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TECHNOLOGICAL TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS IN THE CONTEXT OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK (HIGH-TECH CASE)

TECHNOLOGICAL TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS IN THE CONTEXT OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK (HIGH-TECH CASE)
Виталий Омельяненко, ассистент, ph.d. экономических наук

Сумской государственный университет, Украина

Кудрина Ольга, заведующий кафедрой, доктор экономических наук, доцент

Сумской государственный педагогический университет им. А.С. Макаренко, Украина

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Украина";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

УДК 339.13.017

 

The article deals with the analysis of technological trajectory, which is examined within the  innovation management and coordination of cooperation in the innovation system. Increasing integrity of the different technologies in the technological trajectory is caused by the multidisciplinary technologies and knowledge growth. The approaches for technological trajectory analysis, that give the new possibilities to manage innovation projects based on technologies development and transfer, were proposed.

Keywords: innovation system; technological trajectory; technology transfer; innovation, network, high-tech, sector, technology package.

В статье рассматриваются вопросы анализа технологической траектории как инструмента инновационного менеджмента и координации сотрудничества в инновационной системе. Показано, что повышение целостности различных технологий в рамках технологической траектории обусловлено мультидисциплинарностью технологий и роста знаний. Предложенные подходы к анализу технологической траектории дополнительно дают новые возможности для управления инновационными проектами на основе разработки и трансфера технологий.

Ключевые слова: инновационная система; технологическая траектория; трансфер технологий; инновации, сеть, высокие технологии, сектор, технологический пакет.

 

Introduction. The global innovation system determines and formulates VI technological economy mode, based on high technologies (high-tech) development and their synergy, i.e. NBІC–convergence (Nano-, Bio-, IT and Cognitive Sciences). Policy of convergent sciences and technologies development is actively conducted by several developed countries, e.g., National Scientific Fund and Trade Department in USA – NBІ. Other countries have the same oriented on solving social and economic tasks programs such as Genetіcs, Robotіcs, Artіfіcіal Іntellіgence and Nanotechnology and Bіts, Atoms, Neurons, Genes. But developing nations need to develop appropriate policy, which will reflect global tech trends and promote nation’s security and goals.

In this area the economic and organizational aspects of high-tech sectors reflect the fact, that nowadays innovation relations are changed based on openness, cooperation, interdisciplinary and global scale. In this context we need to consider the evolutionary processes in technological system, which are not accidental, but are developing according certain relationships, i.e. technological trajectories. In these conditions technical and economic evaluation of technologies and technology packages capacity is impossible without understanding the evolution of list of relevant technologies and products in time and prediction of new parameters, i.e. analysis of technological trajectory.

Literature review. In general high-tech can be defined as technologies, investigation and introduction of which requires involving great number scientific and material technical resources, particularly in international scale. High-techs are the leading edge of science and technique development by the time of analysis and they put new discoveries and inventions into reality. High-tech development issues and policy is important for national competitive position and security, because high-tech as technological & economic phenomena (Eurostat, 2009) [3] are characterized by spill-over effects for another sectors through the new products, processes and technologies creation, that often leads to productivity growth, business extension and new workplaces creation.

For the purpose of our research we will use the definition of technological trajectories, given by Dosi (1982) [2]: the paths by which innovations in given field occur. So the emergence of technological trajectories can be explained by the interplay between scientific advances, economic factors and institutional variables, which capacity are the base for innovation management decisions and strategies. Such approach allows to proceed complex factors of technological systems development analysis. E.g., Tidd et al. (2003) [14], based on study of more than 2000 radical innovations, has proposed five basic technological trajectories, each of which is characterized by varying sources of innovation and therefore different technological strategies and management.

Pavitt (1984) [12] originally applied the technological trajectories idea for the investigation of sectoral patterns of innovation. In his taxonomy the basic unit of analysis is innovating firm. Pavitt also notes, that “since patterns of innovation are cumulative, its technological trajectories will be largely determined by what it has done in the past in other words, by its principal activities. Different principal activities generate different technological trajectories. These different trajectories can in turn be explained by sectoral differences in three characteristics: the sources of technologies, the consumers’ needs and the means of appropriating benefits” (Pavitt, 1984) [12].

