facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki
Global international scientific
analytical project
GISAP
GISAP logotip
Перевод страницы
 

UNPAID WORK IN THE HOUSEHOLD. THE SOCIAL ASPECTS.

UNPAID WORK IN THE HOUSEHOLD. THE SOCIAL ASPECTS.UNPAID WORK IN THE HOUSEHOLD. THE SOCIAL ASPECTS.
Matutis Vaidotas

Vilnius College of Higher Education , Литва

Даля Андрэйкенене

Vilnius College of Technologies and Design , Литва

Участник первенства: Национальное первенство по научной аналитике - "Литва";

Открытое Европейско-Азиатское первенство по научной аналитике;

In the Paper, unpaid work in the household is discussed upon. A formulation of the concept of the unpaid work in the household is offered; the structure and diversification of various types of housework’s are analyzed. In the study, a family is interpreted as household. It is proposed to assess the work in a family in several aspects. First of all, as a social component of the overall of work. Work in the household is also considered unpaid outwork, so it is proposed to discuss a possibility to include it in the period of labour activity of the person. We present for discussion the features and the structure of unpaid outwork made in the household. This analysis discloses the social aspects of expression of general welfare and the trends of its changes. The economic aspect of the said component of these activities is planned for discussion in another paper.

Keywords: household, outwork, differentiation of income and unpaid outwork of residents, indicators, social differences, general welfare, family.

 

Introduction

Work is a process of creation of material and intellectual values as well as welfare of a person, a collective and the community. In a work, a person realizes his (her) potentials and ideas, as a social being, and strives to create a product that would contribute to ensuring good living conditions for the person. The value of this idea appears because of its contribution to formation of active civic consciousness and principal social potential of a community – a family. The Labour Code of Republic of Lithuania (The Labour Code, 2002) includes provisions on work time and rest time as well as paid and unpaid work out of the household and paid outwork; however, it does not go deep into unpaid work in the household.

In the presented Paper, the concept of unpaid work in a family (upon the household conditions) as well as its role and its impact on our social life are discussed upon. This subject almost has not been discussed in scientific literature.

The object of the study: unpaid work in the household; its structure.

The aim of the study: to disclose the contents and the structure of unpaid work in the household as well as its social aspect on the base of analysis of the statistical data and the household investigation results.

The methods of the study: The logic analytic method was applied for interpreting the social contents of legal norms and conceptions (related to paid and unpaid work or the rest time) upon striving to provide conclusions and proposals. The comparative historical method was applied for disclosing the changes of the concept of unpaid work in the household and their causes. The method of critical analysis was applied for establishing dysfunctions of the process regulation or possible causes of appearance of such dysfunctions. Upon applying the questionnaire expert method, the data collected from answers to non-formalized questions were used for discussion on the structure of the unpaid work in the household.

Unpaid work in a family is classified according to the standards of the Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS) upon taking into account the character of the activities, which is inseparable from the structure of satisfaction of human needs. The components of the said structure include: household activities, education, sports, culture, health care, environmental protection, civil protection, politics, consumer protection and inter cooperation. On the base of the provided classification, it may be supposed that unpaid work in the household united the following four elements:

  • •  personal household;
  • •  private household in the agricultural sector;
  • •  welfare economy in the household (welfare of the members of family);
  • •  public, community and charity activities.

Personal household works involves every member of the community. They include: acquisition of foodstuffs, food cooking and preparation for consumption; acquisition of clothes and their maintenance (cleaning, washing, ironing); everyday maintenance of the dwelling (cleaning of furniture and carpets); environmental management; acquisition of household appliances, their use, maintenance and repairs; acquisition of vehicles, their use, maintenance, repairs and preparation for technical inspection; acquisition of household communication means, their use, maintenance and repairs; nursing of children, parents, grandparents and other persons (allied or not) at home; informal nurture of children: teaching certain abilities and skills as well as purposeful formation of the personality; training of parents in informal nurture; care of children and assistance to children that frequents a school; work in the family related to teaching the children to strive for the virtuousness and to observe the public norms; other activities bound with unpaid work in the household (Table 1).

Table 1.

The averaged structure of work time of a person involved in the household (in percent)

No.

The scale of household works

Switzerland

Lithuania

1.

Acquisition of foodstuffs, food cooking and preparation for consumption

33.0

32.9

2.

