origin, language, religion, nationality, social origin, economic condition, ability, etc.One of the Ukrainian state policy priorities is the humanization of education, mainstreaming of children with mental and physical disabilities to general education. As A. Kolupaeva says: "The "state centered" educational system where the main objective was defined as personality formation by certain standards and the subordination of self-interests to the state ones with strict regulation of the educational process has to be changed into" child centered "educational system, with orientation on children interests and needs" [3,p.39].
Today in Ukraine, in contrast to popular form of training in special, institutionalized education comes a new, recognized by many leading countries inclusive form of education that provides right for every child to study at secondary schools in the community with all required conditions. L. Buriak, M. Voron, L. Danilenko, V. Zasenko, A. Kolupayeva, H. Matskiv, J. Naida, N. Sofiy, T. Sak, O. Taranchenko and others paid attention to inclusive form of education in Ukraine.
Inclusive in education is an approach to educating students with special educational needs. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. Inclusive education is a flexible, individualized learning system for children with special needs in a mass general education schools in the community [3;c.16].
Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the characteristics of the structure of foreign language lessons in inclusive classes. Since the inclusive education of children with mental and physical disabilities should take place with the help of multidisciplinary and due to correction work done in time, teachers of foreign languages should consider peculiarities of students with learning disabilities cognitive activity, psychological and pedagogical principles of teaching, which, as noted by V. Tarasun determine the structure of the lesson in the inclusive class for children with learning disabilities and assist the teacher in organization of differentiation inside the class group and finding the right individual approach tothese children [4, p.41].
Researchers (T. Vlasova, M. Pevzner, T. Hlezerman, V. Lubovskyy, K. Lebedynska, M. Beirne-Smith, James R. Patton, R. Ittenbach, D. Knapczyk and etc.). allocate a number of common features, typical for most children with this disorder.
These features include low levels of cognitive motivation, lack of organization and goal orientation, severe exhaustion, impulsivity, and a large number of errors.
Children with learning disabilities decrease the amount of short-term memory in the transition from direct to surgical remembering (T. Egorova). Visual memory of these students dominates the verbal, which is central to the learning activity.
The most vivid mental performance of children with learning disabilities is characterized by: inertness, low productivity and independence, instability. Children have difficulties in establishing the exact differential relations and relationships; selection of essential features and properties, their thinking is strongly associated with a particular situation, to turn away from what they are in many cases they cannot. They observed lack of analytical and synthetic operations, difficulties in transferring assimilated in carrying out similar actions.
Thus, the structure of the English lesson the intensive correction and inclusive classes must meet both the general requirements for the lesson in general and have some specifics. Structure of English classes is determined by its contents and place in a series of lessons. Typically, the organizational structure of each lesson conventionally divided into three parts: the beginning, main part and final.
The beginning of the lesson includes the following stages: organizational and neuro-psychological training of students in class, statement of the subject and the goal of the lesson, speech exercises. The beginning serves two important functions: organizing students to work in the foreign language lesson and creating an atmosphere for transfer students in foreign language activities (S.Nikolaeva) [2, s.243-244].
The main part of the lesson on the structure is dependent on the type of the lesson. It can include such components as the presentation of new material, training students in the use of the material in speech, practice in speech activity, classification / generalization of learned, inspection and assessment of knowledge, skills, correction of learned, combined lesson.
When planning the introduction of new material it is important to determine the amount of material, the sequence of its presentation and the cost of time to explaining and training of the material.
Training and practice of speaking takes the larger part of the lesson. The peculiarity of the learning process of foreign language teaching in the class of intensive correction is that the teacher has to train just introduced and learned before material. Children with learning disability need more time to practice specific lexical items, grammatical structures and working with English phonetics. In this case, as noted by S. Nikolayeva, it is important to remember that the purpose of the lesson should be implemented in a complex exercise, which includes both qualified speech (for skills) and verbal (skills development) exercise.
Formation of strong skills and abilities cannot be without generalization of the learned, without bringing the system of learned knowledge, skills and abilities. Therefore good teachers’ instructions for students with learning disabilities ( in the process of doing a series of exercises or tasks) are very necessary to further systematization of the linguistic material and updating skills and abilities within the studied subjects.
During the activity children with learning disabilities experiencing difficulties in keeping instructions. Complicated instruction creates additional difficulties for them, denoted in erroneous actions. They often break the sequence of work, test the difficulty in switching from one operation to another reception.
Teachers should help them control their actions in progress, should teach children to compare the results with the sample and measure them because in many cases the basis of self-regulation as self-control has not been formed.
The control of speech skills and abilities can be done in two ways. The first is the current control, i.e. one that is directly in the lesson. It is necessary to take into account the increased excitability and instability attention of the children that is required the use of various forms of repetition: individual and frontal survey of oral and written performance objectives, and fantastic use of game material and different types of events.
A dominant feature of feedback is current control. The results of this control allow getting information on the success or failure of the educational process in a foreign language that enables adjust the learning activities of students in time.
The second type of control is carried out at the stage of completion of a particular topic or period of study and has a theme and final control. In this case, the control can be a part of a lesson or a lesson and has a valuation function. Its goal is the definition and evaluation of student achievements in learning other language skills, and abilities for a certain period of time or after a certain stage of training. Psycho-educational and psycho-physical characteristics of children with learning disabilities should be taken into consideration when fulfilling this kind of control. You must create a friendly, warm microclimate of the classroom environment and avoid tension and fear while testing students.
The final part of the lesson or the end of the lesson has to summarize what has been achieved during the class. It consists of the following stages: assessment of knowledge and skills of students; notice and explanation of the home assignment, summing up the work of students in class, withdrawal of neuro-psychological stress; organized end of the lesson [2, 4].
To maximize the performance of each part of the lesson is necessary to dissect the material in successive portions of knowledge and action. Teachers should ensure that all students have understood and mastered the material, and only then proceed to the submission of a new portion of knowledge. Also, the teacher should follow the pace of the lesson. It cannot be too fast because of the inertia of cognitive processes of the children with learning disabilities.
Thus, the structure of English classes for children with learning disabilities should be specific not only in organizational terms, but also in psychological and pedagogical ones. We must not only take into account the psychological and physical characteristics of children of this category, but also involve the use of various teaching methods and remedial work. It is necessary to perform individually differentiated approach to foreign language teaching for children with special needs.
Effective inclusive education is possible only due to special training of teachers. Teachers should have the basic methods of differentiated instruction, modern methods of assessment of student achievement and development of children, as they help to adjust activities and lesson plan based on program requirements and age and physiological characteristics of children.