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PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF STATE FAMILY POLICY OF UKRAINE

PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF STATE FAMILY POLICY OF UKRAINE
Ирина Чеховская, заведующая кафедрой гражданского права и процесса, доктор юридических наук

Университет государственной фискальной службы Украины, Украина

Участник конференции

The article presents arguments indicating the need for complex study of theoretical and methodological problems of Ukraine's state family policy. Basic contradictions that prevent the formation of effective family policy in Ukraine are defined. The expediency of its reforming is proved. Priority directions of Ukraine's state family policy are developed.

Keywords: family, family policy, state, directions, measures.

 

The stability of the state, its economic development largely depends on physical and spiritual health of the family, on public relations to its problems, interests and needs. The state is interested in the active family that is able to develop a new life strategy, to ensure not only its survival in unstable society that is transforming, but also to develop successfully.

However, the interests and opportunities of families in Ukraine are being implemented insufficiently these days. Despite the fact that during the entire period of independence the state has determined the family policies as an integral component of the activity programmes of all governments, appropriate measures have not yielded the expected or desired results. Over the last ten years, the socio-economic and moral situation of the family in Ukraine deteriorated significantly. This has led to an increase of such negative phenomena as the low birth rates, increase in cases of domestic violence, inappropriate level of parenting, which consequently lead to an increase in the number of divorces, single-parent families, illegitimate births, and massive increase in child abandonment among others. Today the processes lead to serious socio-economic and political problems, and, moreover, can lead to a global social crisis and national tragedy in future due to negative dynamics.

Therefore,the tasks of stabilizing the institution of family and overcoming the negative socio-demographic trends are of particular significance and relevance, and crucially need immediate and effective decisions to be made.

It should be pointed out that family policy of the state is the subject of scientific and public debate. Of particular interest are the research works of Russian scientists: Arutiunian M.Iu., Anichkina A.B., Artiukhova A.V., Brussel T.N., Vyshnevskyi A.B., Vytkovskaia H.S., Hryshchenko N.N., Darmodekhyn S.V., Dorokhyna O.V., Yelyzarova T.A., Zhukova V.I., Vasyleva T.A., Nebotova L.F., Plotnykova A.D., Pianova A.Y., Chernova Zh.V. and othres; foreign scientists: VandeRaa D.J., Jaeckel M., Joshi H., Hulkko J., Caesar B., Albrecht S. D., K.-X. Kaufmanna, Haetrais L., A. Gauthier, and others.

Studying the works of the above mentions scientists, we can conclude that in science there is no consensus in almost all areas of family policy due to opposing viewpoints.

However, despite the increased interest in the study of state family policy (hereinafter – SFP) in the world, the issue of domestic scientists have not been studied enough.

The first works on the issues of family policy have appeared in Ukraine only in late 90s of the 20th century [1; 2; 3; 4]. However, they did not have any appropriate theoretical framework and SFP was examined insufficiently.

Recently several more thorough work on the study with a detailed analysis of the domestic practice of family policy have been published [5; 6; 7; 8]. However, family policy was considered in the narrow sense (within the main focus primarily on direct cash payments, assistance to large families, tax benefits, parental leave payment). In other scientific papers, the focus was mainly on demographic and pronatalistic aspects of family policy or rather, detection of existing problems without a diversity of ways of their possible overcoming.

In the context of the above mentioned, there is a strong need for a comprehensive study of theoretical and methodological problems of SFP in Ukraine, according to which its gradual creation as an independent branch of the state policy will be implemented.

The need for the development of SFP is also determined by the necessity of its implementation in law enforcement practice of state authorities – the subjects of providing the SFP in Ukraine. The result is the reorientation of SFP with provision of social support to separate categories of families, mostly socially disadvantaged, and the elimination of family dysfunctions to create conditions for the conservation, enhancement, development and protection of socially advantaged families.

The aim of the article is to develop the priority directions of SFP, the practical application of which will contribute to effective reforms and to the formation of a comprehensive SFP system in Ukraine.

