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Process and problems of youth policy Institutionalization in Russia

Process and problems of youth policy Institutionalization in Russia
Сергей Чирун, профессор, доктор социологических наук, кандидат , доцент

Кемеровский государственный университет, Россия

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Россия";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

The article examines the domestic experience of institutionalization of youth policy, comparative analysis is carried out, basic characteristics, structural and functional elements, levels and connections, its content-historical aspect and paradoxes of reformation are revealed.

Keywords: youth policy, state youth policy, youth legislation.

 

In the USSR existed rather effective, from the point of view of realization put by society and party of tasks, youth policy. The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (AULYCL) and the Soviet bodies were reliable mechanisms of realization of that policy for youth which was enabled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Therefore in documents of the CPSU the thought that the party conducts work with youth through institutional structures of the AULYCL was persistently carried out.[1] In 1968 the Central Committee of the CPSU in the resolution "About the 50 Anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League and Problems of Communistic Education of Youth" emphasized need of obligatory participation at all levels of management of committees of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in discussion and the solution of questions of education, a training, rest and life of the younger generation. [2]

Actually activity of the AULYCL was directed to performance of function of public administration. The organization was accurately structured, had the representations not only on a territorial sign, but also on production. The AULYCL was considered financially and organizationally as structure, independent of the state, and at the same time the state paid expenses for operation of its numerous real estate.[3]

The structure of the AULYCL pursuing policy of realization of the state youth policy looked as follows. The Komsomol had collegial and representative body of the power – a congress at the republican and all-Union levels, a plenum – at the regional, city and regional levels. In primary organizations conferences or general meetings were (at the factory level) held.

In the 70th years in structure of Councils of all levels the youth commissions are formed. As a rule, they were represented by heads of the AULYCL organizations.[4]

In life of youth tells about a role of the AULYCL, for example, the following fact: only in 1987 in the USSR about 1500 acts and decisions of the Government of the USSR which had standard value for Komsomol worked, and the Komsomol considered them in the decisions and work.

Disagreements which arose at governing bodies of Komsomol with bodies of the executive government were solved, as a rule, not through court, and by means of the appeal to party bodies [5]. Using the right of an initiation of bills, the Central Committee of the AULYCL made additions to the laws considered by the Supreme Council of the USSR. In 1989 the state gave Komsomol the right of promotion of the representatives on a youth quota in People's Deputies of the Supreme Council of the USSR.

The hierarchy of administrative structures in Komsomol promoted rotation of a large number of the prepared shots for needs of legislative and executive power as it was the comprehensive organization with broad coverage of the Soviet youth. Existence of legal fixing in the Constitution of the USSR [6] of status positions of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League attached almost sacral significance to the fact of belonging to this organization – monopolist in the sphere of youth policy. Conditions of an episteme did superfluous standard categorial a connotation of youth policy and the concept “youth policy” of the USSR was not used, there was also no youth policy of standard and legal base accompanying implementation. However the idea of the law on youth policy was not new in the USSR. Such law at the initiative of the Central Committee of the CPSU was prepared twice: in 1968 and 1977, but both times they were rejected by opponents from the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Supreme Council of the USSR.[7]

So, for example, after adoption in 1977 of the new Constitution of the USSR, the Komsomol in an initiative order developed and offered the Supreme Council of the USSR the draft of such law. It contained the offer all policy of the CPSU for younger generation to present in the uniform document – “The law on youth” that already took place in capitalist and some socialist countries.[8] In particular, such laws were adopted in DDR, Hungary, Poland and in Cuba.[9]

However this problem was not recognized urgent, but the circle of problems which state agencies could solve with participation or with a condition of preliminary approval of the AULYCL League was significantly expanded.[10]

Though, for objectivity, it is possible to specify creation of the Youth Commissions of the Supreme Council of the USSR and the Supreme Councils of the republics as a positive consequence of these initiatives. Once again the document in which reasons about that why this law is necessary were stated and what it has to be sent to the Central Committee on March 18, 1987 I. M. Ilyinsky running Research Center at the AULYCL.[11]

Introduction of the new ideas into the developed system of work with youth took place with huge difficulties what the largest specialist in questions of youth policy I. M. Ilyinsky wrote about: "In many offices of heads of the Central Committee of Komsomol and the Central Committee of party the idea of youth policy was met with irony and irritation. Often I was told: ”Nonsense. Heresy”. All who got used to trim the sails to the wind immediately caught mood of “tops”. With “machine gun fire” “well-wishers” – anonymous authors and open enemies whom at me was enough struck. The next attack of envy happened at colleagues from “shop” from other Moscow scientific institutions. They began to look for strenuously arguments contra and is frequent at all not because the idea but because “again this Ilyinsky was bad...”.[12]

Komsomol and party functionaries explained the counteraction to I. M. Ilyinsky's initiatives with the following arguments:

1.”Why in the USSR some special policy for youth is necessary if there is a party which cares for youth? If there is an AULYCL? You want to tell that the Komsomol does not cope with the tasks?”.

