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В статье коротко рассмотрено формирование учебной лексикографии, определены основные требования к учебным отраслевым словарям, проанализированы современные направления развития учебной лексикографии.
Ключевые слова: учебная лексикография, учебный терминологический словарь, электронный учебный словарь.
The article briefly considers the formation of educational lexicography and defines the basic requirements for the compiling of training branch vocabularies. The author analyzes current directions of training dictionary compiling.
Keywords:educational lexicography, educational terminological dictionary, electronic training vocabulary.
Didactic pursuit in the structure of the training process reflects the development of two types of pedagogic consciousness, such as technocratic and humanistic one. The latter makes learners to independently acquire new experiences, as well as provides for shaping and development of their cognitive and personal capacity. Thus, a learner is to be able to use linguistic, specialized and other dictionaries that are part and parcel of the learning complex. They are also an aid to improve teaching and acquire disciplines needed both during classes and in forthcoming professional activity. Content and form of academic dictionaries do not always meet the requirements. This led to the compilation of learner’s dictionaries first and foremost aimed at users’ cognitive activity. The idea of separating learner’s lexicography into a separate field of dictionary-compiling was suggested and theoretically substantiated in the middle of the 20th c. by a Russian linguist L.V. Shcherba . His ideas were further developed by V. Morkovkin, and P. Denysov. The prospects of national learner’s lexicography and the significance of compiling targeted dictionaries were described in the works by L. Palamarchuk, M. Peshak, O. Semenoh, V. Shyrokov, a.o. The problems of compiling different types of learner’s dictionaries are highlighted by V. Vynnyk, I. Kochan, O. Musiyovska, H. Onufriyenko, V. Perebyinis, a.o. All of this resulted into a number of lexicographic works. However, the dictionaries compiled to meet the needs of vocational training schools are lacking.
The aim of this article is to analyze the development of learner’s dictionary compiling, to describe types of contemporary learner’s lexicographic sources, to identify the topicality of their application in the learning process in vocational training schools.
Since any lexicographic work contains linguistic information pure, such as description of vocabulary, it thus performs a didactic function. Therefore, a dictionary is one of the means to deeply study learning material; it helps shape practical skills and abilities in linguistic activity of would-be experts [8, 144].
A major goal of learner’s lexicography is to provide for lexicographic learning of language, either native or foreign one. Therefore, the contents and form of a dictionary should account for a range of curriculum factors, such as compliance with syllabi and text-books, as well as with the goal of learning a language. Moreover, learner’s lexicography poses a task to create a dictionary that would not only aim at adequate reflection of a language system, but will also be compiled to meet a language personality needs. Apart from a linguistic component, the unalienable components of a language personality also include axiological, world outlook and culture studies aspects [5, 119]. In other words, it is supposed to help shape both a subject specialist and a language personality. Learner’s lexicography, thus, faces another problem – human versus dictionary [3, 27]. In his analysis of the development of modern dictionary compiling art, researcher Morkovin V.V. distinguishes between two approaches towards it: 1). Language-centred, when a dictionary is compiled for the language and near the language. It is then to record, describe, and assess available language facts; 2). Human-centred (anthropocentric), when a dictionary assesses language facts from the position of a language user, when the addressee factor is a key component of dictionary compiling. Thus, the goal of such a dictionary is to help people acquire and learn a language and teach them to effectively apply it. Such an approach predetermines the choice of language material as well as the type of a dictionary entry which presents orthographic (spelling), orthoepic (pronouncing), and morphological peculiarities of the entry word; reproduces and arranges its semantic structure; includes notes on its paradigmatic relations; reflects its lexical and syntactic combinability [6, 132 – 135]. It is obvious that while compiling a dictionary the two approaches do not exclude one another but require their integrated application.
Learner’s dictionaries are short, well-structured, easy to use editions for pupils or students who are still short of strong skills of consulting a dictionary. Apart from a didactic function any dictionary performs the following ones:
- informative – helps a user receive access to the information collected in a field in as brief and accessible format as possible;
- systematizing– records the meaning fixed to words, norms of their usage, helps unify a language;
- communicative– familiarizes a user with the vocabulary of a native or foreign language.
