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SMALL GENRE FORMS OF INFORMATIONAL STYLE

SMALL GENRE FORMS OF INFORMATIONAL STYLE
Наталия Леонова, старший преподаватель

Национальная Металлургическая академия Украины, Украина

Участник конференции

The current article describes the small genre forms of information operating within the informative style of the contemporary Ukrainian language and focuses on their syntactic features and their position among the similar syntactic units. The qualitative and quantitative parameters evidencing on the implementation of the stated units in the speech and some of their specific syntactic character are reported.

Keywords: informative style, lead paragraphs,advertisements in transport,word military orders,small genre forms of information, SGFI.

Despite of the fact that the informative styles, namely informational style and publicistic style, are very close in the contemporary linguistics, the apartness of informational style and its distinctivenessfrom the publicistic style are considered to be fairly proved.  Thespecific character of  the infomative text syntax has been studied by many linguists but it still remains one of the topical problems in contemporary syntax theory.    

D. Kh. Barannik, who is the first to single out the informational style and informative speech, distinguishes the styles by the aim and the functional target within the oral form of the Ukrainian monologue speech and keeps apart the informational style as the speech composition of an informative objective. The form of speech, oral or written, is regarded as an indicator, according to the scientist. [2; p. 2-6; 3, 4]. Being based on the norms of the contemporary linguistics, we may claim that the term “language style” possesses at least three definitions, as follows: 1) individual manner of information oral rendering; 2) expressive and stylistic kind of language; 3) functional type of language [14].

It also worth noting that the oral and the written forms of language applied for informative texts of the contemporary Ukrainian press evidence the agility and the  changeability of their system as it reflects all the processes which take place at the certain stages of the Ukrainian language development as well as within any other national language in general.

The small genre forms of information, the peculiarities of their syntax and their grammatical types are the scantily researched issue of contemporary syntax. The urgency of this problem is emphasized by the fact that small genre forms of information have never been the object of a complex study.

The problem of distinguishing the small genre formsis relevant to theme “Regular Character of the Ukrainian Language Development and  Functioning”of the scientific researches of the Ukrainian Language Chair of Dnipropetrovsk National University Oles Honchar.

The significant contribution to the theory of informative text syntax, specific character of genres and genre forms of  the publicistic style and the informational style is made by Ju.O. Areshenkov [1], D.Kh. Barannik [2], A.A. Volkov [5], K.H. Horodenska [6], V.I. Hrytsyna [7], V.V. Zaitsev [9], T.V. Melkumova [11] and others.

It should be noted that the specific differentiating feature of the publicistic style and the informational style is in the correspondence of a speech composition to an activity type: informative speech targets mass information while the publicistic one pursuits political-ideological-informative activity. The differences of the two styles are traced in the spheres of their applications, functional directions, stylistic traits, linguistic functions and attributes. These styles as well as the other styles of language have their own genres and genre forms; we consider the publicistic style and the informational style to be the source of the small genre forms of information (hereinafter referred as SGFI).

The current paper deals with the SGFI syntax issues uncovered in the earlier researches, namely, the specific character of the vocative structures of the stated types, directing dominants of word military orders, super-phrase unity of lead-paragraphs and others.

The methodological and scientific valueof the research is in the opportunities to utilize its results for further studies on the language genre systems, for analyses on genre forms of the oral and written speech, for enlarging and improving the theoretical courses on sentence syntax and specialized text books as well as for application in seminars on syntax and stylistic problems being carried out at the Humanities within the institutions of higher education.

In this paper, small genre forms of information are defined as the models which are grammatically close in their volume to syntactical mini-structures, clearly distinguished within the informational style (a few groups  - within the publicistic style) and possessing syntactical specific character described by autonomous existence, modality, expressiveness, semantic completeness, lingua and social indicators, laconic way of expression, address to a target audience and usability mainly in the informative styles (the informational style and the publicistic style) of the contemporary Ukrainian language.