Conducted analysis in previous publications [9; 10; 11; 12] allowed us to conclude that Ukraine's SFP is characterized by the contradictions between the need for modern scientific substantiation of managerial decisions in the sphere of family policy and lack of scientific development issues at national and local levels; the need to monitor the effectiveness of managerial decisions in the sphere of family policy and lack of systematic monitoring of the situation of the family; fundamental value of the position of the family in society and state detachment from many structures and institutions of family policy implementation; need for integrated and systematic approaches in solving problems of families and lack of effective interdepartmental interaction in the implementation of family policies; possibility of increasing their own capacity of families in solving social problems and insufficient level of activities of public organizations in the sphere of family policy; the preservation of the paternalistic role of the state in relation to the family and inability of this approach in modern conditions; the necessity of including all categories of households in the sphere of state family policy and work only with certain categories of families, especially socially disadvantaged ones; the need to change the direction of family policy to work with affluent families and formed the focus on social support and services for families with consumer mentality; the growing depopulation in the country and the lack of pro-family approach in conducting the economic reforms.

Indeed, to overcome these contradictions it is necessary to indicate the direction of SFP in Ukraine. They should be focused not only on meeting immediate challenges in an unstable socio-economic situation, but also on long term strengthening and development of the family institution.

In this regard on the basis of the previous studies we developed the priorities of SFP in Ukraine, the complex application of which will allow to form an effective SFP of Ukraine.

The suggested classification depends on the events with the details revealing their content. The priority directions of Ukraine's SFP include political, institutional, demographic, economic, social, informational, cultural and educational spheres.

Thus, the political direction of SFP is necessary to implement through the formation of pro-family ideology of the state; the formation and support of national civil movement focused on protecting the interests of the family; formation and support of political parties, the purpose of which is to protect the interests of the family; to support candidates, election programs of which are focused on protection of Ukrainian families; to implement the comparative analysis of programs of political parties, revealing their ideological orientations in the family sphere; the legislative activities of the Supreme Council of Ukraine in the formation and implementation of family policy and electoral positions of political parties; the formation of inter-fractional parliamentary groups, the aim of which is to protect the institution of family in Ukraine; to conduct permanent political action, various public events that are devoted to the issues of the family; to fulfill the undertaken international obligations to protect the rights of parents and children; to coordinate the activities of politicians, ministries, agencies, civil society organizations and movements whose activities are aimed at protecting the interests of the family; to promote family associations and movements; to defend the interests of traditional Ukrainian family, the promotion of family values, recognition of their priority in the international arena.

Organizational direction should be implemented through activities concerning the establishment of organizational structure of bodies involved in securing SFP in Ukraine, coordination of international and national agencies and organizations, interagency coordination in the planning and implementation of activities ensuring the implementation of SFP in Ukraine. The mentioned directions have been thoroughly analyzed in our previous publications [13; 14; 15].

In this context it is necessary to point out that for the effective implementation of SFP in Ukraine, it is important to improve and optimize the activities of central and local executive authorities - the entities ensuring the activity of SFP in Ukraine and civil institutions.

It is expedient to create the relevant legal framework for the realization of citizens' constitutional rights to participate in public affairs and to have free access to information concerning the activities of bodies of state power - the entities ensuring the activity of SFP in Ukraine as well as to ensure transparency and openness of activities of these bodies.