Personal hygiene and health care

7.0

5.8

3.

Acquisition of clothes and shoes and their maintenance

5.0

8.1

4.

Acquisition of household appliances and home electronics; their use, maintenance and repairs; everyday maintenance of the dwelling, its repairs and heating

18.0

19.3

5.

Assistance to members of the family and cohabitants

2.0

1.5

5.

Vehicles

13.0

9.0

6.

Education and self-education

1.6

7.

Communication means and communication

3.9

8.

Recreation and satisfaction of cultural needs

16.0

12.9

9.

Travels

4.0

3.0

10.

Indeterminate activities

2.0

2.0

 

In the Table 1, the data provided by the Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS) and the data on the results of expert  assessment performed by the authors in Lithuania are presented. It may be seen from them that the largest shares of the time are used for work related to acquisition of foodstuffs, food cooking and preparation for consumption (33 percent), to acquisition of household appliances and home electronics; everyday maintenance of the dwelling, its repairs  and heating as well as satisfaction of similar needs (19.3 percent), also to recreation, culture and other needs (12.9 percent).

Taking into account the existing breaks in the work in the household, the work time of a day may be equated to single-shifted work time, or 8 working hours So, the total annual time of work in the household will be 2920 hours (365 days x 8 hours = 2920 hours). On comparison of the said work time with the economically efficient annual work time of an employed person   equal to 1700 hours (the latter is calculated as a difference between the calendar work time, the set work time and the average normed time of absence of an employee at the workplace) we find that a person working in the household for 2920 hours per year is as if employed for 1.7 FTE (2920 hours: 1700 hours = 1.7).

It is very important social aspect of work in the household, so we propose to calculate this work time as uninsured work time and include it in the period of labour activity of the person.

The result of reproductive economy in scientific research works on a civil society is described of the only author – R. Putnam (Putnam, 2001). It is the so called social capital that, in addition to works of other types, is predetermined by the unpaid work in the household. Social networks, links, values and attitudes of citizens are important factors of social and economic development of a state.

Unpaid work in the family expresses itself in abundant ways, so it is difficult to classify it to categories. In different countries, the number of persons involved in unpaid work in the family, the profiles of their activities, age, origin and education differ.

Some persons state that unpaid work in the family is chosen on one‘s free will and the own initiative, so it cannot be compulsory in any way. The obligation of an individual on involvement in this activity is determined not only by financial stimuli, but also on striving for acting in interests of his/her family and for nurture of personalities.

The forms of unpaid work in the family include: assistance to other persons, in particular, the ones of old age and the disabled, contribution to nurturing the personalities of members of the family, mutual aid and reciprocal aid groups.

However, while discussing the social aspects of unpaid work in the household on the international scale, it should be stressed that the assessment highly depends on the cultural and social traditions formed in a specific country. So, its impact and the attitudes towards it differ considerably. In a majority of European states, the pension system (where all employable citizens solidarily care about those member of the society that are not able to work anymore) is developed already. Such a solidary care is redistributed through involvement of social foundations and other social institutions. Whereas in China, the social traditions are restricted to the family, so the employable members of the family are obliged to care about  the members of the family that are not able to work. However, the trends of applying a combined care system or a system of social guarantees are being recently observed in China as well.

The European social system for retirement insurance was formed in the period of production modernization, when machine works appeared, and the process of formation of the system was only slightly behind the reform of education of that period aimed for training the skilled manpower. The cheapest way to implement the said task was establishment of universal compulsory secondary education and making it free of charge. The appearance of machine works caused increasing grow of labour productivity to an extent the provided a opportunity to start developing a pension protection (retirement insurance) system. Whereas in China, the cultural traditions provided a stronger impact on the social development, as compared to appearance of machine works. So, the impact of unpaid work in the household on the social and economic development of any country shall be assessed very carefully, upon taking into account the trends formed by the cultural traditions of the country.

Unpaid work in the household is particularly valuable because of its contribution to creation of public welfare. It includes not only social services or the sectors for implementing the principal tasks of the state. Unpaid work in the household is also beneficial for creation of the family income, its intellectual potential, social and public relations. Any persons having chosen unpaid work in the household associates him (her) self with other members of the society.

