- О проекте
- Результаты и Награды
- Партнерские программы
- Международные услуги
Национальный юридический университет им. Ярослава Мудрого, Украина
Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Украина";
Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;
International acts that preceded the establishment and which determined the need for the existence of the United Nationsare created. The information about the principles, goals and bodies of the UNis given. Attention is focused on the importance of the UN in its history andits role in the modern political world stage.
Keywords: United NationsOrganization, members - founders, the UN Charter, the UN Security Council, international cooperation, international instruments, international - legal nihilism, the facts of history.
Significant feature of human society in the twentieth century is to strengthen the relationship and interdependence of nations and peoples as a trend, historically due to the requirements of scientific and technological revolution, the development of international cooperation, the emergence of global problems, especially increased during the second half of the century, giving rise to a variety of international organizations.
In modern international relations important place belongs to the United Nations Organization (hereinafter UN), which, in essence, is the first ever wider multifaceted mechanism of interaction between different states in order to maintain international peace and security, promoting economic and social advancement of all peoples. For more than 50 yearsof its existence, the UN has become an integral part of the international structure. UN members are states, that have different economic systems and which are from regions of the world that associate with its activities to the decision of problems that concern them. It is no exaggeration to note,that no event in the world hasbeen ignoredby the UN.
Such American and Soviet scientists as Beyhbeder I. Goodrich LM, Foumrand J., Haas EB, Hill M., Childers E. Babin BV, Pozharsky SP, Krasikova AA, IM Maisky, Ivanytska OP Dubovich IA, Circassian NY, Osipenko OO and others study the history, nature and principles of the UN.
Exploring the history of the UN, we can conclude that the states sought to establish an international organization that would be committed to ensure international peace and security. In particular, the international acts that preceded the establishment and which determined the need for UN include:
- Allied Declaration signed in London on 12 June 1941, in which the allies pledged to "work together with other free nations - both in war and in peace" [1, p. 249];
- Atlantic Charter August 14, 1941, whose members proposed the principles of international cooperation on peace and security;
- Declaration of the United Nations, signed on January 1, 1942 by representatives of 26 nations to maintain the Atlantic Charter;
- Declaration on the overall safety, signed at Moscow Conference October 30, 1943, whereby the parties recognized the need of creation "as soon as possible of the general international organization for the maintenance of international peace and security, which is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states" [ 2, p. 295].
The decision to form the United Nations as a general international organization to maintain peace and security was formulated at the Yalta Conference by the heads of three major states. At a conference in San Francisco June 25, 1945 United Nations Charter, was unanimously adopted which entered into force on October 24, 1945 [3, p. 142].
International United NationsOrganithetionwas lauched by the states of anti-Hitler coalition (1942-1945 years): United States (the U.S.), the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The term "United Nations"belonged to U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt,who was a president of that time.It was first used on January 1, 1942 in the "Declaration of the United Nations." UN was established on October 24, 1945 at the United Nations Conference in San Francisco (USA). Founding members were 51 states that signed and ratified the UN Charter. Among the founding members was Ukraine (at that time - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Today, members of the UN are almost all countries of the world Vatican is not a member of the UN. The main objective of the UN is the maintenance and strengthening of international peace and security, bilateral cooperation in the political, environmental, economic, social, cultural and other spheres.
The UN Charter contains the basic principles of international relations: sovereign equality of member states, executions of obligations, resolving of conflicts peacefully; inadmissibility of force or threats of force, inviolability of borders and respect for the territorial integrity of states, inviolability of the sovereignty of every state and more.
Major organs (under the UN Charter): The Security Council - a key UN body, formedby 15-member-states,five of which are permanent members (U.S., UK, China, France, Russian Federation) and temporary (they are elected for a twoyear term by The General Assembly), the General Assembly,where representatives of all Member States, states and movements that have observer statushave their mestings Economic and Social Council, which is responsible for the implementation of UN programs to the global economy, social and cultural development and for improving of living level, unemployment, human rights. It coordinates the activities of the subsidiary (observational of missionUN, the UN armed forces) and specialized agencies (UNESCO, YUSTAD, FAO). Other UN organizationsare the following Council of care - one of the main UN bodies dealing with administration of subordinate territories, the International Tribunal with its headquarter in The Hague (Netherlands) - the main judicial organ of the United Nations. Solving of disputes that parties voluntarily convey on the basis of international law is in its jurisdiction; Secretariat headed by Secretary (since 2007 - Pan Hi-Moon from the Republic of Korea), elected by the General Assembly and who is the chief administrator of the UN. According to the UN Charter, its duty is to submit to the Security Council any matter that threatens peace and security. He also reports to the General Assembly. The headquarteris in New York (USA) [4, p. 637-638].
Buromensky MV said that since its establishment the UN has gone a difficult route from the establishment and the functioning in the conditions of "cold war" period of easing international tension 70’s, a new round of tension in the early 80's, the end of the "Cold war "in the 2nd half of the 80’s and the collapse of bipolar world till the formation of a multipolar worldin the late XX - early XXI century. Unfortunately, not always the statesmembersof the un adhere status of this esteemed universal organization, which led to the politicization of its work on many issues. Especially dangerous were the actions of international - legal nihilism of the large states that are permanent members of the UN Security Council. At a time when globalization becomes a constant factor of international cooperation, the role of the basic principles of international law that were firstly codified in the UN Charterenhances greatly. Further provisions of the UN Charter require a further interpretation in the new conditions, the disclosure of that democratic potential that had been built by thestate founders in close cooperation during the struggle with Nazism. Certainly, the UN remains today a unique arena for discussion of allstates representatives of anyquestions of international cooperation, coordination of efforts to combat global problems, development of common approaches to the formation of modern international law. Of course,it is hard not to agre with it, because the answer on the question about what role the United Nations plays in the modern worldwill be complicated. Today, almost all aspects of international lifearein the fair of the UN. It is proved by agencies, various programs and committees. To achieve specific positive results becomes possible only through active and purposeful efforts of the entire UN systemon many directions.
Examining the facts of the history of creation and functioning of the United Nations, we can conclude that the United Nations is the most universal and most authoritative international organization today, which political activity is in close connection with economic and social objectives that are directly related to global stability. Numerous units and organizations of the UN systemare designed. The numerous and multifaceted problems that arise before the international community at the turn of the third millennium, the extent of their impact on human life is becoming more rampant, while the effectiveness of their decision demonstrates that globalization of challenges today is much faster than globalizationof solutions.Such mutually exclusive processes as globalization and fragmentation, multipolarity and integrationare getting clearer contours. Some of these trends open up new opportunities for peace, freedom, security and development, while others cause very sharp crises situation. The rapid degradation of the environment, growth of population,which is not under control, lack of food and raw materials, regional conflicts, poverty, drug trafficking, international terrorism and epidemics are today out ofinterstate frames of regions and continents. The transnational nature of negative impacts of these events causes the inevitable unification of efforts of all members of nations in the search for effective and mutually acceptable ways to mitigate them. The United NationsOrganization is aimed to become the catalyst of there efforts.
1. Baymuratov MO Public International Law / MO Baymuratov. - H.: Odyssey, 2008
2. Circassian M. Yu International Law: [Tutorial] / M. Yu Circassian. - K.: Legal Unity, 2009
3. Osipenko OO Role of the United Nations in Promoting International Peace and Security / Bulletin of the University "Ukraine», № 1, 2010
4. Dubovich IA Geographic Dictionary. - 5th ed. [Revised. and add.]. - K.: Type of "Knowledge", 2008