2. “May you tell, in Marx, Engels, Lenin's what works or any of heads of party in what party documents the term "youth policy", especially state occurs?”.

3. “The policy is the relations. Relations between classes, nations, states. And here relations between the state and youth? Then it is necessary to recognize “children's policy”, “female policy”, “veteran policy”... “The public youth policy” is an invention, originality”.

4. “It is illegal to divide society on an age sign, to talk some special politics for youth. Thereby you put it in a privileged position. You want to bring up dependents? It does not correspond to spirit of our society. The youth has to receive training through overcoming vital difficulties”.

5. “You understand that emergence of the public youth policy (if that arises) as special and independent activity of the state will lead to emergence of system of public authorities on implementation of this policy with the central governing body at the head, to redistribution of spheres of influence and functions between this department and Komsomol? What will it inevitably lead to decrease in a role of the AULYCL in life of society? What does it contradict installations of party on increase in a role of Komsomol in life of society? You lowering a role of Komsomol in society? Or perhaps you want to disorganize it in general?”. [13]

I. M. Ilyinsky formulated a certain tree of the purposes as the tool of the statement of the idea of “youth policy” in governing bodies:

1) To achieve that the idea of youth policy was officially supported by “tops”: for a start - the Central Committee of the AULYCL, then – the Secretariat or the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU the term “youth policy” was included in official documents of the Central Committee of the CPSU of a congress that it began to be used in party magazines.

2) On the basis of already being available materials and new researches of our Research center to show the scale, depth and sharpness of crisis of youth, sharpness of a youth problem, and also threats which are concealed by this process.[14]

3) To study foreign experience of implementation of youth policy.

4) To take out a youth problem, the idea of youth policy and the Law on youth on television and radio, on pages of newspapers and magazines. Work on preparation of the Law on youth of a message it is opened, in the face of the youth and society, reporting to them through mass media about all main moments of this work, to look for allies among progressive journalists.

5) Ultimate goal of tactics – adoption by the Supreme Council of the USSR of the Law on youth in which the basic principles and the directions of youth policy would be established the organizational legal mechanism of its realization and т.п would be outlined.[15]

The specified strategy yielded concrete results. And at the XX congress of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League the idea of the Law on youth in the performance was supported by the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU M. S. Gorbachev: “... The idea stated at a congress about development and adoption of law on youth seems to us reasonable. Let's consider this question. Obviously, the law on youth has to strengthen even more guarantees of the rights of young men and girls in all areas of public life of the country. Even if in this Law to aggregate all that works today, already available rights and duties of youth, then this in itself will already have huge value. But it is possible to bring, certainly, in the text of the Law and new taking into account that delegates of a congress spoke, and what prompts life”.[16]

Gorbachev wrote to the publications "Reorganization and New Thinking for Our Country and for the Whole World": "I support the idea of the law on youth in which, without repeating all that concerns to all Soviet citizens, it would be possible to isolate specially specific problems, the rights and duties of young men and girls. The law on youth will allow to concretize interaction of Komsomol with public authorities, labor unions and other organizations in questions of study, work, life, rest of young people. It lifts responsibility of the ministries and departments at the solution of the questions affecting youth".[17]

After that the term "youth policy" in the USSR receives the general use. So, the XXI congress of Komsomol which took place in April, 1990 not only supported the main directions of the public youth policy, but also defined participation in creation of the mechanism of realization of youth policy in the USSR as the most important activity of Komsomol.[18]

In the State committee of the USSR on work and social problems Management on youth policy is created. The Youth Commissions were formed in Bureau on social development of Council of ministers of the USSR, in the Central Committee of the CPSU. And the XXVIII congress of the CPSU adopts the special resolution "About youth policy of the CPSU".[19]

For the first time discussion of the law in the first reading took place in the Kremlin on April 9, 1990 at ten o'clock of morning on joint sitting of Council of the Union and Soviet of Nationalities. The Chairman of VS USSR A. N. Lukyanov presided.