Castellacci F. (2007) [1] notes, that the crucial aspect of Pavitt taxonomy and related set of later empirical studies focus on vertical linkages, that are the set of relationships and interactions, which innovative firms have with enterprises, including SMEs from the other sectors of economy.

We found, that the significant distinctive feature in creation of high-tech is based on fact, that they are formed through know-how combinations, belonging to various sectors, hereof (by Schumpeter) «new combinations». So as most national companies investigate some key technologies, the «new combinations»can be found more effectively through the cooperation and transfer, and also through the combining of companies, which create the new combinations.

So the purpose of this research is to analyze the main positions of the high-tech case of technological trajectories concept as prospective analytical tool for innovation management.

The methodology of high-tech development study in innovation globalization conditions is based on variety of technologies types (technology packages), that need to be connected within some innovation project, great number of motives and channels of tech transfer [10]. That’s why it’s very difficult to determine some separate trends in technology transfer in modern economic & innovation processes. From our previous studies [9; 11] we assume, that the technology packages transfer is more frequent and includes selected best practice and knowledge, carrier of which are high qualified specialists, various intellectual property objects, different research intensity level products and services etc. These aspects we have considered on the example of space economy technological aspect [12]. In practical cases all forms of technology transfer complete each other, especially in international projects, interstate agreements on industrial and investment cooperation etc. Also we will use global value chains concept [9], which reflects the international nature of modern tech products, based on global competition logic, and allows to evaluate the imitative and innovative capacity. For the reflection the cooperation nature, which is based on technological trajectories based strategies, we propose to consider modified “Innovation Helixes” concept.

Main material. Innovation management within the technological trajectories we propose to analyze in two approaches (evolutionary technological theory and innovation helixes):

1. Evolutionary theory of technological & innovation systems: main idea here deals with understanding of technological development as delayed action, influencing the economic growth processes (path-dependency), i.e. even state structure type depends on formed technological trajectory. For example, the followers of this direction points out in their works, that country, technology of which is specialized on final consumption goods, has democratic political systems.

Quantitative criteria for transfer efficiency estimation include effectiveness criteria, infrastructure providing criteria and investment criteria, based on determination of the economic effect of technology application. We have investigated that, when estimating technology transfer strategy efficiency the following groups of development indicators will be considered:

– national priorities, that reflect the orientation of actions to achieve of technological competitiveness in some sector (sectors) as well as the national security providing;

– social and economic infrastructure (institutions, which support necessary resources);

– technology infrastructure (technology support system) – institutions and resources, influencing ability of the country to investigate, produce and introduce new technologies;

– producing capacity – quantitative criterion (physical, human and other types of resources, used for the goods producing) and the effectiveness criteria of their application.

The next point of technological trajectory analysis deals with the fact, that high technology appears after changes in technological core. They happen faster, and finally lead to necessity to liquidate (change) old (existed traditional) architecture of technology supply network. So we can name such two main features of modern high-tech development trajectories:

1) an emergence of thenew technological core (key idea or technology);

2) the gap between the existing technological system and the new technological core.

One of approachesis based onusing the model of growth owing to imitations and innovations. We suggest to use situational analysis of sector and technology specifics. In spite the variety of problems, depending on innovations speed and goods life cycle in proper sectors, management of high tech life cycle consists of two elements: investments and exclusion of maximal value from products during life cycle. Efficient programs concerning life cycle have to be flexible to adapt the new needs of high-tech sectors. Dominating of less leading innovation behaviour types, including orientation for the foreign technologies, characterize only imitative character of innovation system. Fig 1 illustrates technological trajectory pattern and project nature of high-tech development according to the approach (Geels, Raven, 2006) [4] and Pavitt taxonomy [12].

