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ADMINISTRATIVE DELICTOLOGY AND CONCEPT OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFENCES / АДМИНИСТРАТИВНАЯ ДЕЛИКТОЛОГИЯ И ПОНЯТИЕ АДМИНИСТРАТИВНОГО ПРАВОНАРУШЕНИЯ / ӘКІМШІЛІК ДЕЛИКТОЛОГИЯ ЖӘНЕ ӘКІМШІЛІК ҚҰҚЫҚБҰЗУШЫЛЫҚ ТҮСІНІГІ

ADMINISTRATIVE DELICTOLOGY AND CONCEPT OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFENCES / АДМИНИСТРАТИВНАЯ ДЕЛИКТОЛОГИЯ И ПОНЯТИЕ АДМИНИСТРАТИВНОГО ПРАВОНАРУШЕНИЯ / ӘКІМШІЛІК ДЕЛИКТОЛОГИЯ ЖӘНЕ ӘКІМШІЛІК ҚҰҚЫҚБҰЗУШЫЛЫҚ ТҮСІНІГІ
Ботагоз Шаншарбаева, ph.d. юридических наук, ph.d. юридических наук, докторант

Казахская академия труда и социальных отношений, Казахстан

Участник конференции

УДК 342.9.086; 351.03                                                                        

 

Цель- В работе особое внимание придается анализу и изучению правовой природы и юридической сущности административных правонарушений, которые  признаются посягающими на права и свободы субъектов административных правонарушений.

Методология -  автор использует методы: индукции, дедукции, анализа, синтеза, диалектики и исторический

Значимость– анализируя теоретические  материалы, определить понятие, цели, задачи административного правонарушение и предложить пути совершенствования администратвного законодательства.

Научная новизна – работа представляет собой комплексное исследование проблем  административного права.

Ключевые слова – административное право, юридическая ответственность, правовое регулирование.

 

Мақсаты– жұмыс субъектілердің құқықтары мен бостандықтарына қол сұғатын, әкімшілік құқықбұзушылықтардың заңи сипатын зерттеу мен талдау жасауға ерекше назар аударылған.

Әдістеме– автор ғылыми танымның әрқилы әдістерін пайдаланады: индуктивті, дедуктивті, талдау, синтез, диалектикалық, тарихи. Жеке  ғылыми әдістер де қолданылды: соның ішінде салыстырмалы-құқықтық талдауға басымдық берілді, құжаттарды талдау (заңдар және өзге де құқықтық нормативтік актілер, солардың ішінде ведомостволық бұйрықтар, нұсқаулар, ережелер) қарастырылды.

Маңыздылығы– теориялық материалдарға талдау жасай отырып, осы саладағы әкімшілік құқықбұзушылықтар түсінігі, мақсаттары және міндеттерін қарастырып, әкімшілік  заңнаманы жетілдіру бойынша ұсыныстар беру арқылы қол жеткізу.

Ғылыми жаңалығы – әкімшілік құқық мәселелері сласындағы кешенді зерттеу болып табылады.

Кілт сөздер– әкімшілік құқық, заңды жауаптылық, мемлекеттік реттеу.

 

Purpose - in this paper, special attention is given to the analysis and study of the legal nature of the legal entity and administrative offenses, which are recognized by infringing on the rights and freedoms of administrative offenses.

Methodology - the author uses methods : induction , deduction, analysis, synthesis, and historical dialectics.

Significance - analyzing the theoretical material to define the concept , goals, objectives, administrative offense and suggest ways to improve administratvnogo legislation.

Scientific novelty - work is a comprehensive study of the problems of administrative law.

Keywords - administrative law , legal liability , legal regulation .

 

Introduction

From the course of administrative law knows that committed administrative offenses are the base administrative liability. Hence, a legal postulate: no offense, is not, and cannot be administratively liable.