Discussion of the bill in the second reading took place from 10 o'clock in the morning in the Kremlin on April 8, 1991. The conclusion under the bill was signed by Committee of the Supreme Council on youth policy, Committee on the legislation, Committee on affairs of women, protection of a family, motherhood and childhood, Committee on national education and education. There were 406 deputies, representatives of the youth organizations.

The law on youth policy was adopted on April 16, 1991 at the fifth session by the Supreme Council of the USSR and signed by the President of the USSR M. S. Gorbachev, and already on May 6 it was published in the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda. From this point it became legal fundamentals of the public youth policy in the USSR. In June, 1991 the resolution of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League Central Committee Bureau to I. Ilyinsky, S. Aleshchenk, V. Lukov, D. Pollyeva and S. Puginsky awarded an award of Lenin Komsomol in the field of science "For active and fruitful work on preparation of the Law of USSR "About the general beginnings of the public youth policy in the USSR".

In Committee on affairs of youth of the Supreme Council of the USSR 39 people's deputies were presented. From them 16 represented Komsomol. The committee included 7 subcommittees, including on problems of formation and development of the personality, a social and economic perspective, on students problems, on problems of soldiers internationalists and army youth, on the children's and junior movement, on control of performance of the legislation regarding youth. Also emergence of the first specialized structures in the executive authority testified to the beginning of transition to new model of policy for youth. In 1990 as a part of the State Committee on work and social problems of the USSR Management on MT under the leadership of E. D. Katulsky for the first time appears.[20]

Significantly also legislative activity of young deputies and in respect of development of the private bills infringing on interests of youth became more active. For work optimization deputies from the AULYCL created seven commissions, among them there are commissions on problems of education and culture, and also problems of youth policy. Heads of the commissions created Coordination Council under the leadership of A. V. Sharonov, nowadays the Rector of the Moscow school of management to Skolkovo, and at that time the secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League.

The resolution of Presidium of the Supreme Council of RSFSR creates on July 30, 1991 an odina from the first institutional structures of SYP – the State committee of RSFSR on youth policy. It was headed by A. V. Sharonov. But only on October 5 the same year in the resolution of Council of ministers "Questions of the State Committee of RSFSR on youth policy" the provision on Committee, its structure and number was approved (65 people).[21]

Along with allied level, began to join the youth legislation also in federal republics. Considering national and confessional traditions of the ethnoses and the people living in the territory of the state, legislature of federal republics considered as the main imperative of YP: education at youth of careful attitude to cultural heritage of the people, their traditions and spiritual continuity of generations.[22]

However the mainstream of destructive centrifugal processes which were endured at that time by political system could not but be reflected in youth policy.

In September, 1991 in Moscow the XXII Extraordinary congress of the AULYCL at which it was claimed that "the AULYCL sputtered out as the political all-Union organization took place and has to be dismissed, and various associations, associations as self-determination" have to become his assignees.[23]

In the conditions of reorganization of public authorities of Russia there is a question of Committee of RSFSR on youth policy which was reorganized on November 10, 1991 with transfer of function into the Ministry of national education. Thereby owing to liquidation of the State Committee on youth policy vacuum in its realization was formed.

However under pressure of for the present rather weak institutes of civil society, an asset of the youth organizations and movements (RSM, etc.) on January 29, 1992 B. N. Yeltsin nevertheless signed the Order "About the plenipotentiary of the Government of the Russian Federation for youth.[24]

Were among the main objectives of the Plenipotentiary preparation of the annual report to the government, ensuring the coordinated activity of the ministries and departments of the Russian Federation in the field of YP. In government office the institute of the plenipotentiary of the Government of the Russian Federation for youth with staff of 14 employees is created.[25]

Then the presidential decree of 16.08.1992 created Committee of the Russian Federation for youth. During this period there is an essential activization of activity of young activists. In June, 1992 the campaign of a youth asset to Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin and the subsequent communication with the Secretary of Mr. Burbulis will be organized.[26] Also on June 21-28, 1992 the youth public action "the Letter to the President" is carried out.

Efforts of youth activists brought certain results, so following the results of the summer Olympic Games of 1992 the Russian President signed the Decree on creation at the Government of the Russian Federation of body for affairs of youth and to physical training of the population.