Unpaid work in the household that covers various sectors of activities may be stimulated purposefully. If a person is responsible for nurturing sociability of children, he/she may educate and nurture them in a way that ensures their turning into active members of the community in future. In this process, the source of inspiration is involvement in social programmes where most frequently members of families take part. Unpaid work in the household may play an exceptional role in the struggle against a long-term unemployment and professional mobility, because it may contribute to accumulation of the experience and knowledge necessary for the labour market and to form a communication net. In addition to the activities in the social and health sectors (that are considered traditional parts of the unpaid work in the family), it is possible to acquire the knowledge and skills in general relations, communication, self-expression, social skills, organizational management, professional education and so on. Abundant opportunities to try various social roles, to learn making proper decisions, to tackle problems, to perceive the labour culture, to test the own sense of justice and management skills disclose themselves.

Unpaid work in the household may turn into an important part of the biography and the professional career. So, unpaid work in the household is an important measure of informal and non-institutional education that supplements the formal education, nurture and training. For active persons of elder age,  unpaid work in the household is important for two causes: first of all, they are provided a possibility of further participation in the life of the family, to share their life experience and to feel  them useful (that positively impacts both their health status and the quality of life); secondly, unpaid work in the household may stimulate a better reciprocal understanding of different generations of the family thus forming the favourable conditions for old and young members of it to work together, to share their experience and to support each other. In addition, employers and enterprises may play a certain role in stimulating unpaid work in the household, because their officials and specialists, while working out of the enterprise, acquire social experience accompanied by increasing creativity and motivation. Besides, enterprises progressively perceive their social responsibility: the reciprocally useful partnership between local & national institutions and enterprises contributes to creation of public welfare. A dialog of social partners, reciprocal learning and collective contracts may be helpful in earning a higher level of recognition and support for unpaid work in the household that is a constituent part of social responsibility.

The conclusions

  • 1.  Unpaid work in the household that is particularly important for nurturing the community differs from any other works in the place of its execution only; in addition, it is unpaid. It should be equated to any other works carried out in the public sector and the private sector. So, unpaid work in the household should be included in the calculated period of labour activity of the person for accumulation of the social capital.
  • 2. Unpaid work in the household is efficient: any other forms of work are based on it, because namely it produces and reproduces the manpower – the most important public resource. This fact discloses an importance of unpaid work in the household for the social aspect of public welfare. Some outwork services may be provided by certain agencies against the relevant (agreed) remuneration or by volunteers – without any remuneration.

 

References:

  • 1. Dalė Andreikėnienė,. “Darbo namų ūkyje kaip (ne)profesionalizacijos socialinė – ekonominė problema” TILTAI, 2015, 2, 67–78, ISSN 1392-3137 (Print), ISSN 2351-6569 (Online);
  • 2. (Ne)apmokamas darbas: šeimai palanki darbo aplinka ir lyčių lygybė Europoje. (2006). Ats. red. J. Reingardė. Vilnius: Eugrimas. ISBN 978-9955-9775-8-2;
  • 3.Ashiagbor, D. (2005). The European employment Strategy. Labour Market Regulation and New Governanace. Oxford: University Press, 347 p. ISBN 0-19-927964-0;
  • 4.Crompton, R. (1999). Restructuring Gender Relations and Employment: The Decline of the Male Breadwinner. Oxford;
  • 5.Čiužas, A. (2003). Požiūrio įdarbąkitimas. Filosofija. Sociologija 4: 1–26;
  • 6.David, S. (2006). No Place Like Home. Organizing Home-Based Labor in ihe Era of Structural Adjustment. New York: Routledge, p. 1–5;
  • 7. Dėl darbuotojo ir valstybės tarnautojo vidutinio darbo užmokesčio apskaičiavimo tvarkos. LRV nutarimas Nr. 650. (2003). Valstybės žinios, 2003-05-30, Nr. 52-2326. Prieiga internete: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=332839&p_query=&p_tr2=2 [žiūrėta 2012 02 20];
  • 8.Den, D. L. (2001). Work-family arrangements in organizations. A crossnational study in the Netherlands, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden. Amsterdam: Rosenberg publishers, p. 59–84. ISBN 0-202-30656-9;
  • 9. Haker, L. (1996). The family-friendly employer in Europe. In: S. Lewis, J. Lewis. The workfamily chalenge. Rethinking employment. London: Sage;
  • 10.Kanopienė, V. (1999). Moterų ir vyrų galimybės darbo rinkoje. Feminizmas, visuomenė, kultūra (straipsnių rinktinė). Vilnius: VU leidykla, p. 68–79;
  • 11.Lijphart, A. D. (1971). Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method. American Political Science Review,p. 1–65;
  • 12. Lisabonos sutartis. (2007). Europos Sąjungos oficialus leidinys C 306/01. Prieiga internete: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:C:2007:306:SOM:LT:HTML [žiūrėta 2012 02 20];
  • 13. Mariarosa, D. C. (2008, 1994). Capitalism and Reproduction. In: W. Bonefeld (ed.). Subverting the Present Imagining the Future. Brooklyn (NY): Autonomedia;
  • 14.Martinkus, B. (1998). Gyventojų užimtumo ir nedarbo pokyčių tendencijos. Ekonomika ir vadyba, p. 1–54. Kaunas;
  • 15.Martinkus, B. (1998). Darbo ištekliai ir jų naudojimas. Monografija. Kaunas: Technologija, 131 p.ISBN 9986136598;
  • 16. Mitrikas, A. A. (2001). Moters vaidmens vertinimas Lietuvoje ir Europos šalyse. Filosofija. Sociologija 4: 1–24;
  • 17. Navickas, V., Paulavičius, K. (1999). Darbo rinka: teorija ir valstybės politika. Vilnius;
  • 18.Palujanskienė, A. (2003). Darbo ir karjeros psichologija. Kaunas: LŽŪU;
  • 19. Peggy, A. (2004). TheGlobalWomen’sMovements. Origins, IssuesandStrategies. London: ZedBooks;
  • 20. Putnam, R. D. (2001). Kaddemokratijaveiktų: pilietinėstradicijosšiuolaikinėjeItalijoje. Iš anglų kl. vertė J. Novagrockienė ir A. Ramonaitė. Vilnius: Margi raštai;
  • 21. Rakauskienė, O. G., Chlevinskas, E., Bikas, E., Lisauskaitė, V. (2007). Moterų verslo konkurencingumo didinimas Lietuvoje. Vilnius: Standartų spaustuvė. ISBN 978-9955-801-00-9;
  • 22. Baxandall, R., Gordon, L. (eds.). (2000). Dear Sisters, Dispatches from the Women’s Liberation Movement. New York: Basic Books;
  • 23. Federici, S. (2008, 1992). War, Globalization and Reproduction. In: M. Meyer, E. Ndura-Ouedraogo (eds.). Seeds of New Hope. Pan-African Peace Studies for the Twenty-First Century. Trenton (NJ): Africa World Press, p. 114–164;
  • 24. Šemeta, A. (2004). Sociologija lyčių politika Lietuvoje ir Europos Sąjungoje. Mintys ir veiksmai 3 (teminis Nr. 4). ISSN 1392-3352;
  • 25. Šveicarijos UBS banko prieiga internete: http://www.ubs.com/ch/de/search.html.
0
Ваша оценка: Нет Средняя: 7.9 (8 голосов)
Комментарии: 17

Дядченко Анастасия

Очень интересная и злободневная тема.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран. Хоть ваша тема практически параллельна представленной здесь, объединение усилий всегда полезно для достижения более глубокого понимания...

Чирун Сергей

Автором представлена интересная статья, написанная с опорой на внушительный список современных научных изданий, а также возможности компаративистики. Статья грамотно структурирована, содержит в себе содержательные научные выводы и заслуживает высокой оценки. Желаю успехов автору в реализации творческих замыслов!

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим за добрые пожелания

Назарова Елена Павловна

Работа заслуживает высокой оценки, авторами выносится на обсуждение оригинальная и актуальная проблема, требующая решения целого ряда вопросов. Например, учет гендерных различий: социально - экономические данные, свидетельствуют о том, что в среднем мужчины располагают более высокими доходами по сравнению с женщинами, и что женщины оказываются в невыгодном положении в результате осуществления своих социальных домаших ролей и неадекватной оценки этих ролей в обществе. Однако и мужчины могут оказаться в невыгодном социально-экономическом положении и т.д....

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. То что природой созданы различия между мужчиной и женщиной мы отменить не в силах. Так что остаётся изучать эффективность взаимного сотрудничества этих двух элементов социального механизма… Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Кондратьева Светлана

Тема исследования статьи о неоплачиваемой домашней работе - очень оригинальна и злободневна практически для каждого из нас!

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран...