 

Figure 1. Technological trajectory pattern (author`s development)

 

Technology life cycle has analogical with sector, organization or product life cycle model S-curve according to Little`s life cycle model has four phases of its competitiveness. So it is necessary to distinguish categories in each phase, considering the competitiveness of technologies.

In spite of implacable costs for science growing, which get in some countries 3% of GDP, even the most developed states can’t afford to carry out researches in all leading spheres. That’s why every economy (technology system) has task to select key technologies (priorities), investigation and using of which provide great contribution to achieve targets in national security, economic and social development of country and its regions, separate sectors effective functioning.

All mentioned effects can be considered within the technology trajectory. While transferring national innovative ability we propose to consider the question as effectiveness criterion of results of research activities using and dissemination across the economy. If the innovative ability of the country is low, even results after basic scientific researches are slightly used by society.

2. High technologies development trajectory can be most effectively provided within the “innovation helixes”, i.e. interconnection of different groups of participants: business, government, science, society, international agents etc. Economic idea of “innovation helixes” theories is based on the evolutionary conception to explain technologies development trajectory within the economic agent’s interaction ant its reconfiguration in time according to the development purposes and technological trends. So the technological trajectory processes optimization can be observed in considering high-techs collaborating aspect (high tech as co-innovations), the significant role in which are played by clusters, networks and national or international mega-projects.

Internationalization of innovation systems forms a new level of interaction and new dimensions of trajectory, which we proposed to name International Q-Helix [5]. In modern innovation theories it is noted, that the base of innovation system is interaction and knowledge exchange, need to be carried out near the sources of knowledge from the different innovation systems (enterprises, universities, research centers, society, suppliers from the different countries).

In Quіntuple Helіx and International Helіx models [5] we have suggested to consider an ecosystem of innovations as the self-organizing system, where there it is available all complex of resources, necessary for creation and growth of innovation & technological SMEs, and relationships between numerous participants of innovation processes are streamlined and harmonized. This approach gives an efficient framework for the implementation of the results of technological trajectory analysis, i.e. it allows to form “clusters of agents”, that will realize idea of new trajectory.

Experts of research center MERІ of Limburg University (Holland) have found out, that more than quarter of all cooperation agreements between firms includes joint conduct of scientific researches. The study also gives the results, that the high-techs motives for such cooperation are not only strong, but are able to self-amplification owing to constant mutual study (Maillat, 1998) [7].

So the basis of successful technology evolve is an innovation network operating at several levels: global (sales of basic research), national and regional (solving problems of social and economic development) and industry (complex projects). Generally network can be described as the professional organizations union or associated organizations with the different forms of research, technology transfer or commercialization. Martinelli (2008) [8] gives the base for comparative studies through the considering the top technological trajectories for the relevant one. Within this considering it is interesting to compare the distance between the individual tech portfolio and target portfolio (based on global trends) and to analyze, how this distance will change over time.

So within the technological trajectory analysis we can also propose to consider interfirm innovation linkages in innovation networks, which realize function of tech transfer.

This aspect we can consider on the example of largest inventors component of Apple, which consisted of 184 inventors in 2007–2008 network and has grew to 617 inventors in 2009–2010 and eventually included total of 1167 inventors in 2011–2012. The overall connectivity between Apple’s inventors increased significantly – in 2011–2012, over 82% of all collaborations took place within the largest component in the inventor network. The patent output resulting from the largest component also increased substantially; while less than half of the 2007–2008 patents was originated from the largest interconnected subset of inventors, from 2009 onwards this increased to approximately 3 from every 4 patents (Vermeij, 2013) [15]. These facts clearly illustrate the significant increasing the number of inventors and number of linkages. Despite this data illustrate period from 2007 to 2012, we can assume, that now these trends has been significantly expanded.