The Russian President's meetings with youth activists on August 1 and on September 4, 1992 led to a persmotr of the idea of final liquidation of Committee, and it was reorganized into the Youth Commission of the Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation under the chairmanship of V. A. Lysenko.[27]

Signing in September, 1992 by Yeltsin B. N. became a result of public activity. The presidential decree of the Russian Federation of 16.09.1992 No. 1075

about prime measures in the field of the public youth policy. [28]  The Decree on reorganization of federal organs of the executive authority and Committee on affairs of youth is also signed becomes federal organ.[29]

Realization of the public youth policy (SYP) in the Presidential decree of the Russian Federation was called one of the priority directions of social and economic policy of the state which had to include: "Ensuring compliance with the rights of young citizens, establishment of guarantees for them in the sphere of work and employment, assistance of their entrepreneurial activity; creation of the conditions aimed at the physical and spiritual development of youth, implementation of support of a young family". This decree was a certain significant milestone in the course of an institutionalization in the Russian Federation of the public youth policy (SYP). However in the conditions of a legal anomy,[30]acute social and economic crisis and political instability federal laws, decrees and orders on places often were just ignored, and practice of alienation of the rooms intended for education and education of children who then were sold to commercial structures gained distribution.[31]

In January, 1993 the Council of ministers of the Russian Federation approved the Provision on Committee of the Russian Federation for youth. In this Situation the Committee of the Russian Federation for youth was allocated with the rights of the legal entity and was defined as the central body of the federal executive authority which is carrying out state regulation and interindustry coordination in the sphere of YP of the Russian Federation.[32]

However activity of federal institute of SYP was at a loss its permanent reorganization. So, in January, 1994 it was reorganized into Committee of the Russian Federation for youth, to physical culture and tourism,[33] but in five months Yeltsin returned to committee the old name – Committee of the Russian Federation for youth.[34]

In June, 1994 the Council for affairs of youth at the Russian President which existed till April, 2000 was created.[35]

In 1996 in the State Duma the Committee on affairs of women, family and youth was formed,[36]which in a consequence prepared the bill "About the Main Directions of the Public Youth Policy in the Russian Federation" of 1999. In December, 1996 the post of the head of committee was held by the former representative of Komsomol elite of Kuzbass T. V. Novikova.[37]

However took place and popyatny tendencies, so the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation (after reorganization of the Office and change of the Chairman) in April, 1998. The committee on affairs of youth was abolished.[38]The new structure – Department for youth was created. This structure was not independent now, and was subordinated to the Ministry of Labour and social development of the Russian Federation.[39]This decision was not passed for discussions, was not agreed and caused a negative resonance among youth functionaries. With the special address to the Russian President about restoration of Committee the State Duma addressed.[40]

The state committee of the Russian Federation for youth was restored in September, 1998. Then, in May, 1999, it was reorganized into the State committee on youth policy, and V. I. Denikin was appointed its chairman.[41]

In May, 2000 the State Committee was again abolished by the Presidential decree of the Russian Federation [42]also the Department on youth policy, but now within the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation was created. The department was headed by the former deputy of A. V. Sharonov – G. V. Kupriyanova, and the deputy minister of education Yu. V. Kovrizhnykh supervised his activity.[43] Same year, for the purpose of coordination of efforts of various ministries, Government commission for youth under the chairmanship of the Deputy Prime Minister of the Government of the Russian Federation V. I. Matveenko was formed. Then the changed tendencies not so much even in internal how many in foreign policy of the Russian Federation, demanded adoption of new political decisions, and again recreated on October 10, 2007[44] The state committee of the Russian Federation for youth was headed by the leader of radical pro-Kremlin youth movement "Nashi" V. G. Yakemenko (1971) who played an essential role preventions of the "orange" scenario of development of the political process in Russia expected by many political scientists at the beginning of 2008.