Within the informational style, we explore in more details the following genre forms: vocative SGFI constructions, announcements of a chairperson, comprehensive SGFI addresses, announcements of moderator of mass entertainment or social events, nominative SGFI constructions, SGFI announcements in transportation means; within the publicistic stylelead-paragraphs and detailed headlines of the periodicals. Word military orders are regarded as a highly specialized kind of SGFI in the contemporary Ukrainian language.

Making research on the identification problem for word military orders as highly specialized SGFI, it is important to pay attention to their differentiation per speech type (oral, oral-written, oral-informative) in which word military orders are applied as it is a novel issue which appeared to be out the contemporary linguistic focus. It needs to be mentioned that these structures are mainly sentences of imperative modality. Moreover, functionally imperative SGFI word military orders falls into classes: imperative sentences, sentences to express requests, sentences to express calls, sentences to express prohibitions, etc. In order to illustrate the materials under research we use the Ukrainian authentic speech submitted in the form of transliteration accompanied with 1) word by word translation into English, produced with the objective to sustain the original syntax and colouring of the Ukrainian language, and 2) traditional English translation: Varta rivniais,strunko, rivniannia pravoruch – 1) Guard – even, straight, even right – 2) Guard – dress, front, dress right; Varty,pravoruch!,Krokom – rush! - 1) Guards, right!, Bystepmove! – 2) Guard, right!, Forwardmarch; Vartovyi, pryiniaty post – 1) Guardsman, takethepost – 2) Guardsman, takeoverthepost; Viddilennia, – do zbroi!  Poporiadkurozrakhuis! – 1) Squadtoarms! Inordercountyourself2) Squad! Standto! Countoff!;Viddilennia, kruhomrush! - 1) Squad, roundmove! – 2) Squad, totherear, march); Viddilennia, napershytadruhiirozrakhuis! – 1) Squad,the first and the second – count yourself! 2)Squad,by twos, Count off!; Viddilennia, roziidus – 1)Squad,spread. – 2) Сlose station![10].Amongthestudiedstructures, thisSGFI group totals up to 9 %.

The grammatical peculiarities, specific character of the structure, and original functionality of of lead paragraphs and periodical’s headlines, which make up the most widely spread group of SGFI, also have never been discussed by the linguists. In our opinion, irrespectively of the text type, the essential part of every lead paragraph as well as of every headline is the informative function or the function of influence, or the advertising function that is the direct evidence that the mentioned structures belong to SGFI.

Among the mostly widely used lead paragraphs and detailed headlines structures which function within the pressmedium are the sentences with the hortatory modality, which performs the imperative function for the further expositionof a newspaper text contents.  Lead paragraphs almost never exceed one paragraph composed of three sentences: Znaioma rozpovila po telefonu, shcho  bilia nashoi shkoly v ceperekruto, pryikhaly shvidky”, pozhe zhni mashyny.Vchytelka na mii dzvinok zapevnyla, shcho vse v poriadku, dity na vulytsi. Oskilky dveri v klas zablokuvalo ruinami vid stiny, to vybyralusia cherez vikno. – 1) Acquaintance told on phone, that near our school everything is blocked, came “quecklies”,  fire cars. Teacher to my call ensured me, that everything is in order, children on street. Because door to class is blocked with ruins from wall, then got out through window. – 2) An acquaintance called me and told, that the roadblocks were set all around the area near our school, ambulances and fire engines arrived. When I called the teacher, she gave me a relief: everything was ok, the children were out of doors at that moment. Due to the doorways blocked with wall ruins, they had to get out through the window.[6]. Thistype of SGFI isapproximately 22%.

