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Citizenship education in school: adolescent attitude survey

Citizenship education in school: adolescent attitude survey
Жидра Kупренайте, преподаватель

Jolita Lubiene, преподаватель

Ramune Ubeikiene, преподаватель

Regina Jakaitiene, студент

Utena College, Литва

Участник конференции

The citizenship education problems in school, defining adeloscent attitude to the need for this education will be reviewed in this article.Thesurvey results of pupils(7-8th grade) are presented revealing their patriotism, national identity also understanding the importance of these values formation.The citizenship education problems are exposed on the basis of an educational point of view.It is important for implementation of the citizenship education programs in school. The survey results does not claim to summative conclusions because pupils of the region Aukstaitija (Lithuania)  were only interviewed.

Keywords: citizenship, patriotism, education, adolescent, school

Introduction

Citizenship education is one of the most important goals of the Lithuanian Strategy "Lithuania 2030".„Lithuanian Education Law“ (2011) emphasizes the citizenship education importance which states: "The Lithuanian school aims to help pupils to prepare for independent life and be active in the civil community also to create conditions to develop values of each person, to convey the folk and ethnic culture and to ensure conditions for mature national identity also to guarantee cultural continuity, to gain democratic traditions of civil and political culture, to develop the skills and experience necessary for a person as a competent citizen of Lithuania as well as Europe and multicultural community. (4)

It should be emphasized that the free public safety depends on educated citizens as well as the guarantee of civil liberties  are democratic values, based on mutual trust. Therefore it can be asserted that the civil education is the most important role of school. (1)

In order to initiate the civil responsibility it is necessary to develop education support strategy based on the „National Education strategy project 2013-2022“, (2012), national programs („Long-term national and civic education program“, 2006; „National progress program 2014-2020“), general education programs („Citizenship education program“, 2008; „Integrative citizenship education program“, 2008).

The civil culture education according to social and economic developments in Lithuania and the world, is considered one of the most important areas of school education from the very beginning of the Independence declaration. Education results are revealed based on  the Civil Society Institute survey  „Lithuanian Society of Civil Power Index (PGI)“. This study shows an active participation in civil activities otherwise they do it more for personal reasons than for the state common life.

Although the Lithuanian education program accords to the modern European citizenship education, however civil education practice in schools should be focused on pupils participation in the civil activities competences. (4,5,6)

Article goal– to reveal citizenship education based on the adolescents‘ attitude.

Methods: scientific literature analysis, information sources analysis, statistical analysis, questionnaire survey.

Survey description and methodology

The survey was performed in school X on April 2015.General pupils‘ size  - 78, size of interviewed - 65 pupils: 29 girls and 36 boys.

Survey goal – to explore opinions of pupils (7-8 grade) about the need for civil education in school.Questionnaire was made of 23 questions for quantitative examination.

The citizenship concept and its educational theoretical aspects

Throughout history the citizenship concept has transformed constantly together with the society evolution and became a subject of disputes and debates.Civil education was understood widely as well as focused on political, economic and national education also social development.The main goal was to develop the human consciousness and the sense of solidarity. (2)

The promotion of citizens active participation in social and political life is becoming an important political priority at both national and European levels.The priorityof „the European strategy of educational collaboration“ (2009) is identified as the most important tool to promote active citizenship.It is expected that by 2020 the most important goal of European cooperation should be to support the Member States' development of education systems (5).

According to lithuanian surveys carried out - civil knowledge of adolescents is not enough, therefore, in authors opinion, pupils should be involved to the improvement of civil education process.

Survey results analysis

During the study, respondents were asked to indicate the meaning „to be a patriot“.They had to mark answers "is important“, „less important“, „it does not matter“.The results showed that most boys and girls (86%) perceived citizenship as native country defence in a case of danger. 83%of boys and 67%of girls identified participation in public events as less important criterion. Respondents (8% of boys, 17% of girls) noted „family development and life keeping in a native country“ as  unimportant factors. The results suggest that adolescents emphasize the importance of native country defence as a condition of citizenship. Otherwise, both boys and girls evaluations have shown that there is no need to live in a native country in order to remain a patriot (Fig. 1).