Legal regulation of administrative offenses of the Institute is reflected in Chapter 3 of the General Administrative Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This chapter of CAO, a formal definition of an administrative offense is given by legislator, with gradation of administrative offenses depending on the form of guilt: in the willful and committed on imprudence.

Further legal regulation of the institute of administrative offenses is reflected in the Special part of the CAO. In total, the content of Special Part of the Administrative Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan includes 457 compositions of administrative offenses combined into 21 chapters, which constitute administrative offenses, encroaching human rights, legal entities and the state in different areas of their life. For example, on the rights of the individual, on the electoral rights of citizens, to the property, in the field of business, in industry, the use of thermal energy, electrical energy, in the field of press and information and etc.

The main part of the study

The administrative offenses occupy significant place in the environment of illegal activity. Therefore, a comprehensive study of the problem of social, psychological and legal nature of administrative offenses, does not lose the effect of the appeal and at the present stage of development of administrative and tort law, they are still in the focus of many researchers – administrativists.

Credible reports that the analysis of the activities of law enforcement agencies and executive bodies illustrates the failure of these organs sufficiently effectively with crime and other types of illegal activities affecting the vital interests of society, the state and individuals are the other reasonable base for a more thorough study of the laws of administrative delicts [1, 25].

Many prominent legal scholars, such as E.V. Dodin, V.P. Lozbyakov, L.L. Popov, V.I. Belts, D.N. Bachrach, A.A. Taranov, V.F. Fefilova and others devoted their studies to study and analysis of administrative problems. However, these scientists have not reached the necessary logical conclusion in their researches, as a current reality gives many explanations for this:

Firstly, the administrative delictology as an independent science of the state, dynamics causes of administrative tort and measures to combat it. In Kazakhstan the science the most intensively developed only since the mid 70-ies of the twentieth century and, therefore, it is relatively young which is still developing and requires urgent theoretical and methodological basis. It should be pointed to the fact that even in the very recent past, the administrative delictology is underwent the same punitive and destroying influence by the public authorities and ideologies which were rendered to criminology in the same years. The administrative delictology in its development was much behind comparing with the national criminology which active development related to the 60-ies of the twentieth century. And, despite the fact that in 70-ies of the twentieth century, administrative delictology was not officially banned as the science of administrative right violation by state and ideological authorities, it is for obvious reasons had not received the proper development [2, 148];

Secondly, scientists and experts - practice, highlighting and analyzing the action having more global features, connected for example with organized crime, terrorism and other socially dangerous crimes, inadvertently missed the problems of protection of public order and the fight with administrative offenses from the scope of their research, as against the background of the investigated crimes, administrative offenses are represented as insignificant extent containing a public danger. In addition, the "in most cases fight against them is a departmental or local in nature, and the results are usually not taken into account in the development of strategic issues, ensuring the safety of the individual, society and state" [3, 3];

Thirdly, it is also necessary to take into account the high latency of administrative offenses, which contributes to a significant portion of the population a sense of confidence in the impunity of unlawful conduct and it gives rise to new administrative offenses, making them like usual, socially approved, or at least do not condemn [ 4, 15];

Fourth, administrative violations are closely connected with the commission of crime, especially economic. Therefore, for a long time there is a firmly established opinion that the state bodies, preceding the fight against crime and in the same time implementing measures on the struggle organization and administrative delicts, which is no longer true, since the eradication of right violation can only be achieved by a special and focused approach. Hence, in this case, we should agree with the opinion of E.V. Dodin, that there are no organizations - management solutions (the revitalization of the administrative - jurisdictional bodies, the creation of new administrative - jurisdictional structures) cannot stop the growth of administrative offenses, acquiring in recent years more and more dangerous. In this case, the search of new ways, methods and means of using that society could eventually create the conditions for the emergence of a sustainable downward trend. These paths, techniques and tools, should be adequate to the object of his influence - not to an individual, specifically to take the administrative offense and not their mechanical sum, as a holistic phenomenon, formed a stable set of all offenses committed in the country [5, 32].

