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PURPOSEFUL ORIENTATIONS AND TRENDS OF CONTEMPORARY GEOGRAPHY

Автор Доклада: 
Trofimov A.

PURPOSEFUL ORIENTATIONS AND TRENDS OF CONTEMPORARY GEOGRAPHY

Trofimov Аnatoly, Doctror of Geography Sciences,
Honored Scholar of Russia and Tatarstan,
full professor (title "Honored Professor of Kazan Federal University")
of Geography and Ecology Faculty, Department of Physical and Economic Geography

The problem on what trends of ideas of geographical accomplishments were forming the theoretical-methodological base of those accomplishments has remained vague. The first “trend of ideas” in geography has become apparent since the beginning of the last century when the spatial analysis was being formed it closed up with the sweeping ideas of Globalisation. The last trend of geographical ideas development was connected with the interaction of interest”s vector in natural science.

At the present time the paradigm of postclassical rationality, the sence of which is explained in the fact that the investigation is subjected to a certain integrity: socio-ecologo-economical object. Thus, there arose the idea of postnonclassical geography. It is also true that new works and even training appliencies with a content are close to the idea of “innovational geography”.

And one more importance aspect. The thing is that the sulking at the present time idea of nana-technologies in general is of the same class. In nana-technologies the same idea of “interference” was used, but actually on the lowest scale level, into composition of structural organization of the object when on the atom (or ever lower) level structure of the main components of object is reconstructed in such a way that an investigator can obtain what he needs.

Not long ago, in one of our papers (Trofimov at all.,2010) there was a possibility to advance an opinion on integrity, fundamental positions and purposeful objective of Contemporary Geography. There have been shown the establishment of the basic fundamental positions and their realization – spatial, complex and other kinds of a geographical analysis.

However, the problem on what trends of ideas of geographical accomplishments were forming the theoretical-methodological base of those accomplishments has remained vague.

Starting with the 50s of the 19th century the subjects, dealing with space, polarization, and distance has been developed greatly. More earlier papers, ideas and theories of Tuenen (1926), Christaller (1966), Losch (1954), the papers of “spatial” and “regional” economists – Perru, Budvil, Isard (1962), the investigations of “A NEW” Geography led to creation of a new knowledge on a humanized surface. The concept of spatial (territorial) planning introduced a special model of geographical analysis based on the whole complex of notions: net (framework) – hierarchy (management) – division – centre and periphery – distance. It is this model that became the basic foundation of geography of the last years (Taylor,1991).

It is obvious that the study of real spatial structures and processes caused by them are connected with the study of structural peculiarities of the space where they function and develop. The spatial aspect becomes an inalienable part of the investigation that is what which gave rise to a complex approach in geography (Tarkhov,2005) aspect of institutional modernization in economy is bound up with natural-historical process dominating in geographical space-time: concentration and dispersion (Mashbitz,1991; at all).

The significance of complex approach in geography was realized still earlier (Forrester,1961). Complexity becomes apparent in a geographical space-time and leads to the formation of peculiar territorial combinations. In the connection with the development of those tendencies in geography, there occurred a significant by the content the sweeping of the notion “formation”. J.Kramer (1991).

At the present time the formation is considered to a generalized notion for a range of net spatial formations including associations, zones of influence, industrial or other complexes, poles of growth, clusters, agglomerations, etc.

Thus, in geographical space-time there exist and are formed the points that attract the flows of a substance, energy and information. These points – attractors – later on serve as the centers of new spatial-temporal structures. These are “local heterogeneities”  later on will became “points of growth” – “centers”, while the main part of the nearest space assuming a marginal character.

F.Brodel (1992), and then I. Wallerstein (2001) as well, constructed a model of the world development – something like “center-peripheral” system. Later on, Ul. G. Lipets, V.A. Pularkin (2001), and then the other researchers proved that this model fits to incomparable by scale formations: from the town to the world”s economy as a whole.

So, the first “trend of ideas”  in geography became apparent since the beginning of the last century. When the spatial analysis was being formed it closed up with the sweeping ideas of Globalisation.

There was one more offshot. It can be described as “the second trend”, when on the basis of quantitative and philosophical revolutions that stirred up geography, young in years a scientest A.U. Reteum (1971)  suggested “overgeneralization” of the model somesing like “nuclear model” that coordinates simultaneously social-economical and phisico-geographical formations. Unfortunately, this “breakthrough” has not been appreciated and supported by geographical elite, and “nuclear models” with the device – centre-periphery – are no longe used in analytical reviews of geographers.