The extreme number of workers of the office of the State committee of the Russian Federation for youth in number of 50 units was established.[45]

However after it was succeeded to avoid "the orange scenario" and continuity of the power, already V. V. Putin's receiver, the former Russian President D. A. Medvedev was provided, found it possible to change the status so odious for many both "at the left", and "on the right" a political figure, and on July 6, 2008 V. G. Yakemenko was appointed the head of Federal Agency for Youth Affairs[46], which belonged to the Ministry of Sport, tourism and youth policy now.[47] The structure of the Rosmolodezh agency was presented by three managements: Management of placement of the state order and reporting under actions in the sphere of SYP; Management of planning of projects, programs in the sphere YP and Administration. The structure of each management functioned 3, 2 departments are more rare.[48]

Praktcheski at once to V. G. Yakimenko serious claims appeared, both from civil society and opposition, and from the government. Among other it was criticized for: the damage of reputation and to image suffered in the context of publicity in media of investigation by law enforcement agencies of activity of “Akbars” LLP;[49] alleged participation in the organization of beating, and also public insults to the journalist O. Kashin; the President's misinformation, in particular, concerning efficiency of the program of physical training of school students. [50]

Winter 2011 spring of 2012 showed serious political and tactical miscalculations of the management of Federal Agency for Youth Affairs, loss of trust and popularity among young people, loss of influence on a youth asset, and on June 13, 2012 the Russian Prime Minister D. A. Medvedev signed the Decree on V. G. Yakemenko's dismissal from a post of the head of Federal Agency for Youth Affairs[51], and on June 26, 2012 the head of Federal Agency for Youth Affairs Belokonev Sergey Yuryevich, 1977, the candidate of political sciences was appointed the order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1082-r,[52] former commissioner and ideologist of MD "Our" and former secretary of regional separation of the Smolensk region United Russia parties.[53] At the specified position S.Yu. Belokonev was up to 14.03.2014 when he was replaced by the cochairman of Coordination council of "the Young Guard of the United Russia" S. V. Pospelov.[54]The sharp criticism in the Government of the Russian Federation and the State Duma of the project of Strategy for development of youth policy till 2025 became one of the resignation reasons, according to expert information. Let's note that this project was subjected to severe criticism from an asset of MGER and is called "crude".[55]

The discussion of scientists and practicians came to the end with the statement of "Fundamentals of the public youth policy till 2025".[56]

For the entire period of an institutionalizing of the public youth policy in the Russian Federation only four years of SYP it was carried out within actually "youth" profile ministry.

The Ministry of Sport, Tourism and Youth Policy of the Russian Federation from 12.05.2008 for 21.05.2012 was headed by Vitaly Leontyevich Mutko (1958). 5 deputy ministers and one secretary of state the deputy minister supervising in turn activity of 9 departments were under his supervision including:[57]Department of public policy in the sphere of physical culture and sport; Department of public policy in the sphere of elite sport; Department of science, innovative policy and education; Department of tourist activity and international cooperation; Department of youth policy and public relations; Department of the budgetary and financial policy; Department of economy, investment policy and management of a state-owned property; Accounting department, reporting and control and auditing activity; Department of standard and legal support of public policy. Also there is a Department of administration supervised directly by the minister. Subordinated in the ministry the Federal Tourism Agency and Federal Agency for Youth Affairs had the status.

Then on May 21, 2012 the next restructuring took place. The Ministry of Sport, Tourism and Youth Policy of the Russian Federation is transformed by the presidential decree of the Russian Federation to the Ministry of Sport of the Russian Federation, at the same time functions on development of youth policy are transferred to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.[58]

В структуре последнего был создан Департамент дополнительного образования детей, воспитания и молодёжной политики (ныне Департамент государственной политики в сфере воспитания детей и молодёжи), директором которого стал Страдзе Александр Эдуардович  1966 г. р., [59] defended in 2008 the kanditatsky dissertation "Transformation of the public youth policy in modern Russia".[60]

In regional GMP for 2010 worked: 31 ministries (from them 2 on youth policy, 29 combined); 14 departments (from them 2 on youth policy, 12 combined); 22 committees (from them 11 on youth policy, 11 combined); 12 managements (from them 3 for youth, 9 combined); 4 agencies (from them 3 for youth, 1 combined). And infrastructure providing SYP was presented by activities of 174 public institutions for work with youth.[61]

At the federal and regional levels the purposes of the public youth policy are established and corrected. Achievement of the objectives is based on the basis of program and target approach and is expressed in implementation of the federal Program "Youth of Russia". Since 1994 practice of adoption of the federal youth target program became traditional,[62] in 1996 this program receives the status of presidential.[63]The federal target program "Youth of Russia (1998-2000)" approved by the Resolution No. 746 of the Government of the Russian Federation of June 18, 1997,[64] in August, 1997 it received the status of presidential [65]. Then the program was prolonged till 2000. In the spring of 2001 the Federal target program "Youth of Russia" for 2001 - 2005 was approved by the Government of the Russian Federation.[66]

