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DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY COMPONENTS BASED ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONALISM IDEAS

DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY COMPONENTS BASED ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONALISM IDEAS
Vitaliy Omelyanenko, старший преподаватель, ph.d. экономических наук

Сумской государственный педагогический университет им. А.С. Макаренко, Украина

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Украина";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

УДК 338.22.01

 

The research deals with the study of the main ideas of technological determinism as a theoretical concept and technological institutionalism as the basis of applied management. It is shown that these ideas are the basic principles of many modern socio-economic and sociopolitical concepts of social development, which take into account the role of the technological factor. Based on an understanding of the role of innovations and technologies in national security ensuring, the main areas of application of the technological institutionalism ideas in the development of national development strategies were identified, taking into account global trends based on synergies in the «development – security» system.

Keywords: institutions, national security, innovation trajectories, strategy, technological institutionalism, new industrialization.

В исследовании были рассмотрены основные идеи технологического детерминизма как теоретической концепции и технологического институционализма как методологии управления. Показано, что эти идеи являются основополагающим принципом многих современных социально-экономических и социолого-политических концепций общественного развития, которые учитывают роль технологического фактора. На основе понимания роли инноваций и технологий в обеспечении национальной безопасности определены основные направления применения идей технологического институционализма в разработке национальных стратегий развития с учетом глобальных тенденций на основе потенциала синергии в системе «развитие – безопасность».

Ключевые слова: институты, национальная безопасность, инновационные траектории, стратегия, технологический институционализм, новая индустриализация.

 

Introduction. The relevance of the problems of this study is caused by the fact, that the analytical foundations of the technological and social structures interconnection problems of the economy began to be considered in institutional theory.

Scientific developments in this direction have started in the XIX century from the studies of Th. Veblen, who believed, that in the society the institutional and technological structures come into conflict, which requires some targeted efforts. According to Veblen, «institutions are inherently inert and chronically not in time for more dynamic technology development» [6]. A significant gap between them for a long time is observed in the developing countries, especially in the technological (innovation) gap. In fact, if the new technologies are available in world markets and every state can obtain the leapfrogging effect (e.g. rapid development of mobile technologies), the creation of such new economy values as a conscious attitude to intellectual work and production & innovation culture requires special and long-term efforts of the society, which will be implemented into the national institutional matrix evolution.

In our previous studies, we have studied the specifics of institutional support for the innovation system and national security based on Max Weber's institutional ideas, have shown the necessity to consider the innovation trends and national sociocultural characteristics.

The relevance of Veblen's institutional methodology analysis is caused by the fact, that later his technocratic theory was developed by J. Galbraith, D. Bell and E. Toffler in the post-industrial society concept, as well as in J. Commons` economics theory. American economist D. Hamilton in study «Evolutionary Economics»(1970) recalled Veblen's dichotomy and has reasonably called for considering the market as a «product of culture», recording the results of natural selection of technologies and institutions. Thus, Veblen can be regarded as the founder of modern industrial-technocratic concepts and the author of the technological version of institutionalism.

Followers of this trend and adherents of the technological determinism believe, that the main determinant of socio-economic and other changes in society deals with the technological system of production changes. This conclusion can take place, because according to modern approaches the concept of «technology»means «not only machines and tools but corresponding concepts of the world, which guide our perception of everything, which exists»(J.P. Grant) [9]. This definition takes the analytics of security and innovation to new level, as it allows us to combine within the methodology wide range of innovations, including social innovations.

The objective of this study is to analyze the ideas of technological institutionalism, that are relevant in the modern transformations context and the development of mechanisms of their application within the framework of the national security providing strategy.

The methodology of the research is based on the idea of institutional and technological design of processes in national innovation system, which is oriented on the advance creation of such an institutional innovation environment, which will support the innovation cycle of high-tech products (processes) and create a positive image of technological opportunities and prospects of state. The necessity for transition to institutional and technological design as a basis for development management is caused to the shifting of competitive competition between nations in the area of control over scarce resources, which allows to form and maintain an institutional and innovation environment, that will allow the nation to become entrenched in potential markets with uncertain prospects, that can affect the state of national security.

