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CONTENT OF PROTEIN AND GLYCOPROTEINS, THEIR COMPONENTS IN THE ORAL FLUID AT THE CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GASTRITIS, DUODENITIS

CONTENT OF PROTEIN AND GLYCOPROTEINS, THEIR COMPONENTS IN THE ORAL FLUID AT THE CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GASTRITIS, DUODENITIS
Елена Романенко, ассистент, доктор медицинских наук

Штомпель Анна, ассистент, ph.d. медицинских наук

Синьковская Ольга, ph.d. медицинских наук

Матвеева Анна, студент

Днепропетровская государственная медицинская академия, Украина

Миротина Наталья, врач

Днепропетровская городская детская стоматологическая поликлиника №2, Украина

Участник конференции

In the oral fluid of children with chronic gastritis, duodenitis increased protein content (up to 7.33±0.43 g/l) on a background of decreasing level of glycoproteins (up to 0.03±0.01 mg/ml). Coefficient of ratio protein / glycoproteins in the oral fluid increased in 9510 times, which have been shown the intensive decay of protein-carbohydrate complexes and increasing content of the protein fragments.In thecomposition of glycoproteins reduced amount of hexosamines (up to 0.23±0.01 mmol/l), on a background of increasing sialic acids (up  to 0.16±0.01 mmol/l) and fucose (up to 0.87±0.02 mmol/l). Coefficient of ratio terminal and corpus monosaccharides in the glycoproteins of oral fluid at the patients with chronic gastritis, duodenitis increased 2.41 and 3.34 times, compared with the same values in the control group of children, which significantly modifies functional properties of the protein-carbohydrate complexes.

Keywords: oral fluid, gastritis, duodenitis, glycoproteins, hexosamines, sialic acids, fucose.

One of the most perspective approaches to non-invasive diagnostic, focused on the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal tract diseases is consider researching of the oral fluid composition.

Oral fluid criteria should describe both the local and general reactions, i.e. covered mucous membranes of a digestive tract. Composition of the oral fluid should change in a case of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, carried out in oral cavity and an upper gastrointestinal tract.

Non-specific antimicrobial components of the oral fluid are protein-carbohydrate complexes (glycoproteins). Protein and glycoproteins create the oral fluid viscosity and a layer that protects mucous membranes of the oral cavity from influence factors of the physical and chemical nature, pathogenic microflora.

Purpose of research– to study content of the protein and glycoproteins, their components in the oral fluid at the children with chronic gastritis, duodenitis.

Materials and methods.There were examined 189 patients, among them 92 (48.7%) of boys and 97 (51.3%) of girls, aged from 12 till 17 years. First group included 107 patients with chronic gastritis, duodenitis. Second group (control) included 82 children with healthy oral cavity, without the somatic pathology.

Patients in the first group (56 girls and 51 boys) were treated in the gastroenterological department of the regional children's clinical hospital. Period of gastrointestinal disease at the examined patients, according to the anamnesis, was varied from 1 to 6 years. Diagnosis of gastroduodenal pathology was confirmed after clinical, endoscopic and ultrasonic examinations.

Determination contents of glycoproteins, hexosamines, fucose and sialic acids in the oral fluid were performed at the children with chronic gastritis, duodenitis, and among children of control group, according to our authors’ methods. Research of the protein was carried out by biuret’s method.

Results and discussion. Analysis of an oral fluid revealed increasing of protein content among children group with chronic gastritis, duodenitis (table 1). Chronic gastritis and duodenitis are acid-related diseases. Their basic pathogenic link should be increasing production of the hydrochloric acid by the stomach glands. Increasing of protein content in the oral fluid at the children is consider to be protective reaction of organism against rising of the gastric juice acidity and reflux of acid stomach contents into the esophagus with concomitant motor disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.

