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ISSUES OF FREEDOM, JUSTICE AND NECESSARY COERCION

ISSUES OF FREEDOM, JUSTICE AND NECESSARY COERCION
Таннинг Тойво, докторант

Tallinn School of Economics, Эстония

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Эстония";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

This publication aims is analysing at issues of freedom, justice and necessary coercion in the course of the public relations regulation by the or of Ralf Dahrendorf.

Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf (1929 - 2009) was German-British sociologist, political scientist and modern liberal politician. He was in the United Kingdom known as Sir Dahrendorf.  He was considered one of the founding authors of the "Social Conflict Theory" [1].A class conflict theorist, Dahrendorf was a leading expert on explaining and analyzing class divisions in modern society, and is regarded as "one of the most influential thinkers of his generation". He wrote multiple articles and books, his most notable being Class Conflict in Industrial Society (1959) [2-3] and Essays in the Theory of Society (1968) [4].

Keywords: Dahrendorf, social conflict, roles in society, flux and dissension, responsibility, "order takers" and "order-givers", Quasi and Interest Groups, freedom, justice and necessary coercion.

 

In his famous book, [2-3] Dahrendorf argues, that Karl Marx defines class and class struggle too narrowly and criticizes the historical context of this takes place within. Instead of describing the fundamental differences between classes in terms of poverty, says Dahrendorf, that power is distinctive. Society can therefore, in his opinion, be divided into "order takers" and "order-givers".

Theory ofsocial conflict of Dahrendorf

Conflict is natural result of any control system. The essence of social conflict is the difference in social positions and roles in society: some have the power and right to rule, others have no such privileges. A result is the intensification of contradictions inside.

However, conflicts in a society can be regulated and managed. To do this, there are social institutions that produce the rules of conduct for the parties. Overcoming conflict is divided into several stages: awareness of their interests opposing groups, the association and the redistribution of power. The result any conflict situation become a social change in the society.[2, 3, 5]

Ralf Dahrendorf’s conflict theory:"While structural functionalists tend to emphasize the orderliness and stability of society, conflict theorists like Ralf Dahrendorf characterize society as being in a state of flux and dissension. According to conflict theorists, coercion holds society together, not norms and value. He focused on the role of authority in society, which he viewed as involving the superordination and subordination of groups occupying particular positions within what he called imperatively coordinated associations. Groups within a given association are defined according to their specific interests. These interest groups have the potential to turn into conflict groups, and their actions can lead to changes in social structures." [2, 3, 5]                     

The Modern Social Conflict: the Politics of Liberty by Dahrendorf

Revolutions are melancholy moments in history brief gasps of hope that emerges from misery and disillusionment. This is true for great revolutions, like 1789 in France or 1917 in Russia, but applies to lesser political upheavals as well. Conflict builds into a state of tense confrontation, like a powder keg. When a spark is thrown, an explosion takes place and the old edifice begins to crumble. People are caught up in an initial mood of elation, but it does not last. Normality catches up. Why do revolutions occur? In this completely revised edition of The Modern Social Conflict, Ralf Dahrendorf explores the basis and substance of social and class conflict. Ultimately, he finds that conflicts are about enhancing life chances; that is, they concern the options people have within a framework of social linkages, the ties that bind a society, which Dahrendorf calls ligatures. The book offers a concise and accessible account of conflict's contribution to democracies, and how democracies must change if they are to retain their political and social freedom. This new edition takes conflict theory past the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and into the present day. [1]

Upon publication of the original 1988 edition [1], Stanley Hoffmann stated, Ralf Dahrendorf is one of the most original and experienced social and political writers of our time. This book is both a survey of social and political conflict in Western societies from the eighteenth century to the present and a tract for a new 'radical liberalism. Saul Friedländer wrote, that Ralf Dahrendorf has written a compelling book [1] the brilliant contribution of a convinced liberal to the study of conflict within contemporary democratic society. [6, 7]

The methodologyand the theoreticalbased are on theauthor's previous works[8, 10 – 13].

The Modern Social Conflictanalysis is veryextensive and here you can make only a few fragments. Assessment and analysis here is necessarily questionable.