Now the FTP "Youth of Russia" for 2011-2015 is complete.[67]

Efficiency of the public youth policy in the Russian Federation is influenced by not completely created SYP standard and legal base. In June, 1993 the resolution of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation "About the main directions of the public youth policy in the Russian Federation" was accepted.[68]

From the legal point of view, "The main directions" were not the act, and represented "… conceptual provisions on the basis of which the public youth policy in Russia is formed and carried out. The purposes and the principles of such policy were the general for all levels of the government and management. Implementation of measures in the field of the public youth policy in Russia was enabled by state governing bodies on the basis of the regulations and programs adopted according to competence".[69]

The possibility of adoption of law was initially considered, but the opinion according to which it is more expedient to issue "The main directions" the resolution of the Supreme Council as a result prevailed. In such status it in July, 1992 was taken out on Presidium of Russian Armed Forces.[70]

From subjects of the Russian Federation 29 conclusions were sent to the project of "The main directions", from them 27 were positive. In general the project was estimated positively, but by committees "by the legislation", to "affairs of women", and also the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation drew the negative conclusions. It preceded representation by the Russian President of the version of the project of "The main directions of the public youth policy in the Russian Federation" prepared by the working group under the leadership of the Deputy Prime Minister B. G. Saltykov. After introduction of presidential version of the project of "The main directions" collaboration of Committee on affairs of youth of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation and Committee on affairs of youth at the Government of the Russian Federation will be organized. As a result it was succeeded to resolve the arisen contradictions and the consolidated option was submitted on October 15, 1992 for parliamentary hearings. Many questions of youth found reflection in the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation "About additional measures of support of youth of the Russian Federation" of April 3, 1996. About five years in the State Duma of the Russian Federation prepared, then there passed one behind another of hearing the bill on Youth policy. In particular, in April, 1999 the federal law "About Physical Culture and Sport in the Russian Federation" was adopted.[71]After it in June, 1999 the imminent law "About Bases of System of Prevention of Neglect and Offences of Minors" was adopted long ago.[72]

The Federal law "About Fundamentals of the Public Youth Policy in the Russian Federation" preparing for a long time, was adopted by the State Duma on June 23, approved by Council of Federations[73], but on it B. N. Yeltsin imposed the presidential veto,[74] according to part 3 of article 107 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, referring to the fact that the bill was prepared without provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and other regulations of the Russian Federation, and the main chapter of the law "Priorities of the Public Youth Policy in the Russian Federation" according to the contents had character of the program document, i.e. standard of articles of this chapter either are declared, or have no realization mechanism. A number of provisions of the bill represented citing the constitutional norms that is inadmissible.[75]And already in half a year also the State Committee on youth policy was abolished. To authors of the bill information repeatedly was led up that in Presidential Administration are firmly sure of uselessness of such law.[76]

The condition of youth policy in Russia in its standard and legal model was reflected in materials of parliamentary hearings "Problem of youth and a way of their legislative regulation" to the State Duma of the Russian Federation in November, 2004.[77] The majority of the norms devoted to a youth and social perspective were cancelled in August, 2004 by the Act of the Russian Federation No. 122, and their content received compensation in the industry legislation. But these normative documents are obviously not enough therefore the need for the federal law "About Youth" periodically becomes aggravated. The following attempts of adoption of the Federal Law are connected with the Federal Laws projects No. 428343-4 (2007) and No. 340548-6 (2013) which and remained projects as received the negative decisions (the Government of the Russian Federation (No. 4962 p-44 of 26.08.2013). In 2014 the next attempt was made, the bill No. 663594-6 "About youth policy in the Russian Federation" was offered. However this bill did not get support in special-purpose committee of the State Duma.[78]The question of a subject of regulation of this law is difficult: attempts to dilute its contents with tax, pension, labor, housing and other concessions as they are objects of regulation of regulations of the relevant branches of the right are initially stopped.[79] As a result a powerful part of basic provisions of GMP up to the present contained in numerous acts of subordinate character, including the departmental legal acts, etc.

