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DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEACHERS’ INFORMATIONAL COMPETENCE WITHIN A CONTEXT OF A CREDIT SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

Baurshan Shakim

Университет Кайнар, Казахстан

Участник конференции

The emergence of information society in the modern stage of human development is related to the development of informational technologies and computerization of various fields of activity. In modern educational paradigm the result of education is not only the acquisition of knowledge, abilities and skills, but fundamental changes of the personality of the learner: the formation of the need to learn, increase of the intelligence level, motivation for self-actualization.

One of the most modern and actual approaches to training - a competence-based approach was formed in vocational education, suggesting that the result of training is formation of professionally important qualities of the person or professional competences, allowing to successfully solve professional tasks, perform key functions, social roles.

A competence paradigm of education is aware of the futility of endless accumulation of knowledge and information, rapidly becoming outdated, instead it offers a set of key competences established by the state order as a result of education. Modern person needs not the necessary knowledge, but the ways and technologies of its attainment, which, in fact, are the competences.

There are diverse interpretations of the competence in literature, including:

– the willingness of a student to use the learned knowledge, abilities and skills, as well as ways of activity in life for the resolution of practical and theoretical tasks;

–the ability to implement practical activities, requiring an understanding and the appropriate type of thinking that allows to operatively solve arising problems and tasks;

– general abilities, based on knowledge, experience, values, traits, which have been attained through training.

  In general, competence assumes the requirement of a social order to the educational preparation of students, necessary for their effective activities in various spheres. While competence is the ownership, possession of the necessary competence by the students, it presupposes the existence of a minimum experience in application of competence. Competence is defined by researchers as the social order, i.e. the key competences shall be determined by the position of the society or the state.

Information culture which is “a combination of informational outlook and system of knowledge and abilities ensuring the purposeful self-activity on the optimum satisfaction of individual information needs with the help of both traditional and new information technologies” is attaining a special importance in modern conditions [1].

The formation of the common information culture, in the first place, should begin from the teachers, as bearers of the idea of the updated informational education, intermediaries of information resources and knowledge. Professional qualities of a teacher in modern innovative educational environment include the various components of the information culture:

– innovative thinking and ways of activity, corresponding to the highest levels of information competence;

– development and creation of innovative products and innovative technologies in the process of professional education;

– cultural and artistic ability, expressed in creating of informational pedagogical works [2].

V.L.Akulenko distinguishes the following functions of «informative competence» category:

– Cognitive function, aimed at the acquisition of new information, knowledge, and their systematization;

– Communicative function, allowing to carry out communication with the help of information technologies;

–  The adaptive function helps to adapt to the demands of life in the information society;

–  Estimative (informative) function, implying the ability to find, use and evaluate relevant information;

– Interactive function, forming the active independent work of man, leading to his self-development and self-realization [3].

According to the researchers, information competence of a person implies the ability of search, analysis, selection, organization, transformation, preservation and transmission of information by the use of computer information technology, modern technical means and methods. Teacher’s informational competence includes:

– the ability to efficiently work with the information, skills of analysis, synthesis of information;

– development of technologies for training of pedagogical information products;

–  skills of work with the information and communication technology and the ability to use technical means in educational and scientific activity.

In English-speaking countries the specialists in the field of information call the term «information competence» as «information literacy», understanding by this definition, the ability to be aware of the need for information and the ability to implement the competent search, assessment and use of information [4, p. 36].  The western researchers relate the information literacy/competence with literature activity, as with the activity directly connected with effective search, evaluation and use of information. In addition, information literacy/competence is also considered as «critical thinking» or «learning to learn» [4, p. 14].

The competence-based approach to education is certainly one of the manifestations of the modernization of the educational paradigm of the world. So, among the reasons for the reform of the content of education and the formation of the competence-based approach I.A. Zimnyaya highlights the transformation of «the architecture of the European higher education system» [5]. The implementation of this adjustment in the educational system of Europe is the introduction of a system of credits, the definition of levels and degrees of professional education in the Bologna process. By 2010 a single educational space will be established in European countries, giving the possibility to receive education in any European University[5].

Educational modernization in leading countries of the world could not but influence on the educational system of Central Asian countries. The strategy and the way of integration into Bologna process is determined by the task of recognition of the regional system of education in world space. The way of integration of higher education system is approbation and transition to credit system of education as the basis of the international system of organization and evaluation of academic education. The credit system is the most rational modern educational system, allowing to really improve the quality of education and adapt it to the needs of the labour market.

The main purpose of the credit technology of education is the formation of an independent individual, capable of using the obtained knowledge, skills, competence and successfully perform their professional activity in the changing conditions of the modern world.

The main priorities of the credit system of education are:

– maximum individualization of education process;

– consolidation of the independent work of the learners;

– unification of the volume of knowledge.