 

Figure 2. The largest components in Apple’s inventor network over a 6-year period [15]

 

The fig. 2 and the results of our previous investigations [5] illustrate the fact, that the innovation network possesses great capacity of technology development through the synergy effect, increasing of the scientific and technical level as a result of joint activities. So we can obtain additional effects of collective cooperation within the new technological trajectories development.

Conclusions. We can conclude, that the high tech development and transfer is characterized by scientific & technical (researches, projects, programs, products and technologies etc.) and social & economic effects, which are strengthened within the some technological trajectory. The implementation of new organizational and economic approaches for the tech transfer is possible after analysis of relationships between technologies at all life cycle stages and within their interaction. The combination of all available technologies forms a technological & innovation system, which evolution becomes the new research object. So, in this case technological trajectory analysis creates an effective framework for innovation communications development, the main task of which is to stimulate dialogue of innovation activities stakeholders and their cooperation.

 

References:

  • 1. Castellacci, F. (2007). Technological paradigms, regimes and trajectories. Manufacturing and service industries in a new taxonomy of sectoral patterns of innovation. Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt. Working Paper 719.
  • 2. Dosi, G. (1982). Technological paradigms and technological trajectories: A suggested interpretation of the determinants and directions of technical change, Research Policy, 11, 147–162.
  • 3. Eurostat (2009). Science, technology and innovation in Europe.
  • 4. Geels, F., Raven, R. (2006). Non-linearity and expectations in niche-development trajectories: Ups and downs in Dutch biogas development (1973–2003). Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 18(34), 375–392.
  • 5. Krapyvny, I. V., Omelyanenko, V. A., Vernydub, N. O. (2015). International innovation networks as new stage of innovation development, Economic Processes Management, 1. Retrieved from http://epm.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/download/2015_1/2015_1_17.pdf
  • 6. Lim, Dong-J., Anderson, T. R. (2015). Technology Trajectory Mapping Using Data Envelopment Analysis: The Ex-ante use of Disruptive Innovation Theory on Flat Panel Technologies. Engineering and Technology Management Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 45.
  • 7. Maillat, D. (1998). From the industrial district to the innovative milieu: Contribution to an analysis of territorialized productive organizations, Research Economiques de Louvain, 64 (1).
  • 8. Martinelli, A. (2008). Technological Trajectories and Industry Evolution: The case of the Telecom Switching Industry. Working paper. Eindhoven University.
  • 9. Omelyanenko,V. (2016). Technology package optimization in space industry in case of integration into the global value chain, GISAP: Economics, Jurisprudence and Management, 10, 10–13.
  • 10. Omelyanenko, V. A. (2014). Analysis of Potential of International Inter-Cluster Cooperation in High-Tech Industries, International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management, Vol. 2, No. 4, 141–147.
  • 11. Omelyanenko, V.A. (2016). Innovation priorities optimization in the context of national technological security ensuring, Marketing and Management of Innovations, 4, 226–234.
  • 12. Pavitt, K. (1984). Sectoral patterns of technical change: towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy, 13, 343–373.
  • 13. Prokopenko, O. V., Zhekov, Zh., Omelyanenko, V. A. (2014). International dimension of technological aspect of space economy, Economic Processes Management: International Scientific E-Journal, 2. Retrieved from http://epm.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/download/2014_2/2014_2_2.pdf
  • 14. Tidd, J., Bessant, J., Pavitt, K. (2003). Managing Innovation. Second ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England.
  • 15. Vermeij, A. (2013). Apple’s Internal Innovation Network Unraveled. Part 1. Evolving Networks, kenedict.com. Retrieved from http://www.kenedict.com/apples-internal-innovation-network-unraveled-part-1-evolving-networks/
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Ваша оценка: Нет Средняя: 7.7 (9 голосов)
Комментарии: 16

Романович Людмила Геннадьевна

Тема работы актуальна и представляет интерес. Статья заслуживает положительной оценки. В тоже время, рекомендуется в дальнейших исследованиях обратить больше внимания на опыт в инновационной деятельности вузов, НИИ и других организаций Украины (не только Apple). Работая с коллегами из Украины - я хочу отметить о существовании богатого положительного опыта, что заслуживает анализа. Успехов в научной работе!