Fig.1. Respondents opinions‘ distribution about to be patriotic and to live abroad

Respondents were asked about development of a young person citizenship.They pointed out the most important educators (see Fig. 2) - parents and family (54%), teachers (46%)and successful people (35%). Media, television, internet have also a huge influence (28%). Social pedagogue could include non-governmental organizations - projects development, summer camps with the Young National Volunteers who should help to shape adolescents’ attitudes and values. 

Fig. 2. Respondents opinions‘ distribution about patriotism development

This study was focused on citizenship therefore respondents were asked about the patriotism promotion – in opinion of 51% of respondents the promotion is necessary. According to respondents (Fig. 3) 40% believe that citizenship is more or less naturally inherent for each.More than half of respondents think that the civil provisions need to be encouraged to talk also discuss about it. It should be noted  that part of the adolescents linked citizenship to the standard of living in the country: „if they live well, they love country too“. The youth forums with citizenship topics discussion would allow the different opinions and attitudes in the promotion process  of adolescents citizenship formation.

Fig. 3. Respondents opinions‘ distribution about patriotism promotion in Lithuania

The educational process in school is mainly focused on national festivals celebration also citizenship interviews with teachers at class meeting time (Fig. 4). The general civil education program (2004) also promotes to integrate citizenship in subjects with the participation of non-governmental organizations. (7)

The civil education‘s content is focused on general competences and is constructed by three areas: public awareness and exploration, participation and initiation of changes in community, social networking and support. Citizenship education always needs practice activities therefore the social solidarity and national civil activity were introduced in Long-term civil and national education program (2006-2012).All schools should allow pupils to participate in social activities according to their ages‘ characteristics and interests. (6)

Fig. 4.Respondents opinions‘ distribution about the citizenship educational process

Inadequate attention to civil education may affect the still topical problems of emigration.The lack of civil education can be named as one of the factors contributing to emigration.According to the Lithuanian Statistics Department, there is still a growing trend of emigration - 2015 (emigrants - 44533) compared with 2013-2014 (emigrants - 35000). (8)

Survey data show the majority of adolescents (57%) believe „it is possible to be Lithuanian patriot and to live abroad“ (Fig. 5).Citizenship limits of the modern world is much wider than the national territory.Therefore it is possible to be a patriot and to live  abroad, but it is necessary to keep in touch with lithuanians emigrants, their position on nationality, civil responsibility development and geopolitical consciousness.

Conclusions

1.      Examination of citizenship’s education in schools lets to do these conclusions:

  • · according to respondents love of a native country is not related to a living place;
  • · family, teachers, successful people have the greatest impact on the civil education;
  • · promotion of patriotism is necessary from the early age in the family with introduction of citizenship values and integration of citizenship education to school subjects: interviews with teachers, national festivals celebrations, non-governmental organizations with civil initiatives promotion;
  • · promotion of history and origin pride is relevant factor.

2.      According to the authors of this article – it is necessary to achieve better results in order to expand adolescents’ participation with informal practice use; to expand civil education in schools also to pay more attention to such aspects of civil education as a condition to encourage pupils’ participation in making school decisions development; to use opportunities of the local community and its organizations by providing pupils with the civil activities outside of school.