The proposed methodology is based on an understanding of the institutions differentiation. D. North has also considered, that «the institutional environment predetermines a set of opportunities that under certain conditions make redistributive activity more profitable (economically advantageous), while in others it makes productive activity more profitable» [2, p. 23]. So we can move to the specialization and economic structure risks` reasons understanding.

In the context of national security, we note, that institutional transformation should be directed towards the realization the new industrialization strategy, which we propose to understand as a process of transition from the economy of raw and consumer type, which rests on the sale of resources and finished goods from other countries, to the economy, which is characterized by a modern developed innovation and technologically high industrial base. In developed countries, the economy continues to be based on a strong industrial foundation and the service sector and industries not related to material production (knowledge industry).

Our approach, shown in this study and in works [1; 3; 4; 5], is consistent with the Veblen`s ideas, that the formation of the institutional environment is carried out in the process of existing institutions changing by the new and effective institutions, that ensure the sustainable development and higher living standards, which requires an appropriate analytical base and strategy.

Main material. So for the purposes of our study, which deals with the application of technological institutionalism ideas in institutional and technological design, we should outline the main points of Th. Veblen's institutionalism, that are relevant for the theory and practice of strategic management and national security providing:

1) social approach to economic phenomena and processes. This aspect is important for the elaboration of organic development strategies and this we have shown in the previous studies based on M. Weber`s methodology [6];

2) desire to identify the causes and factors of the capitalism evolution. This aspect is particularly important for understanding and forecasting the main trends and trajectories of technological structures and the globalization of innovation as a factor of economy transformation and the corresponding institutional transformation for the purposes of effective national development strategies development;

3) criticism of ineffective organizational structures, in particular monopolies, which expresses, on the one hand, the anti-monopoly democratic traditions of society, and on the other – widespread illusions about the possibility of capitalism transforming and more efficient society of industrialists and technocrats creating.

Veblen has proceeded from the industrial & technocratic concepts, and has proved that industrial development, which is oriented to the dynamics of social needs, causes the need for innovations and, accordingly, leads to acceleration of scientific and technological progress. Veblen has also proceeded from the premise that the role of the engineering and technical workers «persons coming to power based on the deep knowledge of modern technology»– in modern society should steadily increase. In the context of our research, this point is particularly important, as it determines one of the conditions of successful reindustrialization (new industrialization).

Veblen has also proved, that in a market economy consumers are subjected to all kinds of social and psychological pressure, forcing them to make unreasonable decisions, incl. strategic nature decisions (social populism, short-term gains etc.). According to Veblen, economic interests are a complex and contradictory system.

Based on the analysis of a number of studies, we can conclude, that the  principles of interconnection and interdependence of economic, social and psychological relationships, in connection with which Veblen was recognized as the founder of the socio-psychological version of institutional researches. At the same time, he rejects the classical thesis of self-regulation of the market economy and the coincidence of interests of human and society in conditions of free entrepreneurship. The scientist looks at the economic system, unlike his predecessors, not as a self-balancing mechanism, but as a «cumulative process». In particular, the industry is represented by functioning entrepreneurs, managers and other engineering and technical personnel and workers who are interested in the development and improvement of production and therefore are progress carriers. The "cumulative process" idea in the beginning of XXI century receives more and more support from theorists and practitioners, because it allows to combine efforts of various agents.

For the purposes of this study, we should also note the ideas of one of the representatives of institutionalism J. Galbraith, whose most famous work is «New Industrial State» (1961). In the center of Galbraith's concept of «technostructure» as some social layer, which includes scientists, designers, technology, management, finance specialists and other specialties, that are necessary for the normal operation of large corporation, which produces hundreds of products? Galbraith argues that the goal of the technostructure is not to make a profit, but to maintain sustainable economic growth, which ensures the growth of wages and stability. However, the interests of economic growth, the necessary condition of which is the growth of consumption, leads to further pressure on consumers by producers (through an advertising and other pressure forms, as Veblen has wrote, by questioning the postulate of consumer sovereignty in market economy). So in this case the stare needs to use some elements of economic nationalism in development strategies, which will provide the demand of national firm’s goods.

An important conclusion regarding the quality of institutions is based on the Galbraith`s idea that the suggestion and belief mechanisms, which are associated with the sale of goods, has grown enormously. By means that are expended on this activity and the abilities, that find application in it, it increasingly competes with the process of goods production. As a result, there is a hypertrophied growth in individual needs, and the public needs, which according to Galbraith include most important investments in human capital through the development of education and innovation system, are degrading, which very often leads to technological dependence. Thus, the objectives of the technostructure come into conflict with the interests of society, which leads to development risks and a list of problems in the area of national security.