Changes (fluxby Dahrendorf) and reforms will lead the society forward. However only if as they are effectives.Small European countries, including Estonia, those in authority often shifts rapidly. The new power elite want to show himself and make unwarranted changes in the change for its own sake. However, if the laws relating to business change quickly, this will cause severe uncertainty. Reduces the expansion of production, or start a new one and want to stay away from crowds of foreign investors.

Disagreements the company's leadership hamper business development. However, taking into account the recommendations of subordinates however carries on. But maybe also opposite: differences boss may be left without a job, especially in state-owned enterprises. Unfortunately, these are often the case that is to be a poorer (!). The result is stagnation or regression.

Constantly changingis also a human abilities, they will either evolve or regress. In the first case, the company's management should be promoted. Decline can be attributed to "remain complacent." In particular, it is strikingly apparent in elite sport, but also in science.

For example, publications articles in international pre-review journals.  The scientist should be based on what their research published. However, there are natural breaks and holidays. Man must both physically and mentally to relax. It is important to performance and can promote or hinder factors.

Next, look at issues of freedom, justice and necessary coercion in the course of the public relations regulation.Todayit all comes down to ethical principles, which have been herein part discussed.

Liberalismbrings freedom, but it is also responsibility [8, 14 - 19]. Howit isdoneand what related problems of liberal values versus responsibility in economy and science? Responsibility - it is a special relationship between the actions of the person (people, institutions), intentions and estimates of the effect of other people or society. The responsibility of liberal market economy and of in science, also motivation of its employees was reviewed in the previous work [8].

Howwe know how we want to use, and also obtained the freedom of liberalism?

The justice depends on quality of the laws, and this, in turn, from the lawgiver competency and ethical (responsibility) level. Indirectly, butf rom the science and higher education level.

Analysis of the necessary coercion in the course of the public relations regulation iscomplex and controversial.  Where is this permissible and impermissible limit? Let's look at few extreme examples.

Well-known were Stalin's mass repressions, which killed tens of millions of people. We condemn totalitarianism. But on the other hand, Stalin changed from the very low levels economy of the Soviet Union to Great German - Soviet War period to strong level economy, especially industry, a country that was able to produce enormous quantities of military equipment. Soviet military human and equipment losses were huge, but Soviet people were with heavy price the winner of the war. [18] Survived the bolsheviks power until the Soviet Union fell apart.    

However, much of the criticism is the Soviet period of punitive psychiatry. When healthy person is put forcefully in punitive psychiatry, then it is crime against humanity. But if this person is dangerous to others, then it should be just right.

Are sanctions for breaches of labor discipline and for scrap were justified? Some kinds ternness to be!  

Is the end justifies the means? Where was this permissible and impermissible limit?

From this comes up also the abuse of power. And not only distant the Soviet Union time, but especially today. It is also, unfortunately, exists in countries of Europe. Identified corruption, underhand tax, tax evasion, level not to meet people in high positions (stupid, lazy and greedy of power), and the like. Corruption destroys trust between the state and the citizen. 

What isthe responsibility of scienceand higher education towards society [8, 13]?

Actual topic is conflict management and dealing with them in higher education [13].

How toassess the level of scientists? As a rule international peer-reviewed publications and citations. More objective it would be when they are published in various regions of the world and in many different journals. In elite sport, the situation is simpler, more specific: several you are in the world.

Problems: strong corruption and negative conflict of interest. How do we assess it? If any scientist is decades old achievements, but very long term length of employment, and it has therefore become boss. Young successful scientists have direct competitors. An example is small country doctoral thesis defense problems.

There will be negativeconflict of interest of scientists. Research Ethics! Have this boss conscience allows him to maintain objectivity young, but subject to successful evaluation of the achievements? Again, it is very different people, and such decisions in black-and-white style does is not have correct to evaluate. Subjective moment here is inevitable.

Based onthe conflict of interest is lot of corruption and injustice in the science. In words all favour it, but it really is much more problems. In the information society is most important the know-how, which means education and experience[8]. This the correctness confirms in the world the richest countries practice.

Howto assess success of researchers? Their academic outputmerits. How to evaluate the success economists? Is it sufficient to international peer-reviewed publications and citations? There is much more of problems.