The demographic direction should be implemented through the system of following measures: reforming the system of pre-school and school medicine; ensuring the availability of families to sports activities through the development of infrastructure and organization of physical culture and sports activities at the places of residence, work and leisure; promotion in the media of propaganda of healthy lifestyle for children and adolescents; the development of advocacy at the individual, family levels of society and the state in terms of awareness on reproductive rights; addressing the problem of access to quality and affordable health services and inspections of the rural population; the formation of social consciousness of parents, who live in rural areas, in relation to their own health and the health of their children through the development of state programs and target funds intended for their implementation with appropriate control over the efficiency of their use; improvement of diagnosis and treatment through the targeted consolidation funds for the purchase of equipment and training of the medical personnel; the establishment of a network of consulting services for general health maintenance with the corresponding information of their activities and propaganda of healthy lifestyle in mass media about the availability of these services, principles and conditions for their provision at local and state levels that would correspond to the formation of conscious demand for such services; the application of measures concerning the development of a network of children's institutions of improvement and recreation, prevention of their number reducing, conversion and misuse; the introduction of alternative forms and methods of organization of educational process for preschool children; promotion of the system of educational services (daytime nanny, nurseries, playgrounds, schools of early development; private pre-school institutions, mini-kindergartens, etc.); promoting the expansion of children's cultural institutions, sports clubs, educational institutions and clubs; creating the conditions for possibilities of reducing the working hours for working parents; extension and improvement of the market of services for child care, establishment of partial compensation from public funds, depending on the number of children in the family; creating the conditions to combine employment with raising children through the expansion of infrastructure of preschool institutions and day care facilities for children (including disabled children), ensuring an access of children with disabilities to mainstream schools, encourage enterprises to introduce the forms of work organization (children's rooms, flexible hours, etc.); increasing the financing of adult education and children recreation; encourage the development of flexible employment options that can help parents combine employment and family responsibilities ("accumulation" of working hours with the purpose of their future use, part-time work, distance and home-based work, etc.).

Special attention should be given to the measures for the minimization of labor migration: to create conditions for the reduction of departure for working abroad; to develop the internal migration of citizens in order to meet the needs of labor market of Ukraine and as an alternative of working abroad; the protection of the rights of citizens who work abroad; to create conditions for the return of migrants to their homeland through maximum use of the results of labor migration for development [16, p. 28].

In order to implement the economic directions of the SFP in Ukraine it is necessary: to stimulate the instruments of tax and credit policy of domestic manufacturers of children's products, educational, cultural and recreational services, employers for creating jobs for parents who are raising minor children; to encourage the introduction by employers of flexible forms of employment, which provided parents with the opportunity to combine family and professional functions, by the economic methods (tax incentives, rental privileges, etc.); to reform the wages, which should be based on a fair distribution of income between labor and capital based on a family factor; to improve existing and to develop new mechanisms for long-term lending for families of average incomes; to improve the system of mortgage lending by increasing the volume of housing construction at the expense of all funding sources; to introduce the practice of family taxation; to create the economic conditions to stimulate entrepreneurial initiative of families, self-employment, farming; to develop a model of preferential lending to families on the organization of their business; to ensure appropriate and timely funding of health institutions at the expense of state and local budgets, social insurance fund on temporary disability and non-budgetary funds; to provide support to children's institutions of rehabilitation and recreation through the provision of benefits for utility services, food, and local taxes and fees.

Social direction should include the definition of real living wage taking into account inflation; exemption from taxation of revenues at the level of minimum social standards, which are necessary to support the livelihoods of citizens and members of their families; to ensure differentiated and targeted approaches to the provision of state guarantees of social protection; improvement of monitoring system of social benefits aimed at poverty reduction, through the definition of specific goals, objectives and performance indicators of budget programs of social protection of the population; application of measures to ensure the early detection and timely provision of targeted comprehensive social assistance to families with children who need it; the provision of social inspection and social support to families who are in difficult life circumstances; the introduction of a system of assessment of the needs of local communities in supporting families with children; ensuring the effective functioning of institutions of rehabilitation and social services for families in crisis; increase in funding the local budgets of social programs and activities aimed at different categories of families; the development of new methodological approaches to the definition of poverty indicators; implementation of regulatory framework of implementation of social programs and activities for families with children, including the development of state social standards; development of state programs for the provision of social housing for special need categories of families; the improvement of the conditions of rehabilitation of children with disabilities and children with limited physical and mental capacities, to facilitate them in acquiring all possible professions, to establish the new special and sports equipment; promoting the acquisition of vocational education, employment and provision of social and living conditions of orphans and children left without parental care and their further employment; the introduction of a set of measures of social, educational, medical, hygienic, sports nature, aimed at improving and strengthening the health of children and the youth; development of national model of social and economic patronage of young couples, families with children, especially large families, single-parent and socially disadvantaged for various application levels (city, village, urban-type settlement); reorientation of the SFP on the anticipation of family troubles.