 The nest SGFI group, which worth the reader’s attention, is railway station announcements. Their structure has their specific features, which remains to be not widely studied. These features are determined by the performance peculiarities of the autoinformer or recorded announcement facility (recording) along with microphone (living oral speech). The specific structure of the railway station announcements and their syntactic models are in the direct dependence on the announcement type as a discrete construction from the standpoint of the contemporary syntax: they predominantly have expressive coloring to enhance their impact on the target audience. One of a productive SGFIgroup of this kind to be actively developing is the announcements on rail way tickets sell. In contemporary syntax, they are classified as definite-personal sentences and amount about 17%out of  their class structures: Prodam dva zhd bileta Kyiv - Donetsk na 30.08.2014 roku – 1) I will sell two r. w. tickets Kyiv – Donetsk to 30.08.2014 year – 2) Two Kyiv - Donetsk railway tickets on 30.08.2014are on sale; ProdamzaliznychnibiletyzPoltavydoChernihova  – 1) I will sellrailway tickets from Poltava to Chernihov. – 2) Railway tickets of Poltava-Chernihov destination are on sale [13]. Among the SGFI models, railway station announcements make up 33%.

The other group of SGFIs, which we would like to demonstrate, is subway autoinformer announcements. Their syntactic features and their grammatical structures have appeared to be out of the complex linguistic analysis although these announcements conveyed by autoinformer in subways are a SGFI type which takes its position among the similar syntactic structures. Nominative and vocative sentences with hortatorymodality(prohibition, request, advisement, etc.) dominate among them as models in which the discussed structures are implemented. These units are used to name a location or an object and are represented in the oral speech by the models containing proper names (the examples are as follows: Stantia “Khreshchatik”! – 1) Station “Khreshchatik”! – 2) Khreshchatik; Stantia Hidropark”!, Stantia Ploshcha Revolutsii”– 1) Station “Hidropark”!, Station  Square Revolutsii”– 2) Hidropark. Revolutsii Square[12]); or models where the proper name follows the preposition and is followed by hortatory-proposal-indicating part:StantiaZoloti vorota. Perekhidnastantiiu Teatralna”– 1) Station Zoloti vorota”. Passing way to stationTeatralna– 2) Zoloti vorota. Through this station you can get to Teatralna station; Stantia metro Khreshchatik”. Perekhid nastantiiu Maidan Nezalezhnosti ” – 1) Station of subway KhreshchatikPassing way to station Maidan Nezalezhnosti”.  – 2) Khreshchatik.Through this station you can get to Maidan Nezalezhnosti)[12]. Among the groups under analysis in the current research, this type of SGFI makes up approximately 17%.

The list of transport means SGFIs would be incomplete without the airport announcements, which features have not been systematically described yet. We consider that nominative sentences of announcement, which belong to SGFI structures and the variations of their hortatory units, are dynamic and becoming more often applied syntactic constructions of SGFI group due to the manifestation of the nominal or naming function actualized in the medium where they are operated.  Vocative sentences of announcement are evidenced to be widely used. They belong to airport autoinformer SGFI structuresand require the addressee to perform certain deeds, which are mainly understood from the previous context of the announcement. These are the constructions with   distinctive hortatory functions or narration.  Among these structures, SGFI totals 19%.

Conclusions. SGFI discussed in the article have a significant number of the main features,  which are relevant to small genre forms of information: dominating autonomous character, distinctively singled out modality, implementation in lingua and social medium, laconic character, address to the well-determined target audience and employment in the language informative styles (informational style and publicistic style). The syntactic characteristics of the structures under analysis have the common features:mainly hortatory modality, application of vocative constructions, employment of nominative structures and implementation of oral directive micro-impacts, supported by concentrated syntactic mini-forms, in particular, hortatory vocative sentences with enlarged part of proposition, and other features.

The vocative constructions take their place among other one-member units of appeal as the syntactic units of small genre forms of information in the contemporary Ukrainian language.  SGFI vocative sentences are close to unextended and extended  addresses in terms of their structure but  are more complex in their content that the ordinary addresses. The vocative constructions here are actively used almost in all SGFIs described in the article.

