- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
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Ирина Усаченко, преподаватель
Николаевский национальный университет им. В.А. Сухомлинского, Украина
The article overlooks the diachronic perspective on the concept of harmony, analyzes viewpoints on the issue in different periods of time, and proves that harmony is the principle element in parents and children’s relations.
History of progressive pedagogical thought proves that the concept of harmoniously developed personality deepened and grew in experience depending on the ages, formations, and the type of government. Analysis of different viewpoints on the upbringing of well-rounded personality enabled to prove that the basic component of all approaches is the harmony.
The concept of harmony (from the Greek harmonia –communication, concord, understanding, and order) is known from ancient mythology. According to a Greek myth, Harmony is the daughter of the god of war Ares and the goddess of love and beauty Aphrodite, according to another – harmony is the opposite of chaos, and serves one of the fundamental principles of all existence, it means a definite unity, certainty and statefulness of the unity as a set of components .
Even in the era of the Greek classics a series of studies of the harmony that influenced the further development of aesthetics, philosophy and the formation of concepts system arose. The problem of harmony is explored in the works of Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and many other ancient philosophers.
Homer also used the term harmony in domestic and practical meaning, considering it as peace, understanding, harmony, as well as a brace, nail.
Pythagoras and his successors emphasized the harmonious structure of the world, including nature and man, even the whole cosmos. According to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans, harmony means the unity of limit and unlimited, harmony is the mixture and combination of opposites. According to the doctrine of Heraclitus, harmony arises from the struggle of opposites and is created not by mixing of the individual parts of the whole, but is the thing itself in its integrity and dialectical identity with other things. Socrates in understanding harmony introduced the moment of relativity, relevance and functionality. According to Plato, harmony is more concerned with the moral sphere and is the correspondence of external to internal. Aristotle defined harmony as dialectical transition of disorder and order and vice versa .
In ancient philosophy also originated the idea of ??the harmonious development of physical and spiritual beauty. Even Aristotle focused on educating courage and endurance, moderation and justice, high intellectual and moral eminence .
Teachers-humanists of the Renaissance F. Rabelais, M. Montaigne to the content of well-rounded development included the cult of physical beauty, luxury of art, music, literature . In the studies of such utopian socialists as T. More, T. Kompanella the idea of well-rounded harmonious development received a new orientation. They for the first time raised the question of inclusion of the individual work, a combination of education and work to the process of well-rounded harmonious development , . French Enlightened of XVIII century K. Helvetius,
D. Diderot limited this idea by mental and moral development , . The purpose corresponds to the nature of modern man as a member of society, who seeks to assert himself, display of all his natural instincts and skills, because to develop the body and spirit, head and hands, heart and mind comprehensively and harmoniously is the calling of every person who came into this world.
In ancient education system they meant two-dimensionality of development of all spiritual and physical powers of man, which create his beauty and perfection , , . In course of time the importance of a person’s character education and its attitude to people, society also increased . Philosophical interpretation of the problem changed throughout history from naturalistic understanding of harmony as natural congruency to understanding the social nature of man, which necessitates his public upbringing. In the studies of utopian socialists the elements of the new social economic approach to the problems of education appeared . Later the concept “harmonious personality” was filled with new content (B. Hod, T. Yermolaieva, A. Kuzminskyi,
I. Pidlasyi, S. Sysoieva, V. Yahupov and others), and harmoniously developed personality becomes the ultimate goal of upbringing , , .
L. Levchuk, D. Kucheriuk, V. Panchenko note that in history there existed at least three main types of understanding harmony: mathematical, aesthetic and artistic. In this case, they are closely intertwined with each other, forming mostly undifferentiated unity, although in every historical epoch one of the types always acted within the meaning of the principle, the dominant .
It should be noted that the concept of harmony is used not only in musical, cultural, artistic, and mathematical fields, but is widespread in philosophy as consistency, coherence, unity of all elements that are included to harmonious system; in sociology – in the form of conflict-free existence of all elements of social community; in pedagogics harmony is characterized by a relatively dynamic balance, mutual enrichment cooperation, mutual promotion , combination, coherence, mutual congruence of features [17, p.174].
Modern psychologists define harmony as the property of things, processes, events, etc. created by man and the nature, property of integrities rather than any material or spiritual entities. The concept “harmony” reflects integrity in terms of: a) the binding strength of its elements,
b) coordination among themselves, and c) balance and unity of opposites in the integrity, etc. .
M. Varii, considering harmony, noted that researchers commonly use different concepts: general (balance, unity, and integrity), natural (adaptation, health), humanitarian (welfare, social maturity, personal maturity, psychical equilibrium). In most cases, the notion of harmony is revealed through the concept of internal consistency and expedience. “Consistent” means one that has achieved unity, “expedient” is the one in which all its parts are properly matched up. According to scientists’ view, harmony is a higher level of integration of the individual versus individual persistence of a person, and persistence is a higher level of integration of the individual versus adaptation. In this case, it is impossible to discuss individual harmony if we consider the individual in isolation from the environment, outside its connections with the world. The scientist identifies harmony of personality as consistency and proportionality of the main aspects of a personality’s being: personality’s multidimensional space, time and energy of the individuality (potential as well as realized). However, M. Varii suggests that space, time and energy of the individuality should be considered in four major aspects of its being: physical (objective), vital, social, and spiritual. Since personality is supreme integrator in person, one of the faces of personal harmony is the consistency of all aspects of her life [2, p.874].
Having analyzed the theoretical sources, we can make a conclusion that in different periods of time philosophers and scientists meant different processes and elements under the notion of harmony depending on epoch, formation, type of government etc., but we can definitely say that this notion is always associated with order, balance, and is the key component of an all-round person.