 To our opinion, increasing of protein level in the oral fluid is compensatory reaction, which has been shown an intensive function of salivary glands at the inflammatory processes of gastroduodenal area. Investigation of a protein level with using biuret’s method allows us to identify its fragments, firstly. Secondly, we could reveal a link between increasing of the total protein level and the fast disintegration in the structures of an upper digestive tract.

At the same time, content of glycoproteins was significantly decreased at the children with chronic gastritis, duodenitis, as the result of their rapid destruction in the oral cavity, and deterioration synthesis of the protein-carbohydrate complexes in the salivary glands.

At the research composition of the glycoproteins, taken from saliva in the control group of children, revealed that average level of monosaccharides descending in such order as the follows: fucose (0.61±0.01 mmol/l), hexosamines (0.49±0.02 mmol/l), sialic acids (0.14±0.01 mmol/l) (table 1). Typical feature of biochemical disorders in the structure of glycoproteins from oral fluid at the children with chronic gastritis, duodenitis is decreasing amount of hexosamines, which should demonstrate a number and length of carbohydrate chains in the glycoproteins. Decreasing levelofhexosamineshad been shown about violationofthe glycoproteins synthesis,carried out inthesalivaryandmucousglands.

Тable 1.

Content of protein and glycoproteins, their components in the oral fluid at the children in the research groups (М±m)

Groups

Indicators

Total protein, g/l

Common

glycoproteins, mg/ml

Sialic

acids, mmol/l

Fucose,

mmol/l

Hexosamines, mmol/l

1

(n=107)

7.33±0.43

р<0.01

0.03±0.01

р<0.01

0.16±0.01

р<0.01

0.87±0.02

р<0.01

0.23±0.01

р<0.01

2

(n=82)

2.57±0.06

0.10±0.01

0.14±0.01

0.61±0.01

0.49±0.02

Note. р–significance of differences compare with indicators in the control group.

 

The given trend was typical for structuralchangesin theepithelialcellsoforalcavity, which should provoke violationofthe protectivepropertiesoforalfluid. In this case takes place increasing concentration of the sialic acids, i.e. fucose, which should be primary important to create additional links between carbohydrate connections in some parts of the glycoprotein molecule.

Finally, decreasing of hexosamines demonstrates chronic pathology in the upper digestive tract. Sialic acids and fucosein the protein-carbohydrate complexes were located terminally. Thus, the sialic acids are responsible for hydrophilic properties of the glycoproteins; fucose should be supported hydrophobic sites in a molecule, thereby, ensures their adhesion to the hydrophobic areas in the membrane epithelial cells. Given situation contributes to enhanced colonization of epithelial cells by pathogenic microorganisms. Increasing level of sialic acids in the glycoproteins should carry out to the increase of the oral fluid viscosity. In the physiologic conditions it protects the epithelium from adhesion with pathogens.

Increasing of the oral fluid hydrophobicity was associated with high content of fucose, contributes to its thickening at the inflammation in the mouth and reduces its protective properties. Increasing content of the sialic acids in patients of the first group, compared with control group, demonstrates development of the compensatory reactions in response to tissue inflammation in the upper digestive tract.However, taking into account irregularities in the structure of glycoproteins at the result of decreasing content of hexosamines and fucose increasing. We consider in this case, that changes of protective properties of the oral fluid are part of pathogenesis of the oral cavity diseases.

At the same time, despite on the significant differences of separate monosaccharides amount, carried out in the groups of research children, common quantity of monosaccharides in the 1st group had no significant difference from the same indicator at the children from control group (table 2).This fact is explained by significant increasing of the terminal glycoprotein monosaccharides (sialic acids and fucose) on a background of reduction content of the corpus monosaccharides (hexosamine). Although, the total amount of monosaccharides in a glycoprotein should not change, some changes carried out in the functional properties of protein-carbohydrate complexes.

Particular interest should be focused on the research relationships in the content of protein and the protein-carbohydrate complexes, corpus and terminal monosaccharides in glycoproteins as the criteria, which reflected imbalance between damaging and protective factors in the oral fluid.

