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Research of the process of changes and trends in educational management-agriculture in the Republic of Moldova in the context of Europeanization of economic relations

Research of the process of changes and trends in educational management-agriculture in the Republic of Moldova  in the context of Europeanization of economic relations
Constantin Nesterenco, доктор педагогических наук, доцент

Сорокский Аграрно Технический Колледж, Молдова

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Молдова";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

In the present article the author landed the problem of  changes and new tendencies in the educational management – agrarian. He inquired the calitative characteristic of didactical frome from.

Agrarian Colleges in 2010-2011 and proposed the possibilities of landing of integral and formativ curriculum.

Keywords: changing, educational management, economies relations, education, standards, agrarian management.

 

Introduction

In the contemporary world, education and schooling are priorities and basic right of man, causing everyone's possibilities to create a decent future. Science and technical progress conquered more and more spaces and broaden their scope for expansion in the education, which has passed several stages of formation and maturation. These steps, in most cases, were analyzed in the complex after a certain methodical and based on the experience of several countries. One of the attempts, successful enough to systematize third education at European level was undertaken by the germen teacher R.  Steiner, in the 1920s, which has exposed the opinion, that the education system-Real School, Polytechnic School and Colleges – operating in most European countries, including Romania and Moldova, has not been proven to be the most useful, so it was not able to rule for a quality education with a humanistic aspect. According to many authors, that early specialization causes a proper skill practice, has not been proven to be effective, because it is carried out at the expense of the general development of the young. Polytechnic education, including trends in the period 1950-1960, was not completed, because desperate designed tend to do "man machine" by FZO education completed with large general education deficiencies. This period is considered ineffective, crisis, which affected, primarily the educational system of the State of the socialist countries and later from the West (WEST Germany, France, Belgium etc.. ), although integration took place several types of schools: popular, real, gymnasiums or lyceums. It was not manifested in full swing instruction and education any type system training college, as part of the University.

Results and discussion

The educational system, including the European, it was not the expected results for the following reasons:

-failure to comply with the principle of full autonomy of educational institutions;

-the use of inefficient organization of the teaching process, not held to market needs;

-general problems schools alienation human (environmental and social);

-reduced attention to the humanities disciplines;

-obsolete mentality that dominates today at most teachers.

The modernizations of education of the Republic of Moldova, in the context of the Bologna process, require a readiness not only to ministries, but also of the whole of society. Taking into account the importance of education in the process of European integration, of finalizing a European space of knowledge, Ministry of education of the Republic of Moldova has proposed major objective the modernization of higher education under several aspects. In table 1 it is shown the growth in the number of institutions and students, since 2001.

Table 1.  The dimensions of university education in the Republic of Moldova

Years of study

Universities

Students

total

of  State

private

total

of State

private

2001-2002

52

14

31

86414

63541

22873

2002-2003

46

14

24

95039

71203

23836

2003-2004

41

15

24

104029

80892

24250

2004-2005

36

16

20

117213

93418

23795

2008-2009

29

16

12

113000 -

90004 -

23289

2009-2010

33

19

14

109892

90256

19636

Source: Adapted from author.

University system ensures the training of specialists from over 140 specialties.  The largest flows of students are registered at the specialties within the economic profiles and case law, for which the public demand is maximum. In these areas has been expanding the education contract with payment for education: studying economic profile specialties every fourth student, studying case law profile every fifth student, the share of graduates in the contract is much smaller in report to the State. The educational process in higher educational institutions is ensured by 6,300 teachers, of which about 40 percent are holders of scientific titles, which corresponds exactly with the Ministerial requirements and advanced practice in Europe. Mention that higher education in the Republic of Moldova passed through a deep process of change and reform, changes, both quantitative and qualitative, in structural layout and content.  On the route to reform have made felt and many bottlenecks with negative impact on the educational system, including the type of College.  Among these may be mentioned:

- insufficient financing from the State budget of the education system, which provides freedom in decision-making;

- discrepancies by comparison with the legal framework and academic reality;

- deviations between the qualifications required on the labor market and those awarded by the universities;

- difficulties regarding quality assurance, with reference to the scarcity of academic staff in institutions with private capital;

- varying development of the technical-material base of institutions etc.

The difficulties and the problems mentioned have not impeded, but have delayed the development of contemporary education.  In this context, we note the following performance:

- improvement and changing the standard base of education. 

- improvement and updating the studies plans. 

- modernization and correlation with market economy requirements of academic programs. 

- implementation of the system of academic evaluation and accreditation of institutions, which have a purpose of ensuring the quality of education.