Назарова Елена Павловна

Topic is relevant, «this subject almost has not been discussed in scientific literature», but an analysis of types of unpaid domestic work continues to reveal sex/ gender divisions of labour in households. Although the gap between men's and women's performance of domestic work has narrowed slightly, a greater share of housework continues to be performed by women…

Вайдотас Матутис

Thank you for your attention. This topic is interesting and very important for the future ... Especially that the women, as the first social shell and first teacher of child, must get prioritized and special education... and men must understand it...

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Очень хорошая работа, которая безусловно должна получить дальнейшую проработку. Спасибо автору за такой взгляд на проблематику неоплачиваемой работы.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Новиков Андрей Вадимович

Автором поднята очень значимая тема неоплачиваемой работы в личном домашнем хозяйстве. Работа опирается на хорошо верифицированные и зарекомендовавшие себя методы анализа. Представлена достаточно интересная статистическая информация, позволяющая читателю оценить сравниваемые показатели по Литве и Швейцарии. Используемая научная литература также позволяет более детально изучить представленную проблему.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Коноплицкая Оксана

Очень интересная статья. Автору удалось раскрыть актуальную тему, которой, к сожалению, в отечественной социологии надаётся так мало внимания.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Вайдотас Матутис

Full article in russian: http://matutis.eu/социальные-аспекты/
Комментарии: 17

Дядченко Анастасия

Очень интересная и злободневная тема.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран. Хоть ваша тема практически параллельна представленной здесь, объединение усилий всегда полезно для достижения более глубокого понимания...

Чирун Сергей

Автором представлена интересная статья, написанная с опорой на внушительный список современных научных изданий, а также возможности компаративистики. Статья грамотно структурирована, содержит в себе содержательные научные выводы и заслуживает высокой оценки. Желаю успехов автору в реализации творческих замыслов!

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим за добрые пожелания

Назарова Елена Павловна

Работа заслуживает высокой оценки, авторами выносится на обсуждение оригинальная и актуальная проблема, требующая решения целого ряда вопросов. Например, учет гендерных различий: социально - экономические данные, свидетельствуют о том, что в среднем мужчины располагают более высокими доходами по сравнению с женщинами, и что женщины оказываются в невыгодном положении в результате осуществления своих социальных домаших ролей и неадекватной оценки этих ролей в обществе. Однако и мужчины могут оказаться в невыгодном социально-экономическом положении и т.д....

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. То что природой созданы различия между мужчиной и женщиной мы отменить не в силах. Так что остаётся изучать эффективность взаимного сотрудничества этих двух элементов социального механизма… Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Кондратьева Светлана

Тема исследования статьи о неоплачиваемой домашней работе - очень оригинальна и злободневна практически для каждого из нас!

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран...

Назарова Елена Павловна

Topic is relevant, «this subject almost has not been discussed in scientific literature», but an analysis of types of unpaid domestic work continues to reveal sex/ gender divisions of labour in households. Although the gap between men's and women's performance of domestic work has narrowed slightly, a greater share of housework continues to be performed by women…

Вайдотас Матутис

Thank you for your attention. This topic is interesting and very important for the future ... Especially that the women, as the first social shell and first teacher of child, must get prioritized and special education... and men must understand it...

Королев Евгений Сергеевич

Очень хорошая работа, которая безусловно должна получить дальнейшую проработку. Спасибо автору за такой взгляд на проблематику неоплачиваемой работы.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Новиков Андрей Вадимович

Автором поднята очень значимая тема неоплачиваемой работы в личном домашнем хозяйстве. Работа опирается на хорошо верифицированные и зарекомендовавшие себя методы анализа. Представлена достаточно интересная статистическая информация, позволяющая читателю оценить сравниваемые показатели по Литве и Швейцарии. Используемая научная литература также позволяет более детально изучить представленную проблему.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Коноплицкая Оксана

Очень интересная статья. Автору удалось раскрыть актуальную тему, которой, к сожалению, в отечественной социологии надаётся так мало внимания.

Вайдотас Матутис

Благодарим Вас за уделенное внимание. Приглашаем присоединиться к более обширным исследованиям данной темы. Так как это важно для стремления взаимопонимания социальных аспектов при сравнении уровней разных стран.

Вайдотас Матутис

Full article in russian: http://matutis.eu/социальные-аспекты/
Партнеры
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.