                   Тable 2.

Indicators total amount of monosaccharides in the oral fluid glycoproteins at the children groups (М±m)

Groups

Total amount of monosaccharides,mmol/l

1

(n=107)

1.23±0.02

р=0.08

2

(n=82)

1.24±0.02

Note. р–significance of differences compare with indicators in the control group.

In order to determine quality indicators of the oral fluid was calculated coefficient of ratios protein to the glycoproteins, the corpus and terminal monosaccharides (table  3).

Тable 3.

Ratio of protein and protein-carbohydrate complexes, corpus and terminal monosaccharides in the oral fluid (М±m)

Groups

Coefficientof ratios

Protein / glycoproteins

Sialic

acids/ hexosamines

Fucose/ hexosamines

1

(n=107)

244.33×103±26.02

р<0.01

0.70±0.12

р<0.01

4.14±0.45

р<0.01

2

(n=82)

25.70×103±3.26

0.29±0.05

1.24±0.10

Note. р–significance of differences compare with indicators in the control group.

It has been found, that in the oral fluid at the children from control group ratio of protein to glycoproteins was 25.70×103, sialic acids to hexosamines – 0.29, fucose to hexosamines –1.24.At the children of the 1st group, ratio of protein / glycoproteins in the oral fluid increased in 9510 times (p<0.01), which indicates about fast disintegration of glycoproteins in the oral cavity and increasing content of protein fragments due to exposure of the microbial enzymes.Coefficient of ratio terminal and corpus monosaccharides in the glycoproteins of oral fluid among the patients with chronic gastritis, duodenitis increasing, compared to the same values in control group of children 2.41 and 3.34 times (p<0.01).

Givenchanges couldindicate aboutserious violation, which carried outbiosynthesis and degradation all components of the glycoproteins in the oral fluid at the upper gastrointestinal tractdiseases.  

Taking into account, that immune defense of the oral cavity (immunoglobulins, complement, interferon) are represented by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, we consider, that for the barrier properties of oral fluid assessment should be carried out researches, which focused on the level of hexosamines, because it allows us to give a qualitative assessment maturity of glycoproteins.

Conclusions. Basic feature of biochemical indices should be focused on the oral fluid of children with chronic gastritis, duodenitis, having increased protein content (up to 7.33±0.43 g/l) on a background of decreasing level of glycoproteins (up to 0.03±0.01 mg/ml).Coefficient of ratio protein / glycoproteins in the oral fluid increased 9510 times, compared with the same indicator in the control group of children, which indicates about fast disintegration glycoproteins in the oral cavity. Qualitative composition of glycoproteins was changed due to the decreasing of hexosamines (to 0.23±0.01 mmol/l), increasing concentrations of the sialic acids (to 0.16±0.01 mmol/l) and fucose (to 0.87±0.02 mmol/l).Coefficient of ratio for the terminal and corpus monosaccharides in the glycoproteins of oral fluid at the patients with chronic gastritis, duodenitis increased, compared with the same values in the control group of children 2.41 and 3.34 times, that significantly modifies functional properties of the protein-carbohydrate complexes.

 

References:

  • 1. Methods of determination glycoproteinsand their components (hexosamines, fucose, sialic acids) with diagnostic purpose in the mixed saliva at the children with  gastroduodenal pathology: metodical recommendations / [Yu. M. Stepanov, O. H. Romanenko, V. O. Kondratiev, et all]. –  Kyiv, 2015. –  20 p.
  • 2. Tailford L.E. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiоte   / E. L. Tailford, E.H. Crost, D. Kavanaugh, N. Juge // Frontal  Genetics. - 2015. - Vol. 19, №6. -  P. 81 - 86.
  • 3. Spielmann N. Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives/ N. Spielmann, D.T. Wong//Clininical Therapy. - 2015. - Vol. 37, № 3. -   Р. 529 - 539.
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