-educational management of any level provides for the implementation of new strategies for the Organization, conduct and evaluation of teaching process in higher education in accordance with international practice, in particular the European system of Transferable Academic Credits.  Priority directions of improvement in this context are:

- development and implementation of educational standards for the education of all levels, which are a strategic objective of paramount importance. 

- Cycle I, with a length of 3-4 years, which will complete the diploma granted by the license;

- Cycle II, with a duration of 1-2 years, which will complete the master's diploma.

- Implementation of Diploma Supplement.  Having regard to the Lisbon Convention, Common Declaration of the European Ministers of education in Bologna on 19 July 1999, recommendations of the Council of Ministers of the EU, of 6 May 1996, as well as the European Commission, Council of Europe and UNESCO on transparency for the academic and professional recognition, by order of the Minister of education and youth of Moldova;.  143 of 2 May 2002, was introduced to the supplement to the diploma, the single European model.  Under the order, any graduate can seek release of this add-on, each institution with a standard model and completion instructions

- quality assurance:

- the elaboration of criteria and standards of academic evaluation;

- evaluating undergraduate and curricula and their hierarchy;

- introduction of a system of differentiated funding in relation to the quality of performance at the level of programmers and institutions;

- establish a system of internal and external evaluation of institutions;

- the provision of objective evidence, on the creation of trust beneficiaries and interested parties in the institution's ability to meet the demands and expectations;

- persevering attitude of the staff of the institution in question, the involvement and responsibility of staff;

- international assistance in the implementation of projects on quality assurance in higher education;

- span quality issues in higher education, under the conceptual, structural and organizational, that is increasingly European connotation, namely, international.  Quality system does not constitute an end in itself, but a means by which the educational institution is oriented towards performance.

- University autonomy. 

- Youth participation in Government. 

- Identifying prospects.

Constitution of the Educational European space now does not mean homogenization of educational systems; in this process it is important to keep the specifics and the heritage of the educational system of each country, using the advantages of each of them.  In Europe there are forced, but by accepting the development strategies, keeping potential, benefits, values and traditions of the system. The period of reforms was for technical vocational training a stage not so fruitful in terms of professional schools in the country in several areas.  To an extent and more modest, has renewed the technical-material base of the colleges of the Ministry of agriculture and food industry of the Republic of Moldova. The reference period was much more successful in terms of personnel management, which had to adapt to a constantly changing not only the system, but also the mentality that dominates the whole society.  Point out that the change management mentality does not come by itself, naturally and accelerated, but must be learned, studied, realized, first of all, the managers-teachers, and, secondly, by students and graduates. This work was undertake of the Agricultural Technical College of Soroca, the one who contributes to the creation and development of the educational institutions of several decades, at present, accredited by the National Council for Accreditation and Attestation (CNAA) of the Republic of Moldova. The management body and the teaching of the College in the last 2-3 years, has achieved a real curriculum reform, achieving results that are characterized by:

- restructuring the content disciplines, emphasis being put on optically social-human and technical professionalism;

- capping contact hours in accordance with the practice of advanced structures after (Romania, Germany, Sweden, Poland etc.);

- the probation of teachers abroad and in universities in the country;

- development of technical-material base, appropriate new requirements;

- promoting the policy of support of agrarian reforms, organizational and ownership regarding both the object and the subject property;

- direct cooperation with economic operators in the northern districts of the country with regard to new technologies, processing of the raw material and the provision of services in the field;

- preparation of staff necessary to ensure the demand in the field of mechanization and electrification all forms of households etc.

A particular interest is how to improve the teaching corps in the last 5 years (see table 2), which explained the changes in activity of the College of Soroca integral and qualitative feature of the teaching staff of all agricultural colleges (see Figure 1).

Table. 2.  Restructuring the Faculty Agricultural Technical College of Soroca (2004-2011)

        

Source: Department of education of CTA

Figure 1.  Qualitative characteristics of teaching of Agricultural Colleges in 2010/2011

Note: Total professors: 2010 – 342;    2011 – 376.    1.  Hold teaching degree.   2.  They obtained teaching degree.   3.  Confirmed the second teacher's degree.   1.  2010 – 61, 40%;   2011 – 59, 04%.   2.  2010 – 7, 40%; 2011-7, 71% 3.  2010 – 4, 09%; 2011-9, 31%.   The data are given in percent of the total number of teachers employed.

