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LINGUISTIC AND CULTUROLOGICAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION

Автор Доклада: 
K. Nyyazbekova, G. Beisenbekova
Награда: 
LINGUISTIC AND CULTUROLOGICAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION

LINGUISTIC AND CULTUROLOGICAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION


Nyyazbekova Kulyanda, senior lecturer
Beisenbekova Gulnaz, (Kazakhstan), senior lecturer
Department of the State Language Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abai


In the article the intercultured problems of translation are elucidated, the attention is focused on lingua-cognitive aspect to the process of translation. The translating process is considered in the light of understanding translating difficulties, connected with cultural lacunaty of original. The translation is considered as a vector of interference between different culturals
Key words: contemporary linguistics, lingua-conceptual analysis, cognitive linguistics, concept sphere, denotative, conative meanings.

В статье освещаются межкультурные проблемы переводоведения, акцентируется внимание на лингвокогнитивном аспекте. Переводческий процесс рассматривается сквозь призму культурологической направленности.
Ключевые слова: современная лингвистика, лингвоконцептуальный анализ, когнитивная лингвистика, концептосфера, денотативные, коннотативные значения.

Nowadays systematic conception on the ontology and heuristics of interlinguistic and intercultural interaction is gaining much importance. Growing interest to cognitology in the contemporary linguistics is displayed by the fact that general theoretical issues in fundamental and applied linguistics are connected with cognitive aspect of research. Linguistic-conceptual analysis, revealing and description of basic categories of cognitive linguistics, theoretical basis of cognitive models, cognitive approach to text interpretation have brought linguists to the idea of interrelation between processes of structuring and understanding language messages including translation.
The system of language meanings corresponds to the cultural competence of native speakers as the language reflects world vision and understanding of the population in the context of cultural traditions. Language map of the lingua-cultural community world appears as an approach to embody cultural stereotypes, symbols, standards which form the given society in the community. National mentality being the major aspect of language thinking is reflected in the lexical-semantic and grammatical systems of a language, therefore study and adequacy of transferring national-cultural specifics of an original text during the translation process is of significant importance from the perspectives of optimizing intercultural communications.
Each national world is a unity of local nature and character of the nation generated in this location and its thinking or perception and reflection in the minds of the given ethnos. The mentioned parameters define deep semantic structure embodied in the linear sequence of language units of the given language used by the creator of the text. Text reflects the level and character of the culture of the given national and cultural formation. Culturological content of the text is created by language units containing cultural component in the form of denotative, connotative meanings and full descriptions of objects, cultural phenomena, and cultural-historical events. It builds a certain system of culturological markers which characterize language units applied in it. It promotes to forming cultorological space of a text. Language units in the text environment get cultorological character enriching the sense of a text. By representing figurative emblems of another culture in the translated text, a translator introduces various explanatory and supplementary lingua-cultorological comments. Figurative thinking of any ethnos is reflected in artistic images, artistic specifics of the form, that is tracks which in translation should be replaced by such images so that not to cause contradictions in the perception of a reader – speaker of another language. It means a translator has to maintain a ‘balance’ between cultures. A translator’s choice reflects dependence of his or her strategic decisions on the volume of his/her linguistic and cognitive knowledge, level of his/her communicative competence, applying translation receptors with the certain stock of background information. During the translation process every communication party brings his or her own meaning. A translator refracts the meaning of the original text so that he/she becomes a representative of both national and foreign language cultures. He/she creates his/her own translational picture of the world which forms his/her mind as a bilingual. Recipient refracts the meaning of the derived text through his /her own national mind and culture. Translator can belong to the same culture as the author or can belong to the foreign language culture. In his/her turn, a recipient can belong to the same culture as the translator or to a foreign language culture. It is important to note here that a translator reverbalizes or deverbalizes ‘other meanings’ either in relation to the author or recipient. Difficulty in the translational interpretation is caused by the character of the approaches applied in the original, their reproduction level, and understanding of the original text content identified by the time, spatial or sociocultural distance between parties involved in the intercultural communication. From the cognitive linguistics perspectives, the translation process appears as the perception of one type of information and its transformation into another type. Surveys provide with convincing evidence the fact that difference between cognitive processes of an author of the original text and a translator is caused by differences in the culture which are reflected in the language. The given statement allows defining translation as ‘verbal projection of ethno mental experience of one lingua-cultural community through integration of mental space of a translator as a representative of another lingua-cultural community’. Optimality of the translation process is caused not only by the knowledge of algorithms of a ‘foreign’ culture but also by crossing mental spaces of the author of the original text and the translator. Actual issues on translation theory are raised by L.M.Alexeyeva who focuses the attention on semiotic nature of translation highlighting the role of a translator. The author presents translation as ‘mutual process of interaction between a text and a translator’. Function of a translator is to combine existing cognitive spaces. Translation optimality is caused by ‘crossing’ mental spaces of an author of the original text and its translators i.e their individual-personal specifics; major emphasis is made on research of the ‘personality of an author – personality of a translator’ relationship. Translator must use not only language units of a certain language