 

References:

Комментарии: 5

Панфилова Альвина Павловна

10.10.2016. Уважаемые коллеги. Поздравляю вас с включением в нашу команду, где вы, несомненно, состоялись, так как ваша статья - это практический результат эмпирического исследования на очень актуальную тему для каждой страны. Подростки подрастают и делают свой выбор, не всегда в пользу тех, кто их учит и воспитывает. Результаты говорят сами за себя, здесь комментарии излишни, а вот если бы вы сделали ещё один срез, связанный с причинами отъезда из страны, с эмиграцией, то, возможно, в школьном возрасте можно было бы ещё что-то предпринять, вступив в партнёрские отношения с родителями, с представителями средств массовой коммуникации, со всеми, кто для школьников является "лидерами мнений". Это очень трудоёмкий процесс, длительный, но безусловно, рано или поздно положительно влияющий на отток мозгов и ослабление генофонда страны. Очень интересное исследование, перспективное для дальнейших изысканий. С уважением, Альвина Павловна

Кубанов Руслан Анатольевич

Интересная статья, любопытные результаты. Проблема гражданского воспитания актуальна для образовательных систем многих государств, и однозначного взгляда на проблему не существует. Хочется пожелать литовским авторам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях обозначенной темы. С уважением, Кубанов Р. А.

Лаврентьева Олеся Алексеевна

Уважаемые авторы! благодарю за интересно представленный материал. С удовольствием ознакомилась с результатами вашего исследования!

Долгова Валентина Ивановна

Спасибо за Вашу хорошую работу. Приглашаю принять участие в действующем Конгрессе МАНВО (проекты - научные конгрессы - действующие конгрессы). Бесплатно.... С уважением и наилучшими пожеланиями, проф. В. Долгова.

Galina Makotrova

Уважаемые авторы, спасибо за проявленный интерес к теме, которая всегда актуальна для педагогов в любой стране. Интересно, на мой взгляд, дальнейшее углубление исследования, основанное на культурологическом подходе. В этом случае, наряду с ценностными характеристиками будет рассмотрена деятельностная и лично-творческая составляющая гражданской культуры человека, дана градация меры его развития, выявлены дисгармонии и ее причины.
Комментарии: 5

Панфилова Альвина Павловна

10.10.2016. Уважаемые коллеги. Поздравляю вас с включением в нашу команду, где вы, несомненно, состоялись, так как ваша статья - это практический результат эмпирического исследования на очень актуальную тему для каждой страны. Подростки подрастают и делают свой выбор, не всегда в пользу тех, кто их учит и воспитывает. Результаты говорят сами за себя, здесь комментарии излишни, а вот если бы вы сделали ещё один срез, связанный с причинами отъезда из страны, с эмиграцией, то, возможно, в школьном возрасте можно было бы ещё что-то предпринять, вступив в партнёрские отношения с родителями, с представителями средств массовой коммуникации, со всеми, кто для школьников является "лидерами мнений". Это очень трудоёмкий процесс, длительный, но безусловно, рано или поздно положительно влияющий на отток мозгов и ослабление генофонда страны. Очень интересное исследование, перспективное для дальнейших изысканий. С уважением, Альвина Павловна

Кубанов Руслан Анатольевич

Интересная статья, любопытные результаты. Проблема гражданского воспитания актуальна для образовательных систем многих государств, и однозначного взгляда на проблему не существует. Хочется пожелать литовским авторам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях обозначенной темы. С уважением, Кубанов Р. А.

Лаврентьева Олеся Алексеевна

Уважаемые авторы! благодарю за интересно представленный материал. С удовольствием ознакомилась с результатами вашего исследования!

Долгова Валентина Ивановна

Спасибо за Вашу хорошую работу. Приглашаю принять участие в действующем Конгрессе МАНВО (проекты - научные конгрессы - действующие конгрессы). Бесплатно.... С уважением и наилучшими пожеланиями, проф. В. Долгова.

Galina Makotrova

Уважаемые авторы, спасибо за проявленный интерес к теме, которая всегда актуальна для педагогов в любой стране. Интересно, на мой взгляд, дальнейшее углубление исследования, основанное на культурологическом подходе. В этом случае, наряду с ценностными характеристиками будет рассмотрена деятельностная и лично-творческая составляющая гражданской культуры человека, дана градация меры его развития, выявлены дисгармонии и ее причины.
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