 In December, 2001 Government commission approved the Concept of the public youth policy in the Russian Federation.[80] However its legal status is uncertain, and the contents including five sections – rather declarative. In 2002 the draft of the Doctrine of the public youth policy, Oriented for the term of realization from 2003 to 2013 is developed.[81]The doctrine assumed formation of available system of services, offers, the projects helping youth in the course of social formation. At it there was a requirement existence of basic social standards in providing youth with services though these standards were not developed and approved yet. As a result the Doctrine was expected by the same fate, as the concept of YP preceding it, that is the main part of the declared directions and tasks remained only in the form of declarations, and legal status of the document is characterized by high uncertainty.

This uncertainty probably also led to the fact that in the fall of 2005 the new document in the sphere of SYP – the Strategy of SYP Russian Federation appears.[82] Strategy, having incorporated seven sections, formulated design approach in realization of SYP. However, already accepted document repeatedly was corrected. Only in 2009 amendments No. 251-r and of 16.07.2009 No. 997-r were twice made of 28.02.2009 to it., which could not eliminate publicist stylistics and defects of the categorical conceptual framework used in Strategy.

Accepted in 2014. "Fundamentals of the public youth policy till 2025"[83] include four sections: I. General provisions; II. Basic principles of realization of the public youth policy; III. Purposes and priority problems of the public youth policy; IV. Mechanisms of realization of the public youth policy. The document states uncertainty of limits of youth age, expanding possible borders of a youth 35 for years and further. Besides, besides chronological age in this document are referred to criteria of a youth: features, social position, and also specific interests and values. 

Experience of realization of SYP showed that more accurate legal mechanism of differentiation of powers in the sphere of YP between the federal center, regions and local government bodies is necessary. Today, Laws on youth policy work in 72 territorial subjects of the Russian Federation. According to the regional youth legislation by which it is necessary to be guided in the absence of the federal frame Law Russians aged from 14 up to 30 years treat youth (inclusive)[84]. But, in opinion, considerable number of experts, it is expedient to prolong youth age to 35 (in certain cases 40 years) that actually and occurs so far as concerns young scientists[85] or about a young family [86].

In the Russian Federation young people from 14 years receive passports. From this point it is possible to work on hiring and to sign contracts. At this age there is an opportunity to be a part of youth parliament, and also to enter youth social and political association[87].

At the same time, only since 21 the young man can be elected to a position of the head of the municipality [88], and also in regional parliaments and in the State Duma of the Russian Federation [89]. From 30 years the citizen of the Russian Federation has the right to be the elected senator in Council of Federations [90]and head of one of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation. The Russian President to become possible since 35 years [91].

Also "SYP Russian Federation bases till 2025" according to which Youth as the social and demographic group "includes persons from 14 to 30 years, and in certain cases, determined by regulations of the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation, up to 35 and more years" do not clear up delimitation of youth age in our country.[92]

The official historiography of SYP made by professor Nekhayevy V. V. and posted on the website of the ministry,[93] truly reproduces chronological milestones of an institutionalizing of the Russian SYP(u), avoiding, however, to give interpretations, explanations, to range the importance of events and, besides, being excessively accented on formality of presence, participation of the top officials of the state. The public youth policy of the Russian Federation reacts, but with an essential delay, delay on urgent political processes, burning issues in YP.

Today standard and legal registration of youth policy at the federal level is extremely poorly presented, in particular, there is no legislative fixing of category "youth" and criteria of reference to this category. The regular transformation of federal organ, its functions which became already traditional, structural subordination, degree of responsibility for realization of youth policy, reshuffling did not promote optimization of SYP at all. Also conceptual registration of YP as the concepts existing today in the Russian Federation (provisions, doctrines, strategy) YP differ in eclecticism, not systemacity, a fragmentariness needs further improvement, optimization and often even contradict each other.

In the conditions of a postmodern we will refer visualization and virtualization of youth technologies, methods of work with youth to the main transformations of youth policy; alienation by youth of traditional criteria of the authority and modernist rationality; updating of processes of globalization and a globalization in youth policy: development of the international youth cooperation, the increasing mobility of youth.

It should be noted the fact that processes of transition are not complete, all new changes in character and in approaches to youth policy will be observed.

 


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[31] Юридическая газета. 1992. № 29-30.

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[37] Постановление Правительства РФ от 24.12.1996 г. № 1543 «О Председателе Государственного комитета Российской Федерации по делам молодежи» // СЗРФ.1997. № 2. Ст. 276.

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[39] Там же.