system but also take into consideration a cognitive environment of these units. Any translation assumes interpretation; hence, any product of any activity bears personality of its creator. And in this sense subjectivity is one of the dominants in a professional personality of a translator. Eliminating subjectivity of a translator does not take place during the translation process as translator being a representative of the culture for which he or she is translating, is fulfilling a function of a ‘transformer’ transferring original text elements to a foreign cultural-language sphere and which cannot be perceived and understood adequately by the readers. Here adequacy can be explained by the originality of the text and as a result it is not possible to achieve absolute equivalence of the initial and translation texts, and also by the relative equivalence of the reconstruction of the semantic modality of the initial text i.e. reconstruction of conceptual, subjective-evaluative peculiarity of the plans for the content and expression of the original text. It is impossible to create a translated text which is an exact functional and communicative replica of the original as it is not possible to have an absolute match of conceptual systems of communicators. Translator aspires to obtain a maximum textual similarity of the OT (original text) and TT (translation text) ensuring to keep equal impact of these texts on recipients. In comparison with an author of a text a translator cannot express his or her individual viewpoint on the matter as his/her activity is directed by the author’s idea and translation situation. That is why processes of a translator’s perception and understanding of the text under translation can be biased as his/her personality is different from an author’s personality. We can state that perception and understanding of a certain piece of art depend on fixed attitudes of a person, on his attitude to the surrounding world. Translator’s personality is inevitably reflected in translation. It is important to note that mental spaces of an author and a translator can never match as they are defined by individual experience, knowledge and perceptions and can be represented in an individual verbal code. Translation process is facilitated by the so-called ‘general zones’ in individual mental spaces which is caused by general knowledge in the conceptual system of a language personality. This combined mental space allows representing by means of the translating language ‘psycho-semiotic’ specifics of an author. Communicative intentions of an author of an original text and a translator can differ. Analysis of the transformation on this level allows identifying specifics of cognitive and motivational levels of a translator’s language personality. Taking into consideration the fact that original text is an individual realization of the author’s model of the world we can state that translation activity is determined by two models of the world: ethnic and individual. Model of the world acts as a way to harmonize various spheres of the human activity and their interconnection. It is the basis for all acts of the world outlook allowing to understand world events. Major units of the world models are concepts, the combination of which forms a concept sphere. National specifics of concept spheres are expressed in various parity of their components. While comparing cultures during the translation process it is possible to reveal a lack of concepts in one of the cultures which leads to the occurrence of nonverbal elements of the OT meaning i.e. occurrence of lacunas. Conflict or success of communicative interactions depend on culture-based communicational competence of the communication participants i.e. similarity and difference in their perception processes and symbolic systems. Translator is the speaker of both TL (translating language) and OL (original language) and has features for perceiving the reality and expressing it in a language peculiar to both TL and OL; he or she is the secondary language individual. Entering the interaction with a foreign culture text, translator encounters problems of misunderstanding some text fragments reflecting values and national specifics of the lingua-cultural community. As a result occurs a barrier in understanding the text idea which represents so-called ‘cream’ of the idea. For a foreign culture receptor they act as specific fragments of the culture context. These significant units of culture are given by various terms: “gap’, ‘interval’, ‘culture scripts’, ‘chink’, and ‘lacuna’. Lacuna as a unit of the lingua-culturological analysis limits the text which is the research object. Presence of lacunas inhibit to the full understanding of the text as translation of the lingua-culturological lacunas assumes a certain level of background knowledge and translation competence. During the process of penetration of a certain work into the culture of the TT subsequent translations can move only in the direction of the increase in the accuracy in the meaning transfer. Hence we can make a conclusion about incomplete language personality of a translator. In this connection we can assume that finding nonverbalized units in the translator’s discourse is connected with the fact that theme and character of the translated texts by this person have not created conditions to display these units in translations. Comparison of two texts can reveal nonequivalent lexis which testifies presence of endemic concepts in the world outlook of the OL and TL speakers. To compensate lacunas recipient’s culture elements enter the translation text; it deforms recipient’s perception of the work. Thus, lingua-cognitive level of the translator’s personality is defined by transformations and substantial changes of concepts directed at transferring genre specifics of the world picture in the original text, lingua-cultural realities, system of values and mentality of the culture which generated the text. In translation texts concepts are replaced when translating ethnographic, onomastic, geographical, ethnocultural realities into another cultural environment. The problem of achieving translation adequacy is caused by the nature of the given phenomenon which is dependent on a certain variety of factors specific to activities of a translator who realizes their integration in the process of transformations.

References:
1. Sorokin Yu.A. Translation studies: a translator’s status and psychohermeneutic procedures. – M., 2003
2. Alexeyeva L.M. Professional training of a translator. – St.P., 2002

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Статья рассматривает

Статья рассматривает межкультурные проблемы переводоведения, особое внимание уделено на лингвокогнитивный аспект переводоведения. Переводческий процесс рассматривается сквозь призму культурологической направленности. Отличная статья! Спасибо! Д.п.н., профессор Еркибаева Г.Г.

Статью, я считаю, очень

Статью, я считаю, очень актуальной. Написано понятным, доступным языком.
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