 

References:

  • 1. Areshenkov Yu.O. Temporalno-lokatyvna kharakteryzatsiia povidomlennia yak stylova oznaka informatsiinoho tekstu // Na nyvi ukrainskoi filolohii : zb. nauk, pr., prysv. 80-rishshiu vid dnia narodzh. d. filol. n., prof. D.X. Barannyka. – Dnipropetrovsk : Porohy, 2003. – S. 36-41.
  • 2. Barannyk D.X. Do pytannia pro “informatsiinyi”styl movy // Movoznavstvo. – 1967. – № 6. – S. 3-10.
  • 3. Barannyk D.X. TSeremonialnyi riznovyd publitsystyshnoho styliu // Movoznavstvo. – 1977. – № 3. – S. 14-19.
  • 4. Barannyk D.KH. Usnyi monoloh: zahalni osoblyvosti movnoi struktury. – Dnipropetrovsk: vyd-vo Dnipropetrovskoho derzhavnoho universytetu. – 1969. – 144 s.
  • 5. Volkov A.A. Kompozytsyia tekstov massovoi ynformatsyy // Aspektы obshchei y shastnoi lynhvystysheskoi teoryy teksta / N.A. Sliusareva, N. Y. Troshyna, A. Y. Novykov y dr. ; redkol. / Pod. red. N.A. Sliusareva. – M. – 1982. – S.75-101.
  • 6. Hazeta «Den», № vid18 zhovtnia 2016 r. [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Rezhym dostupu: <https://day.kyiv.ua/uk.
  • 7. Horodenska K.H. Deryvatsiia syntaksyshnykh odynyts. – K.: Nauk. dumka, 1991. – 192 s.
  • 8. Hrytsyna V.I.Infrastruktura reshen publitsystyshnoho styliu: avtoref. dys... kand. filol. nauk. – Zaporizhzhia, 2002. – 19 s.
  • 9. Zaitseva V.V. Informatsiinyi styl v ukrainomovnii hazeti // Na nyvi ukrainskoi filolohii: zb. nauk. pr. –Dnipropetrovsk : Porohy, 2003. – S. 232-240.
  • 10. Zakon Ukrainy N 3543-XII Pro zahalnyi viiskovyi oboviazok i viiskovu sluzhbu / Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady ( VVR ) 1992, N 27, st. 385 //  Vvodytsia v diiu Postanovoiu VR N 2233-12 vid 25.03.92, VVR 1992, N 27, st. 386.
  • 11. Melkumova T.V. Posylennia bekhabityvnoi funktsii masmediinoho movlennia stylistyko-syntaksyshnymy zasobamy // Naukovyi shasopys NPU im. M.P. Drahomanova / Ser. 10. Problemy hramatyky i leksykolohii ukrainskoi movy. – K., 2011. Vyp. 7. – S. 220-222.
  • 12. Oholoshennia avtoinformatora kharkivskoho metropolitenu [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Rezhym dostupu: www.metro.kharkov.ua
  • 13. Elektronnyi resurs. Rezhym dostupu: http://www.ekomok-nn.ru/offer-i-id-i-44228-i-2-platskarta-kiev-dneprodzerzhinsk-na-3-maja-po-sebestoimosti.html.
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Комментарии: 11

Ольга Шарагина

Цікава доповідь, яка відзначаєтьсь стислим, але науково обгрунтованим та грамотно структурованим викладом матеріалу в контексті вивчення малих жанрових форм. З повагою Шарагіна О.В.

Кутуза Наталья Валерьевна

Уважаемая Наталья Валерьевна! Спасибо за Ваш доклад! Интересным представляются синтаксические особенности малых жанровых форм и для дальнейшего изучения! Успехов!! С уважением , Наталья Кутуза

Кобякова Ирина

Спасибо за ценный опыт, изложенный в докладе! Ваше исследование является ценным как с лингвистической, так и с педагогической точки зрения, и станет незаменимой опорой в дальнейшей деятельности педагогов и лингвистов. Искренне желаем Вам дальнейших интересных, перспективных и продуктивных исследований! Ирина Коябкова.

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Благодарю за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительный отзыв. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.

Назаренко Елена Вячеславовна

Уважаемая коллега, спасибо за интересный доклад! С уважением, Елена Назаренко.

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Искренне благодарна за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительный отзыв. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.

