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The aesthetic-philosophical questions theory of architecture, associated with the development of the cultural paradigm of architectural creativity, learning the problems of architecture environment in the context of human life activity are considered. Practical aesthetics involves the analyst living space man as an aesthetic object, identifying the role of beauty, harmony and order in the process of perception and human exploration of the environment.
Keywords:architectural environment, architectural space, aesthetic and philosophical issues, practical aesthetics.
Рассмотрены эстетико-философские вопросы теории архитектуры, связанные с развитием культурной парадигмы архитектурного творчества, изучением проблем архитектурной среды в контексте человеческой жизнедеятельности. Практическая эстетика предполагает аналитику жизненного пространства человека как эстетического объекта, выявление роли прекрасного, гармонии и порядка в процессе восприятия и освоения человеком окружающей среды.
Ключевые слова:архитектурная среда, архитектурное пространство, эстетико-философские проблемы, практическая эстетика.
Modificationsof the modern architecture and design in terms of informatization society actualizethe use of an interdisciplinary methodology, based on new ways of perceiving the surrounding area. Information technology increases the possibility of the creative process, changes the set target of design, which is increasingly oriented not only on the creation of the surrounding reality, but also on changing of the social-cultural context, on the search for new properties and characteristics of the environment. At the same time, the evolution of the modern architecture language is associated with an increase in the role of «related» industries of design, increasing differentiation of the architect's activities. Arising in this connection new challenges of architectural creativity require updating of the content and methods of training of future architects, development and application of specific methods of instructional design.Its basis is the formation not only of compositional thinking, feeling of the form, material, space and its light-color characteristics, but also the ability of imaginative empathy of the reality that it is impossible without referring to the aesthetic basics of architectural design.
In recent years in the science of architecture and ideology of architectural creativity «environment» is put forward as a key concept. The prevalence in the modern world culture of the subdivision processes of the single art flow into independent tendencies split the idea of the place of architecture, design, applied and fine arts, which resulted that art has ceased to be a unifying, integrating basis. Understanding harmony as the principle of the system organization allowed us to consider the category of «environment» as a system, where the optimal matching of all elements to each other and each to the whole are implemented.
After receiving in the middle of the last century of the status of an independent project activities, environmental design began immediately to claim a special role in this area, as it key definition forms the semantic core of the post-modern culture. At the present stage, the range of environmental design have expanded and is able now to include many integral forms, so it can be called culture-forming factor. Thus, environmental design is defined as a project activity that has cultural and communicative function and that combines professional and scientific knowledge on the basis of understanding of human problems [2, p. 10]. The revival of interest in the environmental approach in the late twentieth century is generated by the movement from disunity to the integrity, the consequence of which was a reorientation of contemporary design culture to environmental design [10, p. 7].
With all the contradictions of theoretical concepts and compromising of practical implementations, environmental approach has changed for the better the structure and appearance of many cities. By pressing technocratic tendencies, it caused drastic changes in the professional ideology. Environmental approach was found to be associated with the current values for the modern mass consciousness.For the same time the active involvement of a broad arsenal of artistic and decorative techniques, color and graphic and plastic objects into the urban environmentdefines the living environment itself as a form of the existence of design and art forms, their synthesis, where the aesthetic sense is revealed not only by the work itself, but also through the environment, behavior and communication.Therefore the sign function of modern monumental and decorative forms and means of forming of the emotional and artistic potential consistently increases.Environment becomes an object for aesthetic perception, the space of the «aesthetic communication».Hence criteria of artistic quality of the environment are being updated, first of all among them are originality, scale, tectonic organization, harmony, emotional orientation .
However, while fruitfulness is undoubted, environmental approach has many limitations.Its concepts are based on the relationships of the subject and object, considered as if from within the system.The content behind the term «environment» is not only difficult, but also mobile, ambiguous.It is difficult to use in the search for those invariants that are necessary as a support for the building of a specific architectural language. Therefore, some researchers, such A. Ikonnikov, consider it to be appropriate to use the key concept «space», which played a decisive role in the formation of the concepts of modern architecture in the XX century .Obviously, the qualities of architecture, considered as a special education – architectural space, created and producing as a special human space, human world, are related to its main substantive aspect.Therefore, the most important criterion for its assessment is aesthetic criterion.