During native language classes different dictionaries can be used – explanatory, orthographic, accentuation ones, etc. However, since there is a need to focus on professional training aspect of learning a language in a vocational school, a special attention is paid to terms dictionaries or dictionaries of terms. The establishing of Ukrainian learner’s terms lexicography started in the second decade of the 20th century. Thus, during 1917-1918, about 20 dictionaries of terms for schools in different fields of knowledge were compiled. Dictionaries of terms are distinguished according to a) the number of languages presented – monolingual/bilingual/multilingual; b) the principle of explaining words – encyclopedic, explanatory with the elements of etymology; c) the volume of terms recorded – concise, full; d) the field or fields of knowledge – general science, branch-wise, industry-specific ones. A comprehensive aspectual and typological classification of dictionaries of terms was made by Komova M. [4, 144-147]. The last type dictionaries present terms of certain profession or professions taught and are compiled to assist in the training process. When learners work with dictionaries of terms consistently and on a regular basis, it helps them advance in the culture of professional speaking, eliminate mistakes due to erroneous pronunciation of terms, their usage and spelling; it also helps shape terms-based competence.
The learner’s dictionary of the type is to primarily perform its targeted function, such as serving an advisory source in term usage for prospective experts. At this stage, another problem arises – how to reach efficient cooperation between a user and a dictionary. In particular, the efficiency of using a lexicographical source as a training tool rapidly decreases due to insufficient skills of learners to use references or to perceive the information provided there in full scale. This problem can be solved if teachers regularly engage students to independent work with different types of dictionaries, including dictionaries of terms. This is going to help them develop lexicographic competence.
One of significant problems of compiling a branch-specific learner’s dictionary is the principle of selecting specialized vocabulary and the manner of its systematizing. Before selecting the vocabulary for a learner’s dictionary one should define the dictionary volume. According to expert estimates, it is supposed to contain from 1,000 up to 3,000 entries [2, 148]. In compiling the corpus of a branch-specific dictionary of terms for training needs one should be guided by the following principles:
- relevance– it allows to account for goals and tasks, as well as particular conditions of the training process. For instance, numerous industry-specific terms, particularly from the sphere of services, do have their counterparts in the common language. It is also typical for specialized literature to use not only branch-specific terms but also words of general usage. That is why learner’s dictionaries of terms should also include general usage entries;
- synchronous approach – rapid growth in the sphere of services generates new concepts that need nomination. That is why professional language accepts non-codified names that start enjoying the status of professional terms after some time. Therefore, compilers of dictionaries of terms should include such entries into the corpus as they are accepted by the system of terms;
- standardization– learner’s lexicography is bound by the restrictions of standardized language phenomena, which is why entry words are usually the most widely accepted terms at the moment.
Thus, one should first define the type of dictionary. Consequently, this preconditions specific lexicographic parameters for entries based on basic notions and categories of lexicology. An entry should be well-structured and clear. Since a major goal of the branch-specific learner’s dictionary is to provide a learner with information on specialized vocabulary and the peculiarities of its usage in professional communication, such a dictionary should contain:
1) explanatory (definitive) part – semantization of the entry word should take place with account for the type of its lexical meaning. In other words, with terms, a direct or nominative meaning dominates. This means that the relation between a word (sign) and the phenomenon named (object, process) is direct. Because of the reason described above the definition should include all components of such meaning, notional and actual. Precise semantization provides for correct understanding of the entry word at first place. Secondly, it warrants its correct usage in speech or context. Also, it is important that the development of semantic structure take place in cooperation between lexicographers and the experts from the branch in question.
2) Illustrations of syntactic and lexical combinability (valence) of a term, or establishing distributive surrounding of a special word and, thus, the illustration of its functioning in the speech chain. Apart from that, combinability illustration of a term allows to fully disclose its contents and to describe the field of its usage;
3) Grammar and stylistic characteristics.
It is important to clarify the etymology of an entry word, for specialized language usually contains a number of borrowings. In the sphere of services these are mostly words that entered the Ukrainian language from English and French. The fact that there are terms borrowed from a foreign language also presupposes that the entry should include Ukrainian synonymous counterparts. This idea is further reinforced by a clear trend in modern linguodidactics to provide a system of terms with the available specific basis while avoiding foreign borrowings of words and word components. In addition to that, synonyms help specify a terminological definition.