Романченко Алла Петровна

Уважаемая Наталия Валериевна! Благодарю Вас за интересный доклад. Поясностью поддерживаю Вас в том, что малые жанровые формы, в отличии от основных жанров любого стиля, достаточно глубоко исследованных, для языковеда представляют закономерный интерес, ибо оригинальны по смыслу и особенно по форме, средствам репрезентации этого смысла. Искренне желаю Вам успехов в сфере науки!

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Большое спасибо за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительную оценку. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Уважаемая коллега, с интересом ознакомившись с Вашим докладом, хочу поблагодарить за оригинальный подход к вопросу межъязыковых контактов. Очень близка проблема грамматического прессирования в языке-реципиенте, что является предметом дискуссии в билингвальной среде национального и литературного языка. С искренней благодарностью за Ваш доклад, Наталия Леонова.

Хамзе Димитрина

Уважаемая коллега! Большое Вам спасибо за интересный и исчерпывающий доклад! Действительно малые жанровые формы в информационном стиле почти не изучены; они не были в фокусе языковедческих интересов, а еще меньше были объектом комплексного исследования, как Вы отмечаете. Очень убедительно указали основные функции этих минисинтактических единиц и выявили доминантную модальность. Сердечно поздравляю и желаю дальнейшей ползотворной работы! С уважением! Димитрина

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Большое спасибо за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительную оценку. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.
Комментарии: 11

Ольга Шарагина

Цікава доповідь, яка відзначаєтьсь стислим, але науково обгрунтованим та грамотно структурованим викладом матеріалу в контексті вивчення малих жанрових форм. З повагою Шарагіна О.В.

Кутуза Наталья Валерьевна

Уважаемая Наталья Валерьевна! Спасибо за Ваш доклад! Интересным представляются синтаксические особенности малых жанровых форм и для дальнейшего изучения! Успехов!! С уважением , Наталья Кутуза

Кобякова Ирина

Спасибо за ценный опыт, изложенный в докладе! Ваше исследование является ценным как с лингвистической, так и с педагогической точки зрения, и станет незаменимой опорой в дальнейшей деятельности педагогов и лингвистов. Искренне желаем Вам дальнейших интересных, перспективных и продуктивных исследований! Ирина Коябкова.

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Благодарю за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительный отзыв. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.

Назаренко Елена Вячеславовна

Уважаемая коллега, спасибо за интересный доклад! С уважением, Елена Назаренко.

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Искренне благодарна за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительный отзыв. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.

Романченко Алла Петровна

Уважаемая Наталия Валериевна! Благодарю Вас за интересный доклад. Поясностью поддерживаю Вас в том, что малые жанровые формы, в отличии от основных жанров любого стиля, достаточно глубоко исследованных, для языковеда представляют закономерный интерес, ибо оригинальны по смыслу и особенно по форме, средствам репрезентации этого смысла. Искренне желаю Вам успехов в сфере науки!

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Большое спасибо за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительную оценку. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Уважаемая коллега, с интересом ознакомившись с Вашим докладом, хочу поблагодарить за оригинальный подход к вопросу межъязыковых контактов. Очень близка проблема грамматического прессирования в языке-реципиенте, что является предметом дискуссии в билингвальной среде национального и литературного языка. С искренней благодарностью за Ваш доклад, Наталия Леонова.

Хамзе Димитрина

Уважаемая коллега! Большое Вам спасибо за интересный и исчерпывающий доклад! Действительно малые жанровые формы в информационном стиле почти не изучены; они не были в фокусе языковедческих интересов, а еще меньше были объектом комплексного исследования, как Вы отмечаете. Очень убедительно указали основные функции этих минисинтактических единиц и выявили доминантную модальность. Сердечно поздравляю и желаю дальнейшей ползотворной работы! С уважением! Димитрина

Леонова Наталия Валериевна

Дорогая коллега! Большое спасибо за проявленный интерес к моей работе и положительную оценку. С уважением и благодарностью, Наталия Леонова.
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