 

Discussion & Conclusions

v  In today the division of society by Dahrendorf be divided into "order takers" and "order-givers" is more appropriate.

v  The development of society helps to better clarify also theory of social conflict of Dahrendorf.

v  Changes (flux by Dahrendorf) and reforms will lead the society forward.

v  However, the some relative stability of the society is necessary.

v  Feeling of certainty to both businesses and individuals are still required.

v  Disagreements the company's leadership hamper business development. At the same time, however, leads to consideration of the recommendations of subordinates on.

v  Liberalism brings freedom, but it is also responsibility.

v  The justice depends on quality of the laws, and this, in turn, from the lawgiver competency and ethical (responsibility) level.

v  Certain compulsory is necessary. Some kind sternness to be! 

v  Where is this permissible and impermissible limit? This determines the ethical level of decision maker ("order-givers").

v  Actual topic is in today the conflict management and dealing with them in higher education,  also in science.

v  The liberalmarket economy is efficient, but is also fairly problems. Some of these are objective, others subjective.

v  The objective conditions -would have to be much more knowledgeable active people. The goal is not redistribution of wealth, but of wealth to create the necessary conditions.

v  Liberalismgives great freedom, but increases corruption.

v  Liberalismrequires more responsibility. How nurture and cultivatepeople's sense of responsibility?

v  What couldbe the ideal of liberalism? Ethical people, an ethical society!

v  The responsibility of the scientist is at present veryhigh.

v  In conclusion, on the basis of the above, we must behave so, that peace of the world and remove the injustice, of hatred, jealousy, etc. so that we can live with a clear conscience.

 

References:

  • 1.      Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1988) "The Modern Social Conflict". University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.

  • 2.      Dahrendorf, Ralf (1957). Soziale Klassen und Klassenkonflikt in der industriellen Gesellschaft. Enke, Stuttgart.

  • 3.      Dahrendorf, Ralf (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • 4.      Dahrendorf, Ralf (1968). Essays in the Theory of Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • 5.   Дарендорф, Ральф (1994). Элементы теории социального конфликта // Социологические исследования.  № 5, 142 - 147. ISSN 0132-1625.

  • 6.      Dahrendorf, Ralf. Conflict Theory. Last Updated: July 9, 2015. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/3210/resources/dahrendorf.htm 

  • 7.    Reviews (2008/2012). The Modern Social Conflict: The Politics of Liberty.  https://books.google.ee/books?id=_ooIx-Io3XsC&hl=et&sitesec=reviews

  • 8.      Tanning, Toivo (2016). Liberalism – freedom versus responsibility. GISAP: Economics, Jurisprudence and Management. IASHE. London, 23 - 26.

  • 9.  Dahrendorf, Ralf (1965). Gesellschaft und Demokratie in Deutschland. Piper, München/ Zürich. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesellschaft_und_Demokratie_in_Deutschland

  • 10.  Tanning, Toivo (2016). The liberal economic today. GISAP: Economics, Jurisprudence and Management. IASHE. London, 9, 33 - 36.  

  • 11.  Tanning, Lembo & Tanning, Toivo (2015). The Economic Crisis Lessons of Europe. LAP. Lambert Academic Publishing. Saarbrücken, Germany, 540.

  • 12. Tanning, Toivo (2015). The quality of life of former the Soviet Bloc countries. GISAP: Economics, Jurisprudence and Management. IASHE.London, 7, 18 - 21.

  • 13.  Tanning, Toivo (2006). Konfliktide juhtimine ja nendega toimetulek Tallinna  Majanduskooli  näitel (Conflict management and dealing with them…). Eesti  Maaülikool.

  • 14.  Дарендорф, Ральф (1997). Гражданская ответственность интеллектуалов: против нового страха перед просвещением // Полис (Политические исследования). № 6.

  • 15.  Лисанюк, Е. Н. & Перова В. Ю. (2014). Философия ответственности. Наука, 255.

  • 16.  Sveiby, Karl-Erik (1997). The new organizational wealth: managing & measuring knowledge-based assets. Berrett-Koehler. Stockholm http://www.sveiby.com.au/

  • 17. Carnegie, Dale (2014). How to Win Friends and Influence People. Public Domain Mark. https://archive.org/details/HowToWinFriendsAndInfluencePeopleDaleCarnegie

  • 18.  Tanning, Lembo (2006). Euroopa probleem – Teine maailmasõda (European problem - The Second World War). Tallinn, p 470.