The need to modify educational management system came together in the context of Bologna process requirements.  Education reform has been carried out thanks to the opening of possibilities in Moldova to the Western world and access to its experience, which has contributed to the implementation of relevant projects. In our opinion, interest publication "scientific principles of the development of education in the Republic of Moldova" [2] – paper developed by a community of scholars, most managers in the field, with experience and contemporary mentality.  The author gives this work a special attention, because it addresses the problem, concerning secondary education.  Enabling in this area and being an implementer of the concept directly, at present, the author can summarize as follows:

-excessive centralization of the conveyance and control in education;

-practicing narrow specialization;

-the initiative in changing the plans of studies; 

-orientation studies plans to Western practice;

 -teacher training courses at training centers.

Mention that, gradually, during the reform of the system has concluded, based on the experience of other countries, that Moldova should draw its own model of education reform, taking account of national particularities and traditional socio-cultural specificity and geographical area of the country, the new aspirations of youth and of the real situation in education.

Among the endogenous factors that influenced changes in the personnel management of College, were the following:

- the tendency of a multilaterally developed and creative, preparation, improvement and retraining, higher level of specialists and scientific personnel in various fields;

- ensuring personality aspirations to deepen and expand studies;

- the promotion of scientific research and the application of its results into practice;

- keeping, enrichment and propagation of scientific patrimony, technical and cultural.

Shaping and articulating the goals presented allow to state that the context of the education reform through staff, currently, is not reflected sufficiently clear and needs to be directed toward creative and multifaceted personality developed, aligning itself to the new paradigm of education.  The existing legislation does not reflect fairly ample existing realities in education. Problems changing phenomena in agriculture have not always taken into account the peculiarities of the agricultural management.  Until recently, they were settled in a rather slow pace and, especially, as a secondary activity, considered that only the enterprise and leadership engineers offers innovations.  However, social science, interested in the managerial situation, presents its concepts on the most important good of an organization, the human factor and, primarily, the Manager, who is often in a confusing position. Change has become one of the most important processes of management and can be achieved only through the full cooperation of all areas of the Organization.  Any change must have the active support of all personnel through the policy and objectives of and of each employee, through performance and individual's effort.  Any thing is done by people, and it involves problems, more accurate, motivation and communication.  The simple act of delegation is no longer enough.

A definite change of philosophy component and a defined managerial accountability is the notion that the change must be directed, reflected not only in terms of the rate of change, but also in terms of determining an opportunity for improvement.  The Manager must initiate and maintain a favorable climate and sensitive to opportunities, because the constant quest to improve is the essence of change management.  This is exemplified by the difference between mobility and immobility, in the sense that it is easier to be guiding than to push.  It is recognized that perfection never touch, she is only looking for.  Persistence is power that supports the objectives of change management.

People as part of their fundamental shapes, have not only the power but also the desire to be creative.  The philosophy of change accepts this truth and, more importantly, releasing latent creativity in people, both as individuals and as groups.  This should involve the establishment by the manager of a climate and an atmosphere based on mutual trust and respect, for the creative potential of people to be developed and supported.

Many new stages and a much faster progress can be expected through a deliberate planning and change management for the future.

In our vision, some of the most important principles in changing personnel management must realize any leader: any change occurs by us; true change can not be without effect; the change affects the interests of the economic operators vertically and horizontally; change management requires a restructuring of knowledge; changing enjoys greatest success. 

One of the much wait changes in HORSES is the information revolution, which encompassed, at present, most economic and educational establishments.  It consists in applying widely specific technology information processing using personal computers.

Contemporary management contributes to masking or distorting the nature of change and deceives in predicting its impact.  With a broadened perception of change we can gain increased power and often unique to improve something.  The Manager cannot direct what has not realized, those models that do not inspire success. Therefore, the selection of models and detection of strengths and weaknesses of any project is one of the basic functions of management.  These simple requirements are often ignored, which can impede the process of change, or you can completely, brake.  Some scholars consider the management of change in the field of education as a process, which is conducted under the influence of changes in other areas.  V. Bou identifies a few possible changes of who can directly influence the restructuring of staff [1, p. 77]: changes in knowledge and techniques; changes in leadership goals; changes in the organizational environment.

However, in our opinion, there are endogenous reasons, contributing staff under several aspects, firstly, in terms of the degree of professionalism, a fact often ignored by top managers.

Our managerial experience reveals that in the conditions of the agricultural sector of the Republic of Moldova can be applied in two areas of managerial changes – training and recycling frames in function and orientation and training of future specialists. Currently, these two forms of perfecting management staff to practice without growing experience and without compliance with the requirements of contemporary.  In this context, it is of interest to examine the trends of educational processes revival within the agricultural education system of the country.

One of the contemporary trends of the reform of education at any level is the promotion of the applied courses and disciplines with a much wider range of bins, advanced technologies, organizational practice in terms of integration and globalization.