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Признаюсь, будучи юристом было очень интересно прочитать работу авторов! Инновации и высокие технологии сами по себе являются всегда актуальными тематиками, а рассмотрение в этом ключе некоторых аспектов, делает статью более значимой. С Уважением, Е.С. Королев.

Петрухина Елена Владимировна

Статья очень понравилась! Эффективный инновационный менеджмент позволяет сформировать не только синергетический, но и дополнительный мультиплексный эффект за счет трансфера инноваций в межсистемном взаимодействии. Согласна, что за сетями будущее!

Казбеков Бекет

Уважаемые авторы! Вами представлено новое продуктивное направление исследований, когда научно-технические исследования (проекты, программы, продукты, технологии и т.д. и их социальные и экономические последствия рассматриваются через некоторые укрепленные технологические траектории, позволяющие проведение анализа взаимосвязей между технологиями на всех этапах жизненного цикла и в рамках их взаимодействия и, таким образом, выявить внедрение новых организационно-экономических подходов к передаче технологий, создает эффективную основу для развития инновационных коммуникаций, стимулирует диалог инновационной деятельности заинтересованных сторон и их сотрудничество. Очень перспективно! Успехов и удачи! beket.

Омельяненко Виталий

Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и проявленный интерес к исследованию. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Мороз Людмила Ивановна

Вами проведён детальный анализ основных позиций технологической концепции траекторий, практическая реализация которых даст новые возможности для управления инновационными проектами. Успехов Вам в практической реализации затронутых вопросов. С уважением, Л.И.Мороз

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Людмила Ивановна! Спасибо Вам за положительный отзыв к статье. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Иннара Рафаильевна! Благодарим за оценку статьи!

Власова Мария Александровна

Уважаемые авторы! Безусловно интересная и актуальная статья, содержащая глубоко проработанный материал высокого научного уровня. Согласна с вами, что "инновационная спираль" является наиболее эффективной траекторией для развития высокотехнологичного сектора. Желаю Вам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях!

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Мария Александровна! Спасибо Вам за положительный отзыв к статье. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Суюнчалиева Майя Муратовна

Dear authors, Olga Kudrina and Vitalij Omelyanenko, I am very glad to read you such interesting and actual article. You have so old period of time for diagram (2006-2012) could you forecast the future research in this field? Hope it well. Wish you success in you researches! With best regards, Maiya Suyunchaliyeva

Омельяненко Виталий

Dear Maya Muratovna! Thank you for the interest to our research! The period of data was selected in order to illustrate the dynamics of Apple’s innovation linkages extension. From the 2012 Apple like other high-tech MNCs has developed its innovations within the network innovation model and so it’s very difficult to make similar illustrations for the present situation because of high multiplicity of innovation links. E.g., this link (http://images.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/pdf/Suppliers.pdf) illustrates only the full list of Apple`s suppliers, each of which can have its own innovation network. In future with the growing of multidisciplinary and technology convergation the networks development will be the main trend of innovation processes. With best regards, Vitaliy Omelyanenko

Тойво Таннинг

Уважаемые Ольга Кудрина и Виталий Омельяненко В практическом и в теоретическом плане сильная статья. Желаю творческих успехов в дальнейших исследованиях. С уважением Тойво Taннинг

Омельяненко Виталий

Спасибо за высокую оценку работы и добрые пожелания. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Ляпина Иннара Рафаильевна

Статья актуальна и интересна. Согласна, что мультидисциплинарный подход определяет траекторию развития современного общества. Успехов в исследованиях!

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Иннара Рафаильевна! Благодарим Вас за оценку статьи!
Комментарии: 16

Романович Людмила Геннадьевна

Тема работы актуальна и представляет интерес. Статья заслуживает положительной оценки. В тоже время, рекомендуется в дальнейших исследованиях обратить больше внимания на опыт в инновационной деятельности вузов, НИИ и других организаций Украины (не только Apple). Работая с коллегами из Украины - я хочу отметить о существовании богатого положительного опыта, что заслуживает анализа. Успехов в научной работе!

