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Воронежский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет, Россия
The article deals with the influence of the all-system principle of compactness on development of the city’s functional and spatial structural framework and in particular the system of urban environment’s multifunctional communication knots. The tendency of transition from monocentric to polycentric placement of town-planning focuses is stated in details. The dependence of the system’s general purpose’s effective realization – satisfaction of all modern society’s requirements with minimization of expenses – from reduction of its communication component is stated in the article as well.
Keywords: architectural communications, functional structural framework of the city, spatial structural framework of the city, town-planning center, town-planning focus, multifunctional communication knot, city planning.
Today scientists with increasing frequency speak about a predominating role of the person – an individual and society – as a whole in the system of scientific knowledge of absolutely different areas. The similar tendency does not avoid the theory of town planning.
Leading town planning theorists, one of the first in the scientific world indicated the need in creation of such environment of activity that will be capable to satisfy all modern society's requirements to which such lines as “the increased mobility, information sociability, aspiration to more difficult and various types of work, to more differentiated communication and to pastime intellectualization” [1, 24 page] are characteristic.
One of system methodology's ancestors of town-planning objects’ formation - G.I.Lavrik entered the new object of research in his works – Demoecosystem – system consisting of such components, as population, artificial environment (town-planning systems) and natural environment. Thus "in interaction with the environment the population defines behavior of demoecosystem, so “human” criteria has to be leader, instead of technical as the criteria of optimality" [2, 24 page].
For consideration ofthe modern society's characteristics’ influence on a tendency of town-planning objects' formation the system of urban environment's multifunctional communication knots was chosen.
The Multifunctional Communication Knot (MCK) is the difficult territorially localized component of the demoecosystem's artificial environment. All MCKs carry out production and communication functions.
Components of any MCK can be divided into spatial localized (fig. 1) and functional localized (fig. 2).
Fig. 1. Spatial localized components of MCK of an urban environment
Fig. 2. Functional localized components of MCK of an urban environment
The similar division of town-planning object into components makes possible to see the detailed idea of each separately taken MCK’s structure. Nevertheless it is necessary to understand that considering not any compound territorial fragment of the city but an urban environment as a whole, directed by its functioning on satisfaction of requirements of the population, we are compelled to speak not about separate nodal space of the city, but about the system of MCK of an urban environment.
H. Hoyt in 1939 noticed the development of polycentric tendency in the course of city's new functional focuses’ formation. He wrote that the new business centers develop outside the central business region in a peripheral zone of the city. Centers usually are located directly or near suburban railway stations, stations of underground transport ways or the subway, in points of intersection radially and cross going tram lines, and also in points of intersection of the main automobile highways .
In Russia scientific works in area of transition from monocentric to polycentric development of functional focuses' structure were started in 70th years of the XX century. A.E.Gutnov wrote in his work about “the changings in city's geography” . Research team led by Z.N.Yargina stated in details the principle ofan urban environment’s transition from monocentric structure to polycentric structure. So, according to their researches, historically inherent to the city form of a compact kernel, in modern town planning takes the form of “multinukernel lattice”. The last specified form is expressed in formation of nodal spaces' structural framework instead of the only city center. It doesn't mean the elimination of the city’s historical center, but its inclusion to “the system of the city centers” .
It is important to note, along with other compound components of an urban environment, for MCKs the intensification of all their functional processes is inherent. This makes the studying of these town-planning objects' principles formation prime in the list of works specialized in the area of the city’s functional and spatial development.
According to the designated tendency of all modern cities, in work it is offered to consider the system of an urban environment's MCKs that consists of three levels: nodal spaces of the “city” level (for them the city zone of influence is peculiar – functional processes satisfy the needs of all city's population); nodal spaces of the “district” level (the territorial zone of influence covers the city's district); nodal spaces of the " microdistrict (quarter)" level (the territorial zone of influence of their functional processes is limited by the space of the city microdistrict or quarter) (Fig. 3).
The revealed hierarchical structure is optimum and sufficient for its further application in practice of town planning for functional and spatial structural framework's formation of the system of an urban environment's MCKs.
Fig. 3. Hierarchical structure of the system of an urban environment’s MCK
For the system of city's MCKs which, in turn, is a subsystem of an urban environment, the same purpose as for the last one – satisfaction of the population's requirements in the shortest terms with minimization of expenses (labor, time, territorial and other resources) – is inherent.
Considering the main objective of the MCK's system it is necessary to give special attention to the condition designated in it – minimization of time expenses.
Each MCK and MCK's system as a whole have to be organized so that transfer of material, informational and energetic component of system would be carried out in the shortest period.
Practice of modern town-planning design and implementation of the projects reflects objectively existing regularity:
C → min
where C – communication processes.
Thus the main difference of communication processes from the normalized is that their qualitative and quantitative definiteness depends on the spatial organization of the system and placement of normalized kinds of activity. Intensity of transfer of material, informational and energetic component of the MCK's system is subordinated to the spatial organization of the system's framework, and in this case the all-system principle of compactness can be applied. The achievement of decision's compactness is possible only in one case, when the following conditions are realized:
Pi → PSi; PSi → const; Сi → min
where, Pi – the actual (design) indicators of “i” kind activity of normalized (production) processes;
PSi – the standard parameters of “i” kind activity of normalized processes;
Ci – indicators of “i” kind activity of communication processes.
Than “Pi” design indicators are closer to norm and the costs of communications are smaller, the decision is more compact.
System placement of MCK in space of an urban environment allows to reduce time expenses on transfer of a material, informational and energetic component of the system.
According to G.A.Zablotskii the criterion of compactness “is the main exponent of the systems’ functional perfection, reflecting objective nature of any system's aspiration (city, agglomeration or local system) to concentration under the influence of spontaneous tendency to reduce expenses of time or energy for communications … The maximum potential …, thus, corresponds to the minimum of costs for communications and defines the central role of this element in the general system” [6, 27, 32 pages].
The reasonings stated in article allow to make a conclusion on prospects of application of system methods in formation of town-planning objects, in particular the system of an urban environment's MCKs. Use of this methodology allows to reach the most effective functioning of separate town-planning objects and as result an urban environment as a whole, and to satisfy requirements of modern society in the shortest period.