Architecture refers to the reasonably explored areas of human activity.It has been paid a lot of attention to the issues, related to the study of aesthetic problems of architecture, not only in the theory of architecture. Among the scientists, who adverted to the problems of architecture and its phenomena from the perspective of aesthetic and philosophical perspective, we can highlight the works of L. Vygotsky, A. Losev, P. Florensky and V. Bychkov, O. Genisaretsky, M. Kagan, D. Lihachev, F. Martynov.To the understanding of artistic and aesthetic forms of architectonic arts studies of the following scientists are devoted: E. Vorobeva, N. Voronov, V. Glazychev, A. Efimov, A. Yermolaev, E. Zherdev, A. Ikonnikov, K. Kantor, G. Minervin, A. Rappaport and others.The most theoretically developed on an aesthetic level are problems that are related to understanding of artistic creativity in the field of architecture. However, despite the large number of studies, there is not enough attention paid to the architectural space on the aesthetic and philosophical level.
The fact that architecture is not only an art but also a special kind of perception of the world, the main content of which is a person, butnot only the material and common, but also the social, cultural and spiritual being.Architecture as such, as an object of study, should be seen as a reality that has arisen as a result of construction activities and that includes the process, the product and the result of human activity aimed at building facilities of material and real environment, of material and artificial environment. This formation, regarded as some of the architectural integrity in which diverse architectural objects act as a single space of the human existence, is denoted by the term «architectural space».
Aesthetic architectural space coordinates are essential to human self-knowledge, as through architectural space and its forms speaks not only natural, utilitarian, everyday, social face of humanity, but also its spiritual appearance pertaining to the spiritual life.Questions of the spiritual self-determination and human existence by means of the expressive forms of architectural space are regarded to the aesthetic and philosophical area.
Aesthetics is a philosophical discipline, which subject is the area of expressive forms of any sphere of reality, given as an independent data and sensually perceived value.Scientific views on aesthetics as the embodiment search of harmony with the universe of human are basics for the identification of the essence of the aesthetic in the architectural space [4, p. 527].
Noting presence of the aesthetic phenomenon in architecture, E. Biryukova concludes the existence of a range of issues in the architectural space that enter the field of aesthetic and philosophical problems.These questions are in the topic of the general problem regarding the consideration of the aesthetic qualities,heterogeneous in origin, purpose and extent, of architectural objects within a single architectural space, which has an aesthetic expression.Explorer defines the aesthetic and philosophical study of architectural space as one of the form of the worldview manifestations, spiritual self-determination, social and cultural self-identifying by means of architectural forms, which find their expression in the spiritual pleasure from man’s relationship with the architectural space as an aesthetic object.
Solving of the problem is an object for scientific interest for the theory of architecture and architectural practice, as it allows to identify the underlying processes that led to the birth of a particular architectural form appearance of which is important precisely in the aesthetic-expressive existence perspective of an architectural object of the defined architectural space, to avoid the forced external imitation, stylization, to be based on the internal structure and logic of the architectural form.This is especially important nowadays, when the question is acutely raised not about saving individual works of art in the field of architecture, but of all architectural landscape .
Aesthetic environment organization is «a system of human impact on nature and material and objective environment create by them, which determines the level of development of a society’s culture, reflects social and aesthetic ideals and tastes of the people» [11, p. 351]. Such a system is formed in the process of social and cultural continuum, and includes artistic and applied methods of organization of living space as well of a single person and of society as a whole.These methods are: architectural buildings, landscaping, decorative and applied arts, industrial design, etc. In considering questions of aesthetic evaluation of the architectural practice, we come to theproblemsof practical aesthetics– a specific area of knowledge, aimed at establishing a harmonious objective environment of human activity.It is primarily concerned with the organization of the living space of the person on the principles of beauty, harmony and order, connecting herewith the aesthetic and utilitarian functions of organized environment.
Some issues of practical aesthetics associated with the space planning, construction of architectural forms, the influence of color, sound, rhythm, and dynamics on the perception of the man, his performance, health and mood, were the subject for discussions for centuries. However, practical aesthetics has been in a hidden, the implicit form for long. Philosophers, art historians, architects turned to the development of some of its guidelines related to the applied techniques in the field of architecture, decorative arts, painting, etc. Only today, practical aesthetics and its practical application area are subjected to comprehensive understanding.