The third trend of geographical ideas development was connected with the intersection of interest” vector in natural science. It has began with that the scientific investigations had been reoriented on the studying of the process of development. In fact in the 40-50s of the 19th century the idea of development “had been authoritatively knocking at the door of science”. However, the ideas of development themselves were on substance especially mechanical ones. That meant that a subject and object of cognition were not connected with each other. In this case the cause always leads to the same effect. At the present time it is considered  to have been proved that not only the cause ensures the appearence of one and the same effect, but the effect itself througth the nooses of reverse ties exerts influence on the cause controlling it. In other words, the object and subject turn out to be interconnected; the object of cognitions turns out to be under control of a humane factor. This idea, having appeared in natural science, exterted substantial influence on geography as well. From it there occured views and notions on “humane surface”, “humane space”, etc. Consequently, there appeared the papers on Humane Geography (Gladkiy,2007), Social Geography (Druzhinin,2008), the attempts to formulate positions of General Geography (Trofimov,Sharigin,2008) and so on.

To replace such postulates of classical science as simplicity, stability, determinism, there were advanced the postulates of complicacy, probability, instability. As a result of studying of complicated organized systems having ability for self-organization, there establishes a new thinking, a new picture of the world. Its main characteristics are unequilibrium, instability, irreversibility. Together with the notions of fluctuations, bifurcation and  coherence they form as if a new base model of the world and cognition.

The corroboration of the whole complex of ideas of non-linear processes, probability, chaos, etc. occured in the 70-80s of the 20th century simultaneously in the very different fields of accomplishments. This is connected with the development of interdisciplinary studies of formation of regulated structures, the theory of selforganization (e.g. synergetics by G. Khaken, Germany; the theory of dissipated structures by I. Prigogene, Belgium; and theory of catastrophies by T. Rene, France). The subject of the theory of selforganization (synergetics) – complex systems in the conditions of unstable equilibrium and their selforganization near the points of bifurcation where even a slight force turns out to be considerable by its consequences.

In accordance with synergetics, there are no universal laws in the world that could make possible its cognition in a classical sense.  In one of the works (http://www.chem/msu.su/rus/teaching/sociology/7.html) it was shown that “in a classical type of scientific character the criteria of scientific epistomology are the same when the attention of an investigator concentrates on the characteristics of the object with elimination of all the whole which is connected with the subject. Non-classical rationality considers correlation of characteristics of the object and means of cognition that are used by the subject. Postnonclassical type correlates the accomplishments of the object not only with the means, but with the aimed lines of the subject”s cognition”.

Thus, if the exertion of effect on cause realises in accordance with a certain new organizing innovation, there arises by this time an innovational result of the object”s reconstruction that, as many investigators think, is not distinguished only by investments, however massive they could have been. At the present time the paradigm of postnonclassical rationality, the sense of which is explained in the fact that the investigation is subjected to a certain integrity: socio-ecologo-economical object.

The notion on an integral, indivisible geography significantly closer more natural  goes very well with postnonclssical scheme of development for indivisible complex geography far and wide underwent  the exertion on itself of quantitative and philosophical revolutions, informational aspect of Globalisation, and exertion of ecological imperative. All this has led to change for better in geography – new schools have appeared: theoretical, mathematical modelling, competitiveness poisitioning, interests concordance, conflictology, etc.

And finally, the third trend of the development of geographical ideas, closed with the first one,have introduced the notion on postindustrial development of society considerably modificated the fundamental basic principles of classical geography. After the example of changing and trancformation of these basic principles, while carrying out economico-geographical division into districts, the main ideas were developed by V.Ye. Schuvalov (2004). As the further analysis shows some more changes have come over in the schools of competitiveness, positioning (Porter,1990; et al.) and in social life (e.g. the effects of “the third wave” Toffler, 1980) and others.

At one time the geographical elite were discussing the positions of the newest and innovational changes in the development of geographical space-time. Here it should be noted that innovation, in its sense, is called to reorient the object”s development in the needed direction for a researcher. Here arises the question: whether we stand at the threshold of appearence of “A New Innovational Geography”? In fact, the approaches towards the reorientation in geography have already been and not a few.

And one more important aspect. The thing is that the sulking at the present time idea of Nana-technology in general is of the same class. In Nana-technologies the same idea of “interference” was used, but actually on the lowest scale level, into composition of structural organization of the object, when the atom (or ever lower) level the structure of the main components of the object is reconstructed in such a way, that an investigator can obtain what he needs – a final varient of the object”s construction which is under investigation.

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