Thus, the mentioned conditions again highlight the urgency of the need for early development of administrative delictology as an independent science which studies regularities administrative right violation.

In figurative expression of D.N. Bakhrakh: "Administrative delictoloy -" little sister "of criminology, which uses its methods and its conclusions, and every its achievements."

In view of the existing objective and subjective factors, administrative delictology is difficult to be attributed to the category of legal sciences. Rather, it is a part of sociology, although its relation to the administrative - legal regulations. In most cases of its manifestation, administrative delictology pays great attention to the laws of the real world: to the offenses, to their subjects, the causes and conditions conducive to the commission of offenses, measures to deal with them, the organization of preventive and precautionary measures against right violation.

Thus, administrative delictology is the science of the state, dynamics, causes of administrative tort and measures to combat it. Such a struggle requires, prevention of law violations, and the prevention, suppression and detection of crime, and punishment of who’s responsible for crime.

Development the problems of administrative delictology generates the need to introduce the relevant concepts and specific terminologies that reflect the essence of this science. For example, these are the concepts of administrative tort, administrative delinquent and etc. Considersomeofthem.

The administrative tort explains the sum of various administrative offenses committed by persons living in a particular area during a specific period of time (delictum –right violation).

Traditionally, administrative tort is represented as anti-social phenomenon and disturbing public order. In today’s conditions, it is characterized by dynamic of intensive growth and the different variations of its manifestations. Thus, according to statistics from the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1997, 97,474 juveniles were detained for administrative, 93452 of which delivered in administrative order [6, 3], in the same year, 6622 crimes were committed by juveniles. In 2001, juveniles were committed in 8184 criminal offenses. For 6 months of 2002 the number of crimes committed by minors was 4121 cases and is generally preceded by all the crimes committed as administrative offenses. Such evidence eloquently confirm the above proposals and suggests that the growth of rights violation processes volatile in the country, often not predictable and, of course, linked to other types of offenses, presented in the form of criminal, disciplinary and civil law offenses and etc. [7, 73].

The experience of studying the law of administrative tort shows that one of the main reasons for such intensive growth dynamics of crime is the change of the socio - economic system, when the Republic of Kazakhstan in the development from the phase of the "administrative socialism" goes into another phase of development - to a market economy.

 Historically, it observed that any changes in the social system, government, morals and values are accompanied by a surge in the growth of crime and delinquency. Therefore, as it is the science of social, administrative delictology is largely characterized by a state of socio-political and economic system.

Continuing the validity and value of administrative delictology as a science, it should be emphasized that the theoretical postulates and bases contained in this branch of science are in the process of further development can become the defining criteria that will coordinate all preventive activities and policy of the state to eradicate administrative offenses. In this respect, looking on the achievements of administrative delictology, the possibilities are distinguished in the development of scientific and practical recommendations, statements and conclusions that contribute to increased efficiency in combating offenses, their prevention and the prevention, and, in our opinion, the most dominant and relevant is preventive function performed this science.

Administrative offenses and activities countering them describe different aspects of this legal phenomenon: Social, legal, psychological, organizational and etc. This feature is caused by the necessity of scientific research with integrated, multidisciplinary approaches directing to the joint research of laws, committed administrative violations, experts of different profiles and directions: teachers, lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and so on.

Based on the fact that the genesis and nature of administrative offenses are very extensive and varied, we can assume that the leading role in the study of these issues should occupy researchers-administrativists, with the efforts of scientists should focus primarily on the study of these circumstances.

The rules on administrative responsibility and experience of their implementation are contained in the bowels of the science of administrative law, which raises the possibility of an objective in the formation of a new branch of law - administrative - tort.

Moreover, according to Professor A.P. Shergina "this science will be able to solve their tasks satisfactorily, if regulatory dogmatic research will be closely aligned with the social aspects of the fight against administrative violations."

The results of these studies are presented as axiological, since they can be used for law enforcement and other state bodies in the prevention of administrative offenses.