The main principle of the credit technology of training is:

– the volume of the educational work of the student is measured in credits;

– a student independently chooses the subjects, included in the work plan, creating individual educational plan;

– the student has the opportunity to choose the teacher;

– assessment of knowledge on multimark alphabetic system [6].

Besides, the fundamental emphasis of individualization of educational process in credit technology is the independent work of a student under the guidance of a teacher (IWST) to ensure the effectiveness of the IWS.

Thus, the credit system of education as a form of updated educational paradigm allows the student to make an independent choice:

– content of education;

– desired end result;

– ways of achieving the result.

In addition, in conditions of increasing individualisation and the role of self-education of a student, he/she becomes the central figure of educational process, which fundamentally changes the role of the teacher - from the traditional «informant» to innovative «mentor» (advisor), «tutor», «consultant», «manager of the educational process» [7].

Therefore in new conditions it is extremely important for a teacher to high level of informational competence to adequately implement a role of the intermediary for the student to acquire knowledge.  The development of a methodological basis of improvement of information competence of a teacher is a significant problem here.

On the basis the study of pedagogical theory and practice we have identified 4 major components in the structure of the information competence:

Motivating-objective component of informational competence presupposes the existence of a motive for achieving an aim, an interest of using informational technologies in the process of work, understanding of the objectives of information activities.

Under cognitive component we understand the knowledge of principal features of existing software, the ability to organize and analyze new information technologies.

Operational activity componentincludes the skills of using information technology in practice, the effectiveness of the search, collection, storage and transmission of information by technical means.

Reflexive– is characterized by the ability of independent creative solution of arising problems on the basis of analysis of own informational activity.

In conditions of the credit system of education the ability to creatively use the modern information technologies in practice and pedagogical activity are of a special importance for a teacher, as he/she faces this necessity every day. So, in the development of didactic material of the training course the modern teacher must use standard office editors (Microsoft Word, Excel, Power Point), as well as special editors for the development of various multimedia applications and benchmarks (Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw). For implementation of the feedback from the students the teacher should be able to use e-mail; he must be able to search for necessary information in Internet. In addition, to work with all types of media, with a personal computer, copying devices the teacher needs the skills of work with technical means, serving the information processes. A personal web site of a teacher may be an excellent opportunity to communicate with students.

Having analyzed the credit system of education, we developed the following requirements to the information competence of a teacher:

– knowledge of the principles of work of the personal computer and the ability to work with technical hardware;

– the ability to interact with electronic information and present it in various forms (text, table, picture, etc.);

– the ability to perform an effective search, selection and presentation of information using Internet resources;

– the skills of conducting lectures, seminars, discussions with the help of telecommunication technologies;

– skills of using information technologies to create own teaching materials.

In accordance with the requirements of the credit systemthe modern teacher of higher school needs the following skills of work for effective pedagogical activity:

– with text editors, as means of preparation and execution of different complexity texts;

– with spreadsheets, as a means of processing of numerical information and its presentation in the form of diagrams, graphs, etc.

– with presentation tools, as a means of visual collective presentation of educational material;

– with graphics media editors, as the means of processing image and multimedia products;

– e-mail, telecommunication and Internet technologies, as a means of communication with students and colleagues all over the world;

–  with modern information-search systems, as a means of search of educational and scientific information.

With regard to the requirements of the credit system, Central Asian schools are set the following tasks:

–  wide equipage with technical means,  Internet access of higher educational institutions;

– creating local electronic network in each University, uniting the work of all structures of the educational institution;

– creation of specialized computer training courses for teachers;

– formation of local pages in information , содержащихэлектронныеметодическиематериалыпреand library university centers containing electronic teaching materials of the teachers on their courses with Internet links to training sources;

–  web-support of training courses;

–  development of electronic textbooks for basic courses, containing multimedia didactic materials.

 

References:

  1. Gendina N.I., Kolkova N.I., Skipor I.L., Starodubova G.А. Formation of informational culture of a person  in libraries and educational institutions: Training and methodological aid – М.: School library, 2002. – p. 288.
  2. Gendina N.I., Lazareva L.I. Informational culture of teachers of innovative educational institutions as the basis of promoting informative and communicative technologies into the sphere of education. – http://www.gpntb.ru
  3. Akulenko V.L. The formation of ICT-competence of the teacher in advanced training system // Application of new technologies in education: Materials of XV International conference, June 29-30, 2004, city of Troitsk of Moscow obl, 2004. – P. 344 - 346.
  4. LauKh. Guidelines on informational competence for lifelong education. –  IPO WFP UNESCO «Information for all». 2006. – p.45.
  5. Zimnyaya I.А. Key competenes as resultative and objective basis of competence approach in education. – http//www.rc.edu.ru
  6. Rules of credit system of education, realized in experiment – http://www.do.ektu.kz
  7. Basics of credit system of education in Kazakhstan. – Almaty: KazSU after al-Farabi, 2004.
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