[40] Постановление Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания РФ от 14.05.1998 г. № 2452-II ГД «Об обращении Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации «К Президенту Российской Федерации в связи с Указом Президента Российской Федерации от 30 апреля 1998 г. № 483 «О структуре федеральных органов исполнительной власти» // СЗ РФ,  1998. № 21. Ст. 2202

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[42]СЗ РФ.2000. №21. ст.2368.

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[44]Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 27 октября 2007 г. № 706. 

[45] Там же.

[46]Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 29 мая 2008 г. №  409.

[47] Постановлений Правительства РФ от 13.10.2008 № 753.

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[51]Политика - Портал Under World

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[54]Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 13 марта 2014 года № 357-р.

[55]Молодежный клуб «Единой России» обсудил Стратегию развития молодежи. Единая Россия. Режим доступа: http://er.ru/news/2013/12/16/molodezhnyj-klub-edinoj-rossii-obsudil-strategiyu-razvitiya-molodezhi/.

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[60]Страдзе А. Э. Трансформация государственной молодежной политики в современной России. Автореф. дис. … канд. соц. наук. Саратов, 2008 .

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[62] Указ Президента РФ от 15.09.1994 г. № 1922 // СЗРФ.1994. № 22. Ст. 2459.

[63] Указ Президента РФ от 15.05.1996 г. № 716 «О президентской программе «Молодежь России» // Собр. законодательства РФ. 1996. № 21. Ст. 5214.

[64]СЗРФ. № 26, 30 июня 1997. ст.5051-5079.

[65]СЗРФ. 1997. №ЗЗ.ст.3863.

[66]Постановление Правительства РФ от 29.05.2002 № 363.

[67] СЗРФ.07.03.2011, N 10, ст. 1377.

[68] Постановление ВС РФ «Об основных направлениях государственной молодёжной политики в РоссийскойФедерации, № 5090-1 от 3 июня 1993 г. // Ведомости Съезда народных депутатов РФ и Верховного Совета РФ. 1993- № 25. ст. 903.

[69] Там же.

[70] Распоряжение Президента РФ «О назначении официального представителя Президента Российский Федерации при рассмотрении Верховным Советом Российской Федерации проекта «Основных направлении государственной молодёжной политики в России », № 595-рп от 2 октября 1992 г. М., 1992.

[71] Российская газета  1999, 6 мая.

[72] СЗРФ. 1999. № 26. ст.3177.

[73]Постановление Совета Федерации о ФЗ «Об основах государственной молодежной политики в Российской Федерации» от 11 ноября 1999 г. №442-СФ.

[74] Письмо Президента Федеральному Собранию  № Пр-1552 от 25 ноября 1999 года.

[75] Там же.

[76] Ильинский И. М. Молодежь и молодежная политика. С. 471.

[77]Стенограмма парламентских слушаний на тему: «Проблемы молодежи и пути их законодательного регулирования». 22 ноябри 2004 г. М.,  2004. 77 с.

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Воропаева Татьяна Сергеевна

Уважаемый Сергей Чирун! Вы написали фундаментальную статью, которая подтверждает Вашу высокую компетентность не только в сфере молодежной политики. Глубокий анализ поставленной проблемы дает возможность оптимизировать методы и технологии работы с современной молодежью. Желаю Вам дальнейших успехов в научной работе! С уважением, Воропаева Т.

Чирун Сергей

Благодарю Вас, уважаемая Татьяна Сергеевна, за комментарий и интерес к моей статье.

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Замечательная и глубоко проработанная исследовательская работа! Тематика молодёжной политики опосредуется и в актуальных управленческих решениях Президента РФ, что повышает актуальность настоящей аналитической работы.
Комментарии: 3

Воропаева Татьяна Сергеевна

Уважаемый Сергей Чирун! Вы написали фундаментальную статью, которая подтверждает Вашу высокую компетентность не только в сфере молодежной политики. Глубокий анализ поставленной проблемы дает возможность оптимизировать методы и технологии работы с современной молодежью. Желаю Вам дальнейших успехов в научной работе! С уважением, Воропаева Т.

Чирун Сергей

Благодарю Вас, уважаемая Татьяна Сергеевна, за комментарий и интерес к моей статье.

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Замечательная и глубоко проработанная исследовательская работа! Тематика молодёжной политики опосредуется и в актуальных управленческих решениях Президента РФ, что повышает актуальность настоящей аналитической работы.
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