Promoting interdisciplinary is an attempt out of the orderly paradigm, which dominated and still continues to dominate education.  Unfortunately, the concept orderly continues to lead the development of pre-university education strategy and University.  Out of the shackles of these ideas is difficult due to technical, institutional barriers and, especially, psychological, due, in principle, the way of thinking to disciplinary action. If interdisciplinary has become, by the force of things, an objective phenomenon of knowledge, it can be a means to encourage, among all specialists, that dialog, which allows understanding the requirements of each, creating conditions for overcoming cultural and intellectual scissions in the modern world through interdisciplinary cooperation.

Interdisciplinary as a phenomenon of objective of knowledge and the intellectual and moral solidarity, holds direct implications and on the evolution of agricultural education curriculum. 

The first way of approaching curriculum is interdisciplinary – vertical integration within a discipline or a course. 

The problem does not lie in the existence of disciplines, but in how to use them [3, p.  214] Otherwise, no way not neglect interdisciplinary subjects.

The second way to approach academic curriculum is interdisciplinary – horizontal integration within the framework of related disciplines.  This function a meet curricular areas. 

The third way approach to content is cross-integrating multidisciplinary.  This function a Tran disciplinary goals to meet the profile level.

The fourth approach to the way content is Tran disciplinarily – entry point not in matter, but in the student.  Tran disciplinary approach, which departs from the multidisciplinary, situations are occasions chosen to identify the intellectual and affective steps, as well as to familiarize students with different courses.

Conclusions:

1. Designing educational curricula from the perspective of European integration is directly related to current trends in the development of education systems, focusing on the formation of a global vision of the world and fundamental competencies and professional students. 

2.  How to tackle the full curriculum and training in this context may be different.  Further   we offer a few ways:-interdisciplinary – vertical integration within a specialized curriculum;

   - Interdisciplinary – horizontal integration within curricular areas;

   - Cross-integrating multidisciplinary within the curriculum;

   - Tran disciplinarily-transcendent integration within the curriculum.

3. Curriculum is a pedagogical category because it copies the social experience, but educational languages translate.  Given the theoretical approaches outlined above (curricular reform factors, curriculum design principles, sources of conception of a curriculum, the contemporary sciences), the latest developments in this educational categories, based on the general theory of systems, we believe that within the agricultural education curriculum can be structured in two levels: basic and specialized.

 

References:

1. Bozu V. Esen?a, principiile ?i condi?iile managementului schimb?rilor calitative. Organizarea, planificarea, managementul ?i eficien?a economic? a produc?iei agricole ?n condi?iile economiei de pia??. Chi?in?u: Cartea universitar?. 1999. p.71-79.

2. Bucun N., Mustea?? S., Gu?u Gh. Bazele ?tiin?ifice ale dezvolt?rii ?nv???m?ntului ?n Republica Moldova, Chi?in?u, Prometeu, 1997, p. 254.

 3. Горшков А. К вопросу о реформировании высшей школы.//Высшее образование в России. Москва, -1999.- № 5, c. 10-12.

.4.  Nesterenco C. Impactul reformei ?nv???m?ntului agrar asupra agriculturii ?n noile condi?ii de europenizare economic?. Perspective ale dezvolt?rii agriculturii ?n competi?ia pentru integrarea ?n Uniunea European?. Simpozionul Na?ional „Perspective ale dezvolt?rii agriculturii ?n competi?ia pentru integrarea ?n Uniunea European?”, Bucure?ti, 2006, 18 mai. Bucure?ti: Cartea Universitar?, 2006, p. 411-420.

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Шаповалова Инна Сергеевна

Автор достаточно полно осветил проблему модернизации образования в свете Болонского процесса. Его работа может быть представлена даже как некоторый научный отчет о проделанной работе в этой сфере. Но наш взгляд, недостаточно показана специфика модернизации именно в образовании в сфере сельского хозяйства. Именно здесь необходим более глубокий анализ западных аналогов. Но в целом, статья представляет добротный теоретический материал, который в последствии может быть дополнен данными о внедрении новой системы образования.

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам

Черкасова Светлана Александровна

Доклад привлекает внимание названием и глубинной озвученной проблематики. Автором проделана большая работа по обобщению значительного массива информации и озвучиванию проблем в существующих условиях. Работа привлекает внимание и заслуживает высокой оценки

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам

Казбеков Бекет

В докладе на профессиональном уровне обобщен интересный опыт модернизации среднеспециального образования в Молдавии, осуществляемого в рамках Болонского процесса. Тема актуальная, аналогичные проблемы имеют место и в Казахстане. Для улучшения подготовки студентов аграрного колледжа автор предлагает учебный план разрабатывать для двух уровней обучения: базового, что расширяет кругозор и специализированного, что позволяет передавать углубленные знания, используя компетентностный, проблемно-ориентировнный и другие подходы к преподаванию, основанные на общей теории систем. Вызывает также интерес подходы автора по интеграции знаний в рамках учебной программы. Работа заслуживает высокой оценки. Желаем удачи. Beket Zhanat

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам !

Солдатенко Ірина Олександрівна

В статье приводится подробный анализ трансформации системы образования в сфере сельского хозяйства на примере Молдовы. Заметно, что автор глубоко владеет темой и предлагает конкретные решения по модернизации учебной программы. Статья заслуживает высокой оценки.

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам !

Солдатенко Ірина Олександрівна

В статье приводится подробный анализ трансформации системы образования в сфере сельского хозяйства на примере Молдовы. Заметно, что автор глубоко владеет темой и предлагает конкретные решения по модернизации учебной программы. Статья заслуживает высоко

Aleksey Konovalov

Автор достаточно подробно и доступно передал опыт модернизации сельскохозяйственного образования в республике Молдова. Казахстан также переживает данный процесс и решает проблемы вхождения в Европейское образовательное пространство. В связи с чем было бы интересно знать такую качественную составляющую данного процесса как повышение уровня профессионализации выпускников, на примере вузов. В частности, как организованы взаимосвязи - между вузами и работодателями? Благодарим!

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Тему, которую Вы затронули, очень интересная. Я участвовал в проекте SIDA финансированный Правительством Швеции. Именно в этом проекте и исследовались взаимосвязи между вузами и работодателями. Тема очень обширная и в несколько слов не расскажешь. Удачи и успехов Вам !
Комментарии: 11

Шаповалова Инна Сергеевна

Автор достаточно полно осветил проблему модернизации образования в свете Болонского процесса. Его работа может быть представлена даже как некоторый научный отчет о проделанной работе в этой сфере. Но наш взгляд, недостаточно показана специфика модернизации именно в образовании в сфере сельского хозяйства. Именно здесь необходим более глубокий анализ западных аналогов. Но в целом, статья представляет добротный теоретический материал, который в последствии может быть дополнен данными о внедрении новой системы образования.

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам

Черкасова Светлана Александровна

Доклад привлекает внимание названием и глубинной озвученной проблематики. Автором проделана большая работа по обобщению значительного массива информации и озвучиванию проблем в существующих условиях. Работа привлекает внимание и заслуживает высокой оценки

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам

Казбеков Бекет

В докладе на профессиональном уровне обобщен интересный опыт модернизации среднеспециального образования в Молдавии, осуществляемого в рамках Болонского процесса. Тема актуальная, аналогичные проблемы имеют место и в Казахстане. Для улучшения подготовки студентов аграрного колледжа автор предлагает учебный план разрабатывать для двух уровней обучения: базового, что расширяет кругозор и специализированного, что позволяет передавать углубленные знания, используя компетентностный, проблемно-ориентировнный и другие подходы к преподаванию, основанные на общей теории систем. Вызывает также интерес подходы автора по интеграции знаний в рамках учебной программы. Работа заслуживает высокой оценки. Желаем удачи. Beket Zhanat

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам !

Солдатенко Ірина Олександрівна

В статье приводится подробный анализ трансформации системы образования в сфере сельского хозяйства на примере Молдовы. Заметно, что автор глубоко владеет темой и предлагает конкретные решения по модернизации учебной программы. Статья заслуживает высокой оценки.

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Удачи и успехов Вам !

Солдатенко Ірина Олександрівна

В статье приводится подробный анализ трансформации системы образования в сфере сельского хозяйства на примере Молдовы. Заметно, что автор глубоко владеет темой и предлагает конкретные решения по модернизации учебной программы. Статья заслуживает высоко

Aleksey Konovalov

Автор достаточно подробно и доступно передал опыт модернизации сельскохозяйственного образования в республике Молдова. Казахстан также переживает данный процесс и решает проблемы вхождения в Европейское образовательное пространство. В связи с чем было бы интересно знать такую качественную составляющую данного процесса как повышение уровня профессионализации выпускников, на примере вузов. В частности, как организованы взаимосвязи - между вузами и работодателями? Благодарим!

Нестеренко Константин Михайлович

Большое спасибо за положительный отзыв и оценку. Тему, которую Вы затронули, очень интересная. Я участвовал в проекте SIDA финансированный Правительством Швеции. Именно в этом проекте и исследовались взаимосвязи между вузами и работодателями. Тема очень обширная и в несколько слов не расскажешь. Удачи и успехов Вам !
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