A distinctive feature of practical aesthetics is its functionality.The practical human activity creates the world of things that are not works of art, but serve to meet the necessities of life, building a world of material culture with its emotional expressiveness.However, the utility, functionality of objects and processes does not prevent them to have artistic and imaginative features.Practical aesthetics involves the analyst of the man's living space as an aesthetic object, identifying the role of beauty, harmony and order in the process of perception and mastering human environment. But as living space is not limited to the characteristics of the environment, so the practical aesthetics is not self-contained to environmental design, and is a way to enable the individual to the world, which is perceived as a space of action. In this context, the practical aesthetic is organic complement to the theoretical aesthetics, identifying and implementing its principles in real life, offering specific methods of space organization .
The living space is built under the influence of certain values that guide a person in a choice of styles and lifestyles, goals and ways of achieving them, and the correlation of value-orientations of different individuals, social groups, and representatives of different cultural traditions can be diametrically opposed. A person builds and improves his or hers living space in accordance with the concept and cultural traditions, obtained in the course of education and training.As guidelines for such a design serve not only taste, as a choice criterion, but also a value system – material, social, cultural, to which we aspire and which we are protecting.
Rules and forms of practical aesthetics are historically inconstant and follow the typical trends for the culture and society in general.In this case, the scientific position of K. Kantor is determining that the aesthetics, unlike other scientific knowledge, is always being revised again in each new era . Type of the worldview and way of thinking are directly reflected in the perception of beauty, order and harmony, which leads to the appearance of traditional trends, as well as of modern trends in the world of practicalaesthetics.Orientational aesthetic senses, among them a sense of space, time, color, light, rhythm, line and symmetry, are aimed at organizing of the material world, and its formed system of images becomes the basis for all human relationships.A sense of proportion combines all of these senses and reveals them to complement each other.Aesthetic senses lead to the cognition of the essential content of a cultural phenomenon, coupled with the world of values.
The artistic design of object-spatial environment today cannot be considered outside of the triad of «man – environment – culture» anymore. The culture creative architect's activity most clearly reflects the essence of architecture and design as kinds of human activity, which result in certain changes in the human environment, and in particular in its objective environment.Introduction to the design of semantic definitions «way of life», «value of life», «behavioral situation» brings together environmental issues with the cultural philosophy and is today solved on the level of interdisciplinary communication of theories of architecture and design, cultural studies, sociology and psychology.In turn, the axiological approach to design theory outputs the understanding of environmental design as a «complete, social and cultural phenomenon that solves global problems with a humanitarian orientation» [1, p. 22].
Direction of the architect for culture building is determined as the design object of material environment, including the man not as a passive consumer, but with all his inherent emotional, aesthetic, cultural activity and his value orientations.The result is justified as the «new view angle on design object, which is not considered as a separate, isolated in space thing or environmental complex, but as an integral piece of reality, of the world» [2, p. 40], taking into account the active role of humans in the environment. The response to changes in the environment is reflected in the perception of architectural objects and design components of the environment, in their emotional and artistic assimilation, the impact on the behavioral response, the spiritual orientation and cultural characteristics of the person.The deepening into social problems of environmental design requires understanding of the social and cultural basis of the synthesis of certain types in design and art work – architecture, urban planning, design, monumental and decorative art in the urban environment.
Thus, the current stage of understanding the aesthetic andphilosophical aspects of the theory of architecture is associated with the development of the cultural paradigm of architectural creativity, with the priority in consideration issues of architecture in the context of human life, in attention to the spiritual and semantic aspects of the architecture space, in the development of concepts of improving of architecture humaneness. Aesthetic and philosophical study of architectural space is particularly relevant in today’s world, as in the context of growing urbanization in the field of architectural space new territories are being constantly involved. There is a complex multi-level change in progress, which can be called «humanization» of the area appearance of constantly increasing earth’s surfaces. Hence the study of issues related to the current stage of architecture development focuses attention on the aesthetic phenomenon of one of the most extensive areas of human activity. We believe, this requires greater attention to the development of the general cultural level of creative potential of professional architects. Therefore, further research complex approach to the education of professional skills and personal qualities of students of architectural specialties in the system of higher education is required.