In the process of formation of administrative delictology as an independent science, its further development may be carried out in two main directions:

- Firstly, in the direction of facilitating the creation of a conceptual framework and methodology of this science;

- Secondly, in the direction of organically based on a concrete case study of the causes and conditions of committing certain types of administrative offenses [8, 53].

We demonstrate the data judgment as an example. So if we take as an example delictology behavior of juveniles it is necessary to specify that in Soviet times, the offense committed by juvenile delinquent, investigated, as a rule, within the framework of pedagogy and criminology which interested in juveniles as the original terms of social deviations, followed by determination in crime. In the end, the study of patterns of violations continued in the criminal or criminal - procedural law. At the same time, the system of preventive measures conducted by teachers and law enforcement officers and executive bodies, there is an irreparable breach caused by the fact that out of the field of view of researchers had problem, which is legal and administrative aspects of the origin, development and dynamics of the crime, that is the period of preventive action that exists between pedagogy and criminology, criminal and criminal - procedural law, or more precisely the measures that contains the science of administrative law. Such disregard of the achievements of administrative law is puzzling. It seems that the public authorities by providing full education of difficult teenagers to the teachers, at the same time admit that the teachers cannot be obtained in all of these aspects and waiting the difficult teenager in their deviation to be "matured", which means committed in act qualifying as a criminal offense and only in this case in regard to the latter will be taken drastic measures by state influence with full demonstration of all power of the state - law enforcement, husked on this delinquent, such as arrest, criminal prosecution, imprisonment and so on. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that today in Kazakhstan there is an urgent need to study the problems of juvenile right violators through the point of view of administrative - tort law. According to the researches this position is largely justified - "a crime committed by a teenager, as a rule, is preceded by repeated violations of the moral and administrative - legal norms." Therefore, juvenile offenders are most of the time considered as violators of administrative prohibitions. The same time it applies to adult offenders. Thus, early prevention of crimes done by such individuals is "it's most often the struggle with their administrative - legal delicts" [9: 6-7].

However, such interpretation should not lead us to a certain extreme, since not every violator of administrative prohibitions subsequently becomes an offender.

Whatever it was, the administrative delict is "an elementary form of mass social phenomenon - the administrative tort, and at the same time typical for a certain stage of social development, the form of rule, the contradictions between the individual and society" [10, 9]. Consequently, the administrative delict is a deliberate human act which is committed by a sane person who has reached the delictual age, and harmed the interests of the person and public. In this regard, the necessity to develop the administrative delictology seems unquestionable, especially as a science, which "would have the purpose to analysis the phenomena, generating not criminal offenses, the development of preventive measures and elimination of misconducts ... in the field of administrative and other branches of the law" [11, 5] .

Based on the contributions of various scholars in legal science and practice, as well as on the analysis of knowledge degree and elaboration of administrative delictology as an independent branch of science, it can be thought that the basic development of administrative delictology must be found by solving the following problems:

- The study of the offender’s personality, in the reconstruction of his typological portrait and mechanism detection committed a specific offense;

- In the study of conflict and social deviations which is prior to the offense and prevents the socialization of the individual;

- To study the demographic characteristics of offenses affecting to the state, level, dynamics and structure of offenses dealing with the historic and systemic aspects;

- To study the causes and conditions of the administrative tort in general and certain groups of offenses caused by legal illiteracy, nihilism, selfishness, public and private enterprises and institutions, law enforcement, the imperfection of the existing legislation shortcomings in the work and etc;

- To determine the main directions of improving crime prevention, the creation of integrated social programs which are developed by a multi-disciplinary approaches and performed preventive functions, improving law enforcement, the recommendations to improve the legislation.