  • 19.  Wissen, Wissenschaft und Verantwortung(2011). Verantwortung von Wissenschaft und Forschung in einer Globalisierten Welt. Lit-Verlag. Berlin, 209.

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Ваша оценка: Нет Средняя: 5.7 (6 голосов)
Комментарии: 6

Шаповалова Инна Сергеевна

Интересная статья, раскрывающая существующие и весьма актуальные конфликты. Интересен и авторский взгляд и некоторая научная горячность, с которой он проводит анализ. Хотелось бы видеть более расширенной формат анализа данной проблемы, возможно какую-то дискуссию мнений по затронутому вопросу.

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Замечательная аналитическая работа автора, выполненная на высоконаучном уровне. Особо интересно, что автор затрагивает институты юстиции с рамках общественных отношений. Отсылка на роль правотворчества в рамках правоприменения позволяет говорить о том, что автор совершенно верно говорит о компетенции законотворцов при создании различных нормативно-правовых актов.

Тойво Таннинг

Dear Evgenie Korolev! Thank you for appreciating my work and positive comment on it. Yours faithfully and wish of creative successes. Best regards Toivo Tanning

Тойво Таннинг

Dear Professor Aleksey Konovalov! Thank you for appreciating my work and positive comment on it. Yours faithfully and wish of creative successes. Best regards Toivo Tanning

Чирун Сергей

Статья весьма актуальна, поскольку посвящена острым вопросам разграничения свободы и справедливости, а также допустимости принуждения в процессе регулирования общественных отношений. Конфликт, согласно Ральфу Дарендорфу, является естественным и необходимым условие существования социальной системы, а суть конфликта заключается в различии социальных позиций и ролей в обществе. Таким образом дальнейшее совершенствование технологий управления социальными конфликтами является залогом успешной превенции деструктивных и разрушительных социальных процессов. Желаю автору дальнейших успехов в развитии теории социального конфликта!

Тойво Таннинг

Уважаемый доцент Сергей Чирун! Спасибо Вам за высокую оценку моей работы и позитивный комментарий к ней. С уважением и пожеланием творческих успехов. Тойво Taннинг
Комментарии: 6

Шаповалова Инна Сергеевна

Интересная статья, раскрывающая существующие и весьма актуальные конфликты. Интересен и авторский взгляд и некоторая научная горячность, с которой он проводит анализ. Хотелось бы видеть более расширенной формат анализа данной проблемы, возможно какую-то дискуссию мнений по затронутому вопросу.

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Замечательная аналитическая работа автора, выполненная на высоконаучном уровне. Особо интересно, что автор затрагивает институты юстиции с рамках общественных отношений. Отсылка на роль правотворчества в рамках правоприменения позволяет говорить о том, что автор совершенно верно говорит о компетенции законотворцов при создании различных нормативно-правовых актов.

Тойво Таннинг

Dear Evgenie Korolev! Thank you for appreciating my work and positive comment on it. Yours faithfully and wish of creative successes. Best regards Toivo Tanning

Тойво Таннинг

Dear Professor Aleksey Konovalov! Thank you for appreciating my work and positive comment on it. Yours faithfully and wish of creative successes. Best regards Toivo Tanning

Чирун Сергей

Статья весьма актуальна, поскольку посвящена острым вопросам разграничения свободы и справедливости, а также допустимости принуждения в процессе регулирования общественных отношений. Конфликт, согласно Ральфу Дарендорфу, является естественным и необходимым условие существования социальной системы, а суть конфликта заключается в различии социальных позиций и ролей в обществе. Таким образом дальнейшее совершенствование технологий управления социальными конфликтами является залогом успешной превенции деструктивных и разрушительных социальных процессов. Желаю автору дальнейших успехов в развитии теории социального конфликта!

Тойво Таннинг

Уважаемый доцент Сергей Чирун! Спасибо Вам за высокую оценку моей работы и позитивный комментарий к ней. С уважением и пожеланием творческих успехов. Тойво Taннинг
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