So the implementation of the restoration strategy and scientific & technical development based on technostructure requires the transition to the strategic innovation structuring and production of number of structured scientific, technical, production and marketing tasks for groups of companies of the country for the consolidation in key sectors of the world economy (value chains) with a gradual transition to the «production on new industrial base based on the convergence of sciences and technologies» model in the global systemic and structural changes context. In fig. 1 we have shown the scheme of institutional support for processes of ensuring national security based on technological & innovation factor.

 

Institutional and technological design framework within the national security providing strategy (fragment) (author’s development)

 Fig. 1. Institutional and technological design framework within the national security providing strategy (fragment) (author’s development)

 

For the purposes of our study and in support of the ideas indicated in Fig. 1, we also note the importance of Galbraith`s conclusion, which was made on the basis of an analysis of the harmful sides of technocracy dominance, about the need for social control over the economy by the state, which should include the state regulation of public needs satisfaction strategically policy, state planning of basic economic proportions and a list of some other directions, which rise from the specific national security situation.

This idea is extremely relevant for the national security strategy and has been implemented for quite a long time in the coordination of scientific and technological development programs in developed countries (for example, NASA in the United States as the coordinating agency for the development of the space industry based on the G2B-B2G model).

Not without reason in the study of the French national standardization body AFNOR it was noted, that «the standardization is a specific form of technology transfer». Veblen, one of the first theorists of institutionalism and organization of production, first turned to these standardization possibilities: «What is not fully standardized requires too much wit, thoughtfulness and consciousness and therefore is unsuitable for economic application».

In the analytical study [10, p. 54] it is shown, that K. Freeman in his studies has relied on the conclusions of the institutional theory of T. Veblen, R. Coase and G. Simon. In his works, the institutional context of innovation activity is the main one. At the same time we underline, that Freeman emphasizes, that the national innovation system is a kind of network of institutional structures in the public and private sectors of the economy, the activity and interaction of which contributes to the new technologies diffusion. These institutions include not only the organizations responsible for conducting research, but also the way in which the available resources are managed, both at the enterprise level and at the national level.

Sustainability, according to Veblen, can be achieved by meeting the following conditions (which are of primary importance for the modern economic systems security):

– it is necessary to reduce the class of financial oligarchy;

– it is necessary to increase the class of scientific and technical specialists;

– the state should promote the growth of scientific and technological progress.

As a result of these ideas implementation a new order should be established in society, in which the country's industrial management would be implemented not by financial agents, but by technical community, then the industrial system would serve not the interests of financial and industrial monopolists, but the interests of the whole society. This conclusion can be considered the basis for ensuring the strategy in the relationship of «development – security», as well as the basis of technocratic management in the conditions of power and business delimitation.

Conclusions. In the study we have considered the main ideas of technological determinism as a theoretical concept and technological institutionalism as an applied management approach. It was shown that these ideas are the basic principle of many modern socio-economic and sociopolitical concepts of social development, which take into account the role of technological factor. Based on an understanding of the role of innovation and technologies in national security ensuring, the main areas of application of technological institutionalism ideas in the development of national development strategies were determined, taking into account global trends based on synergies in «development – security»system. For the purposes of innovation factor in the national security ensuring strategy context considering, we have proposed to take into account the technological causes of the economy evolution and the social approach to economic phenomena.

 

References:

  • 1. Krapyvny I. V., Omelyanenko V. A., Vernydub N. O. International innovation networks as new stage of innovation development [Online]., Economic Processes Management. – 2015., № 1., Access mode: http://epm.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/download/2015_1/2015_1_17.pdf
  • 2. North D. Five Propositions about Institutional Change // Explaining Social Institutions / ed. by J. Knight, I. Sened. – Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1998. – pp. 15–27.
  • 3. Omelyanenko V. Innovation priorities optimization in the context of national technological security ensuring., Marketing and management of innovations. – 2016., № 4., pp. 226–234.
  • 4. Omelyanenko V. Management of the national economic security providing institutional trajectory (application of Max Weber`s methodology)., Correlation between individual and collective needs in the context of improving the effectiveness of social processes: peer-reviewed materials digest published following the results of CXLVIII International Research & Practice Conference (London, August 11 –17, 2017). – London: IASHE, 2017. – p. 86–89.
  • 5. Omelyanenko V.A. General context of economic and legal reforms international comparative studies (example of innovation development) [Online]., Economic Processes Management. – 2016., № 3., Access mode: http://epm.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/download/2016_3/ epm2016_3_8.pdf
  • 6. Veblen Th. (1899). The Theory of Leisure Class, An Economic Study of Institutions [Торстейн Веблен. Теория праздного класса: экономическое исследование институций. – Пер. с английского]. – М., 1984. – Центр гуманитарных технологий. – 05.10.2012. – Режим доступа: http://gtmarket.ru/laboratory/basis/5890
  • 7. Исламутдинов В. Ф. Синтез институционального и эволюционного подходов к теоретическому обоснованию инновационных процессов. – Ханты-Мансийск, ИИЦ ЮГУ, 2010. – 144 с.
  • 8. Самаруха В. И., Краснова Т. Г. Роль государства в регулировании рыночной экономики., Известия ИГЭА. – 2004., № 3., С. 4–12.
  • 9. Технологический детерминизм [Электронный ресурс] // Гуманитарная энциклопедия. – Центр гуманитарных технологий, 2010–2017 (последняя редакция: 08.10.2017). – Режим доступа: http://gtmarket.ru/concepts/7234
  • 10. Экономика инноваций. – М.: Экономический факультет МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, 2016. – 311 с.

 


[1]The research was publicly funded by Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine for developing of research project № 0117U003855 «Institutional and technological design of innovation networks for Ukraine national security systemic providing»

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Комментарии: 7

Романович Людмила Геннадьевна

Понравилась работа с точки зрения авторского подхода к исследованию, статья грамотно и логично структурирована. Тема интересна, актуальна и перспективна. Выделяю для себя эту работу с высокой оценкой - 7. Успехов автору в научный исследованиях! Романович Л.Г.

Ляпина Иннара Рафаильевна

Статья актуальна, материал изложен структурировано, исследование интересно. Успехов в научных изысканиях!

Мороз Людмила Ивановна

Уважаемый Виталий, желаю Вам успехов в практической реализации рассмотренных идей технологического детерминизма в прикладном подходе к управлению. С уважением, Л.И.Мороз

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Довольно познавательная и высоконаучная работа!

Петрухина Елена Владимировна

Данное исследование очень актуально в настоящее время. Интересен междисциплинарный технико-экономический стык. Желаю дальнейших творческих успехов в данном направлении!

Тойво Таннинг

Dear Vitaliy Omelyanenko, Your work - DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY COMPONENTS BASED ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONALISM IDEAS - is actual and intense. With a wish of creative successes and for best salutatory, Toivo Tanning

Омельяненко Виталий

Dear Toivo Tanning, thank you for your interest in my research. Best regards, Vitaliy Omelyanenko
Комментарии: 7

Романович Людмила Геннадьевна

Понравилась работа с точки зрения авторского подхода к исследованию, статья грамотно и логично структурирована. Тема интересна, актуальна и перспективна. Выделяю для себя эту работу с высокой оценкой - 7. Успехов автору в научный исследованиях! Романович Л.Г.

Ляпина Иннара Рафаильевна

Статья актуальна, материал изложен структурировано, исследование интересно. Успехов в научных изысканиях!

Мороз Людмила Ивановна

Уважаемый Виталий, желаю Вам успехов в практической реализации рассмотренных идей технологического детерминизма в прикладном подходе к управлению. С уважением, Л.И.Мороз

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Довольно познавательная и высоконаучная работа!

Петрухина Елена Владимировна

Данное исследование очень актуально в настоящее время. Интересен междисциплинарный технико-экономический стык. Желаю дальнейших творческих успехов в данном направлении!

Тойво Таннинг

Dear Vitaliy Omelyanenko, Your work - DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY COMPONENTS BASED ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONALISM IDEAS - is actual and intense. With a wish of creative successes and for best salutatory, Toivo Tanning

Омельяненко Виталий

Dear Toivo Tanning, thank you for your interest in my research. Best regards, Vitaliy Omelyanenko
Партнеры
 
 
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