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Признаюсь, будучи юристом было очень интересно прочитать работу авторов! Инновации и высокие технологии сами по себе являются всегда актуальными тематиками, а рассмотрение в этом ключе некоторых аспектов, делает статью более значимой. С Уважением, Е.С. Королев.

Петрухина Елена Владимировна

Статья очень понравилась! Эффективный инновационный менеджмент позволяет сформировать не только синергетический, но и дополнительный мультиплексный эффект за счет трансфера инноваций в межсистемном взаимодействии. Согласна, что за сетями будущее!

Казбеков Бекет

Уважаемые авторы! Вами представлено новое продуктивное направление исследований, когда научно-технические исследования (проекты, программы, продукты, технологии и т.д. и их социальные и экономические последствия рассматриваются через некоторые укрепленные технологические траектории, позволяющие проведение анализа взаимосвязей между технологиями на всех этапах жизненного цикла и в рамках их взаимодействия и, таким образом, выявить внедрение новых организационно-экономических подходов к передаче технологий, создает эффективную основу для развития инновационных коммуникаций, стимулирует диалог инновационной деятельности заинтересованных сторон и их сотрудничество. Очень перспективно! Успехов и удачи! beket.

Омельяненко Виталий

Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и проявленный интерес к исследованию. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Мороз Людмила Ивановна

Вами проведён детальный анализ основных позиций технологической концепции траекторий, практическая реализация которых даст новые возможности для управления инновационными проектами. Успехов Вам в практической реализации затронутых вопросов. С уважением, Л.И.Мороз

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Людмила Ивановна! Спасибо Вам за положительный отзыв к статье. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Иннара Рафаильевна! Благодарим за оценку статьи!

Власова Мария Александровна

Уважаемые авторы! Безусловно интересная и актуальная статья, содержащая глубоко проработанный материал высокого научного уровня. Согласна с вами, что "инновационная спираль" является наиболее эффективной траекторией для развития высокотехнологичного сектора. Желаю Вам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях!

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Мария Александровна! Спасибо Вам за положительный отзыв к статье. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Суюнчалиева Майя Муратовна

Dear authors, Olga Kudrina and Vitalij Omelyanenko, I am very glad to read you such interesting and actual article. You have so old period of time for diagram (2006-2012) could you forecast the future research in this field? Hope it well. Wish you success in you researches! With best regards, Maiya Suyunchaliyeva

Омельяненко Виталий

Dear Maya Muratovna! Thank you for the interest to our research! The period of data was selected in order to illustrate the dynamics of Apple’s innovation linkages extension. From the 2012 Apple like other high-tech MNCs has developed its innovations within the network innovation model and so it’s very difficult to make similar illustrations for the present situation because of high multiplicity of innovation links. E.g., this link (http://images.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/pdf/Suppliers.pdf) illustrates only the full list of Apple`s suppliers, each of which can have its own innovation network. In future with the growing of multidisciplinary and technology convergation the networks development will be the main trend of innovation processes. With best regards, Vitaliy Omelyanenko

Тойво Таннинг

Уважаемые Ольга Кудрина и Виталий Омельяненко В практическом и в теоретическом плане сильная статья. Желаю творческих успехов в дальнейших исследованиях. С уважением Тойво Taннинг

Омельяненко Виталий

Спасибо за высокую оценку работы и добрые пожелания. С уважением, Виталий Омельяненко.

Ляпина Иннара Рафаильевна

Статья актуальна и интересна. Согласна, что мультидисциплинарный подход определяет траекторию развития современного общества. Успехов в исследованиях!

Омельяненко Виталий

Уважаемая Иннара Рафаильевна! Благодарим Вас за оценку статьи!
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