To make a correct and complete picture of the administrative delictology as a new developing science, it is necessary to compare it with the other sciences, and on the basis of comparison, to determine its place in the existing social and legal sciences, the main purpose of which is with the help of administrative - legal measures to achieve the elimination of administrative rights violation. In this case, the application of administrative sanctions will be naturally contributed to educate people to respect the law and its unwavering compliance, as well as a sufficiently clear understanding that the violation of administrative - legal norms entails legal responsibility, which always acts as a public enforcement action, accompanied by the state and public condemnation and censure of the act and the offender.

Results

The results of these studies shows that the socio-psychological and delictologycal essence of administrative offenses, encroaching on the rights of juveniles are completely contrary to well-established human values which are generally accepted in​​ the past and modern civilizations, and in what their antisocial nature and danger are. These administrative offenses including seven major types of illegal actions in its membership create discomfort and destabilization folding in our public relations, the main objective of which is to bring the Republic of Kazakhstan, to the level of a legal, democratic, secular and social state whose highest values are people’ life, rights and freedom.

Analysis of unexplored science of administrative law’s theoretical aspects of administrative delictology and conflict lead to the conclusion that enforcement activities in the field of administrative law enforcement should be based on the achievements of these sciences. In this regard, the theoretical justification is given to the general problems of a new science - the administrative delictology and proposal about the allocation of administrative delictology as an independent social discipline that studies the genesis and regularity of the offenses, right violation and measures of prevention and control, which generally serve as the basis of increase of efficiency of application measures of administrative law enforcement in the fight against administrative right violation; The suggestion substantiates the administrative offenses which are closely connected with the problems of conflict resolution. Conflict as the collision processes of two different sides at the level of individual experiences and impulses indicates the psychological nature of its manifestation. Socio - environmental conflict manifestation of extremely varied, which gives rise to the fundamental idea of ​​the unresolved problems. All conflicts are characterized by strong pressure, they usually precede offenses and often force people to change the situation, either adapt to it or to protect itself from it.

In a qualitatively new level, the legal nature of the administrative offense is disclosed, on the basis of which a new version of the definition of the concept of an administrative offense is proposed: under the administrative offense meant illegal, socially dangerous, guilty act (action or inaction), infringing upon public order, safety, health, life, rights and freedoms of citizens, property and order management, for which the administrative law provides for administrative responsibility, which is a measure of an administrative penalty. It should be pointed out that the legislator in Article 28 of the Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Administrative Offences, a sign of "danger to society" as one of the classic signs of an administrative offense not taken into account; since in most cases, the grounds for the application of administrative measures - law enforcement are administrative offenses, respectively, in sufficient detail the answers to the basic questions concerning the theoretical introduction of the problems in the legal science with a view to the further development of a new social and legal sciences - administrative delictology. Administrative delictology as an independent science should study the laws of administrative right violation, and in particular the problem of the etiology, genesis, dynamics and mechanism of committing administrative delicts and theoretically justify the nature and effectiveness of government organizational and legal measures to combat them.

 

References:

  • 1. Dymčenko V.I., Korčagin A.G Ugolovnye prestupleniâ i administrativnye pravonarušeniâ. Ugolovno - pravovye mery borʹby s prestupnostʹû v usloviâh perestrojki. - Sverdlovsk, 1990. S.46 49. Zubov I.N. O vliânii rezulʹtatov borʹby s nekotorymi vidami administrativnyh pravonarušenij na kriminogennuû obstanovku i obŝestvenno - političeskuû situaciû v Rossii. - M., S. 43-45; Lozbâkov V.P., Èriašvili N.D. Kriminologiâ i administrativnaâ ûrisdikciâ milicii: Učenoe posobie dlâ vuzov / Pod red. Prof. V.P. Lozbâkova. - M.: Zakon i pravo, ÛNITI, 1998. S.14 - 17.
  • 2. Žetpisbaev B.A. Obŝie problemy administrativnoj deliktologii. V sb. materialov meždunarodnoj naučno-теоретической konferencii: "Konstituciâ Respubliki Kazahstan i voprosy soveršenstvovaniâ zakonodatelʹstva o trude". - Almaty: Obŝestvennyj fond politiko-правовых issledovanij "Integral" v Kazahstane, 2001. S.148.
  • 3. Solovej Û.P. Pravovoe regulirovanie deâtelʹnosti milicii v Rossijskoj Federacii. - Omsk, 1993. S.3.
  • 4. Lozbâkov V.P., Èriašvili N.D. Kriminologiâ i administrativnaâ ûrisdikciâ milicii: Učenoe posobie dlâ vuzov / Pod red. Prof. V.P. Lozbâkova. - M.: Zakon i pravo, ÛNITI, 1998. S.14 - 17.
  • 5. Dodin E.V. Administrativnaâ deliktologiâ v sisteme ûridičeskoj nauki // Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1991, № 12. S. 32.
  • 6. Žetpisbaev B.A. Organizacionno pravovye problemy sozdaniâ ûvenalʹnyh sudov i ih rolʹ v profilaktike pravonarušenij sredi nesoveršennoletnih. //Автореферат dissertacii na soiskanie učenoj stepeni k.û.n. - Almaty, 1998. S.3.
  • 7. Žetpisbaev B.A. Administrativnaâ deliktologiâ i problemy administrativnoj deliktnosti nesoveršennoletnih pravonarušitelej. V sb. materialov meždunarodnoj naučno-теоретической konferencii, posvâŝennoj 10-летию nezavisimosti Respubliki Kazahstan: "Demokratiâ. Gosudarstvo. Pravo. HH1 vek". - Almaty, 2001. S.73.
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Комментарии: 5

Коваль Любовь Николаевна

В данной работе автор не только предоставляет определение понятия административного правонарушения, но и анализирует цели и задачи административного правонарушения в административном законодательстве. Статья с хорошим теоретическим обоснованием посвящена одному из основополагающих вопросов в административном праве. Из недочетов можно упомянуть лишь использование источников литературы, опубликованных более пяти лет назад.

Зульфугарзаде Теймур Эльдарович

В работе проведен анализ правовой природы и юридической сущности административных правонарушений, которые признаются посягающими на права и свободы субъектов административных правонарушений, приводятся заслуживающие внимания выводы, имеющие важное значение для науки административного права.

Ироденко Надежда Васильевна

Работа имеет высокий научный уровень и отображает очень интересный взгляд автора на административные правонарушения! Желаю автору удачи!

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Довольно интересная научная работа, заслуживающая пристального внимания со стороны научного сообщества.

Чиладзе Георгий Бидзинович

In the presented work, the author pays special attention to the analysis and study of the legal nature of the legal entity and administrative violations, which are recognized through the infringement of rights and freedoms for administrative violations. The work is interesting and relevant. I wish you further fruitful research!
Комментарии: 5

Коваль Любовь Николаевна

В данной работе автор не только предоставляет определение понятия административного правонарушения, но и анализирует цели и задачи административного правонарушения в административном законодательстве. Статья с хорошим теоретическим обоснованием посвящена одному из основополагающих вопросов в административном праве. Из недочетов можно упомянуть лишь использование источников литературы, опубликованных более пяти лет назад.

Зульфугарзаде Теймур Эльдарович

В работе проведен анализ правовой природы и юридической сущности административных правонарушений, которые признаются посягающими на права и свободы субъектов административных правонарушений, приводятся заслуживающие внимания выводы, имеющие важное значение для науки административного права.

Ироденко Надежда Васильевна

Работа имеет высокий научный уровень и отображает очень интересный взгляд автора на административные правонарушения! Желаю автору удачи!

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Довольно интересная научная работа, заслуживающая пристального внимания со стороны научного сообщества.

Чиладзе Георгий Бидзинович

In the presented work, the author pays special attention to the analysis and study of the legal nature of the legal entity and administrative violations, which are recognized through the infringement of rights and freedoms for administrative violations. The work is interesting and relevant. I wish you further fruitful research!
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