In their work on learner’s dictionaries, most lexicographers combine the explanatory part with the translated part, usually in Ukrainian-Russian combination. We believe this to be of utmost relevance and topicality in the present conditions of bilingualism in modern Ukrainian society. This is also going to prevent the phenomenon of language interference which usually takes place on the level of phonetics, accentuation, and grammar and might lead to certain pidgin-like phenomena or artificial interlanguage. Dictionaries recording terms from the sphere of services typically include English counterparts as the system of terms in this sphere is being vastly developed due to Anglicisms.
It should be noted that the compilation of learner’s dictionaries of terms requires cooperation between teachers, philologists and the experts from the specific branch in question. This will help compile a dictionary with both lexicographic and didactic value. Such type of a learner’s dictionary of terms is an efficient tool in activating interdisciplinary relations because learners acquire the conceptual framework of the branch in question while learning special subjects. However, it is during language classes (Ukrainian and foreign one) that the vocabulary learned is consolidated. The guiding principles to compile a branch-specific learner’s dictionary of terms on an interdisciplinary basis are: functional – that makes a dictionary material significant from the point of view of professional communication; extralinguistic – that allows to include synonyms to an entry and to clarify polysemic relations of the term; all of this is predetermined by extralinguistic factors; semantic – it helps better understand and consciously apply professional language in speech. Sapozhnikova L. developed the project of a Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of terms for prospective cooks that combines special vocabulary of five specialized branches.
At present, learner’s terminography promotes a new trend – lexical reference book of a dictionary type that manages to organically combine a dictionary definition of lexical units with the elements of a typical reference book. This increases its teaching capacity. Onufriyenko H. offers a typical pattern for such a reference book that is supposed to contain: 1) invariant structural component – learner’s dictionary of terms, also translation and explanatory dictionary, the system of training exercises and assignments that help use training capacity of the dictionary of terms to its fullest and is aimed at interrelated learning of all types of language activity based on the material of the sublanguage from the branch; 2) optional (variant) structural component – recommendations as to normative reading of abbreviations, grammar notes, tables, etymological notes, etc. [7, 103].
Modern lexicography has significantly expanded and solidified its system of tools with the help of computer technologies. This helps move lexicography on to a brand new level both for compilers and users. To be more specific, the available software allows automate all stages of dictionary compilation. This helps save time and intellectual resources and makes it possible to continually monitor the information offered in the edition as well as update it and correct inaccuracies in due time. The advantages of electronic sources for users are manifest: accessibility of dictionaries due to effective search engine, short search time, the option to require a needed lexeme in different morphologic forms, simultaneous search in several dictionaries, etc. Also, the development of electronic lexicography makes teachers and instructors learn new teaching methods and tools. In addition, it develops with the learners an interest in education. Finally, this improves and optimizes the process of language education. The same as in traditional lexicography, electronic dictionaries also include those to meet training needs. An electronic dictionary combines the functions of searching necessary information; it shows language patterns and allows acquire learning material with the help of the special system of exercises [1, 24]. The software in such dictionaries should be simple to use and easy to access, while the hardware requirements should not be too high due to the current studying conditions in vocational schools. It must be noted that computerization of lexicography goes in line with global informatization of all spheres of modern society. Therefore, a dictionary plays a role of an easy-to-use source of information at first place, while gradually losing the status of an important element of national culture. Electronic dictionaries have not yet ousted traditional (paperback) sources from usage, however, they do create severe competition for them, especially within learners and student community.
To conclude, it must be stated that conditions in vocational schools require the methods of teaching to be as economic and efficient as possible due to a limited amount of class hours. This need is actually satisfied by a wide use of branch-specific learner’s dictionaries of terms during classes and for independent work of pupils/students. Branch-specific learner’s dictionaries that provide for a proper linguistic basis in learning specialized subjects should be compiled with account for interdisciplinary relations; they should be national language based and a particular user-oriented. We believe the creation of lexicographic reference books of a dictionary type, and also compilation of electronic databases of terms from different spheres to be extremely promising. Thus, this will be a subject for our further research.