It is also necessary to improve the mechanism of payments to one-time material assistance for child birth, to simplify the procedure for obtaining this assistance, which provides many types of inquiries, most of which are available at the place of mother's registration; to conceptually review the content of the payment with a state-guaranteed minimum and parental salary, and, thus, stimulating the family birth with average income levels; to conceptually reform the current system of social benefits, which are paid to low-income and large families, replacing them with tax, to introduce the package "child care" [17, p. 395-400]; to improve the Institute of public inspectors of the departments of labor and social protection through the improvement of monitoring and licensing functions, the improvement of organizational, staffing and logistical support of their work; to improve the system of reporting, to simplify the procedure for appointing all types of state social benefits using information technology for remote consultation of citizens, to define the rights of the family to receive state social assistance.

Information direction of SFP should be implemented through the following activities: providing regular display of statistical and sociological information on the situation of families in the media, scientific journals, and special literature; raising public awareness about agencies and services that are provided to families; ensuring regular display of state statistics, the results of the census of population in order to provide society with reliable data on the situation of families, problems and ways of their solution; attraction of print and electronic media to form positive experience of the formation of young families, responsible parenthood, and large families; ensuring the organization of targeted information campaign designed for the formation of civil position concerning the issues of increasing the birth rate, value of children and the status of fatherhood, transition from small families to the family with average number of children, reorientation of values to the stable full family with several children, promotion of healthy lifestyles, family forms of upbringing children; ensuring placement of information in print media, preparation of reports, speeches of responsible government officials, experts of national, regional television and radio for coverage of activities undertaken for the implementation of SFP in Ukraine, the formation of public opinion and image of professionals working with families; carrying out social activities among the youth audience, aimed at formation of positive image of the family; the conduct of various awareness-raising activities for the public with the objective of anticipating violence in families; production and placement of outdoor advertising on billboards, banners, billboards, aimed at formation of positive image of the family; increase in number of children's cultural-educational and health programs on television and radio; prohibiting all kinds of propaganda of violence, cruelty and pornography, especially in the media; the production of presentation products for the promotion of the priorities of SFP in Ukraine.

Cultural and educational direction of SFP in Ukraine should be implemented through the establishment of schools for young parents, development of special programmes for these schools, providing professional training; ensuring the development of programmes to prepare young people for family life and the formation of responsible parenthood; the introduction of alternative forms and methods of organization of educational and training processes; ensuring carrying out an examination of textbooks, manuals and curriculum for general educational institutions in compliance with the norms of public morality, family values; promoting the development of the system of educational services; improvement of the forms of advisory work on issues of marriage, parenting, sexual education of adolescents and young people; provision of national and international events, festivals, concerts, competitions, and exhibitions the purpose of which is to promote patriotism, spirituality, morality, formation of universal human and family values, promoting healthy lifestyle; involvement of youth and children's civic organizations to participate in patriotic and educational, cultural and educational, sport and local history work with children in the institutions of rehabilitation and recreation for children; preservation of existing and creation of new institutions of cultural, educational and family-patriotic education of children and youth.

Finally, application in practice of the above mentioned priority areas will contribute to the effective reform and will create meaningful, comprehensive, effective system of SFP in Ukraine.

 

References:

  • 1. Skurativskyi V., Palii O., Libanova E. Social Policy. – K., 1997.
  • 2. Silenko A. Social state: evolution of ideas, essence and prospects of development in modern Ukraine: dissertation inpolitical science. – Odesa, 2000.
  • 3. Kutsenko V., Udovychenko V., Ostafiichuk Ia. Social state (problems of theory, methodology, practice).– K., 2003.
  • 4. Kulachok L.V. State assistance to families with children as a form of socio-legal protection: dissertation abstract: 12.00.05 / L.V. Kulachok – Kharkiv, 2003.
  • 5. Marriage, family and childbearing orientations in Ukraine. – K., 2008.
  • 6. Vakulenko S.M. Optimization of family policy in the conditions of modern Ukrainian society: dissertation abstract for obtaining PhD in social science: 22.00.04 "Special and industrial sociology" / S.M. Vakulenko. – Kharkiv, 2007.
  • 7. Nychyporenko S.V. Youth family policy in Ukraine: formation and implementation: dissertation abstract for obtaining PhD in economic science: 08.00.07 / S.V. Nychyporenko – Kyiv, 2008.
  • 8. Hryshchuk A.M. Administrative-legal protection of the family, children and youth:  dissertation in legal sciences: 12.00.05 / Hryshchuk A.M. – Zaporizhzhia, 2011.
  • 9. Chekhovska I.V. Theoretical and methodological aspects of research of problems of the modern family policy of Ukraine // Scientific Bulletin of National University of state tax service of Ukraine (Economics, law). – 2010. – № 1 (48). – p. 229-238.
  • 10. Chekhovska I.V. Regime of the state family policy of Ukraine // Sociology of law. – № 2. – 2011. – p. 32-44.
  • 11. Chekhovska I.V. Basic provisions of Conception of state family policy of Ukraine // Scientific Bulletin of National University of state tax service of Ukraine (Economics, law). – 2011. – № 1 (52). – p. 217-223.
  • 12. Chekhovska I.V. Constitutional foundations of the state family policy of Ukraine / I.V. Chekhovska // Small and medium business. – 2012. – № 1. – p. 89-97.
  • 13. Chekhovska I.V. The system of constituent entities of the state family policy of Ukraine / I.V. Chekhovska // Scientific notes of the University – 2012. – № 3 – p. 303-309.
  • 14. Chekhovska I.V. The main directions of optimization of the system of social protection of Ukrainian families / I.V. Chekhovska / Stock Expert.  – 2012. – № 7-8. – p. 64-65.
  • 15. Chekhovska I.V. Influence of public organizations on the formation and implementation of DSP in Ukraine / Chekhovska, I.V. // Scientific Bulletin of National University of State Tax Service of Ukraine (Economics, law). – 2013. – № 1 (58). – p. 150-159.
  • 16. Malynovska O.A. Labour migration : social consequences and responses / Malynovska O.A. – K.: NISD, 2011.
  • 17. Chekhovska I. V. Package of child care: the experience of the EU countries / I.V. Chekhovska // Reform of the tax service of Ukraine in accordance with European standards: conference materials of scientific and practical conference, October 22: Part I, II – Irpin, 2010. – Part 2. – p. 395-400.
Комментарии: 3

Зульфугарзаде Теймур Эльдарович

Научная работа посвящена исследованию вопросов, связанных, прежде всего, с объективной необходимостью дальнейшего развития приоритетных направлений государственной семейной политики, проводимой Украиной. Заслуживает внимание предложение автора о необходимости комплексного изучения теоретических и методологических проблем государственной семейной политики Украины. Работа выполнена на высоком теоретическом уровне и заслуживает внимания, в первую очередь, специалистов в области семейного права.

Чеховская Ирина Васильевна

Thank you for appreciating my work dear colleague!

Чиладзе Георгий Бидзинович

The work is a solid research in the field of family policy and family law and presents arguments indicating the need for complex study of theoretical and methodological problems of Ukraine's state family policy. Scientific work deserves very high scores. Dear colleagues, I wish you continued success and achievements!
Комментарии: 3

Зульфугарзаде Теймур Эльдарович

Научная работа посвящена исследованию вопросов, связанных, прежде всего, с объективной необходимостью дальнейшего развития приоритетных направлений государственной семейной политики, проводимой Украиной. Заслуживает внимание предложение автора о необходимости комплексного изучения теоретических и методологических проблем государственной семейной политики Украины. Работа выполнена на высоком теоретическом уровне и заслуживает внимания, в первую очередь, специалистов в области семейного права.

Чеховская Ирина Васильевна

Thank you for appreciating my work dear colleague!

Чиладзе Георгий Бидзинович

The work is a solid research in the field of family policy and family law and presents arguments indicating the need for complex study of theoretical and methodological problems of Ukraine's state family policy. Scientific work deserves very high scores. Dear colleagues, I wish you continued success and achievements!
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